« PreviousContinue »
out which scieuce could no longer exist. tomed ourselves to expect the second as the The general laws of nature with which we necessary result of the first. For had causes are acquainted will most of them afford us any analogy to their effects, or exerted any a proof of the truth of this assertion. A known energy over them; immediately on close attention to a few particular facts has the appearance of a cause, however singular, commonly been the mode in which they and however impossible to be classed under have been deduced, and when thus de any determined species, we should be able, duced as causes of those facts, they have very nearly, to decide at once what effect been afterwards applied to the expla- | it might produce; or, to invert the whole, nation of other occurrences, which before were an effect, equally singular and unpaappeared perfectly unaccountable. The ralleled, to be presented to our view, we laws of gravitation, which have since been should, with the same facility, be enabled so successfully applied to every point of to interpret its cause. Yet in all such the heavens, were, as is known to every cases, on the present constitution of things, one, at first determined from the most we should certainly find ourselves at a loss trifling event possible. And thus, in optics, for an answer. from a few observations on some of the “It is owing, therefore, entirely to the phenomena of light are inferred the general constant conjunction of occurrences, as laws of refraction and reflexion : which, established by the laws of nature, that we when in this manner once obtained, are are capable of inferring one object from applied to the solution of a variety of other another, or of predicting one event from phenomena, which would, otherwise, re- a preceding. If we examine the unimain inexplicable paradoxes.
verse at large, we shall find it an effect “But suppose we make a farther con- absolutely unparalleled; and which cancession still; and allow—what, indeed, we not be comprehended under any species find every hour in every day continually with which we are acquainted, And as contradicting--that the same proportion we cannot, prima facie, infer, any effect and adjustment between cause and effect from a presented cause, or any cause from obtains among rational and intelligent a given effect, we find ourselves obliged to beings, as among brute, unconscious mat- hesitate about what the cause of such an ter; and that the power or capacity of extraordinary effect may be; or whether, exertion, which is the cause, is never supe- | in reality, we are capable of conceiving rior to the operation, which is the effect : any cause at all. Yet, taken collectively, even by this concession, the argument the arguments for the existence of a cause urged against us, so far from obtaining the are so potent and convincing, that even in least additional force, would, on the very the present age of speculation and refineprinciples of Mr. Hume himself, prove the ment, and amongst those who have in. means of its own refutation.
dulged themselves in the largest latitude of "All our knowledge, even according to conjecture, there is no philosopher what, his own system, with respect to matters of ever who has been bold enough to controfact and existence, we derive from expe- vert them: or rather, who has not stood forrience; and every event, that takes place ward as the champion and espouser of a in opposition to this grand criterion of truth sọ obvious and incontestable: a truth our judgment, must bring with it proofs to which Mr. Hume himself submits with that will more than counterbalance the the most cordial acquiescence,* which is observations of every day, before a philo- completely assented to by Lord Bolingsopher can assent to its truth. It is this broke,t and imagined to be self-evident constant and unremitted experience which by the late royal philosopher of Sans shews us the continual coherence subsisting Souci. This mode of arguing, therefore, between cause and effect. Not that the is obviously fallacious; is destructive of first bears any analogy to the second, or principles acknowledged to be incontroexerts any sensible influence over it; but vertible ; and if pursued, would lead us only, by long habitude, we have accus into endless mazes of error and perplexity. 599
• " The whole frame of nature bespeaks an in perfection, whether conceivable or not conceivable telligent author; and no rational inquirer can, I by me." _Bolingbroke's Works, vol. ill. after serious reflection, suspend his belief a mo. 't Le monde entier prouve cette intelligence. I ment with regard to the primary principles of ne faut qu' ouvrir les yeux pour s'eu convaincre. genuine Theism and Religion.-Hume on the Les fins que la nature l'est proposées dans ses Natural History of Religion.
ouvrages, se manifestent si evidemment, qu'on * " I know, for I can demonstrate, by connecting est forcé de reconnaitre une cause souveraigne et the clearest and most distinct of my real ideas, superieurement intelligente qui y preside neces. that there is a God; a first, intelligent cause of sairement. Pour pen qu' on soit de bonne foi, il all things, whose intinite wisdom and power ap est impossible de se refuser à cette verité. Repears evidently in all his works, and to whom fierions du Roi de la Prusse sur la Rcligion. therefore I ascribe, most rationally, every other
Description of Nazareth, Mount Tabor, Cana, fc.
Hume himself was sensible of the con do their cause little good by such sad tales. séquences which must necessarily result But of far higher interest than traditions and from the continuation of such an argu- relics is the scenery around Nazareth, it is ment, and drops it, therefore, abruptly, l of the kind in which one would imagine the without pressing it forward to its extreme; Saviour of mankind delighted to wander,
lest it should lead us, as he observes, into and to withdraw bimself when meditating reasonings of too nice and delicate a on his great mission;-deep and secluded nature,' .
dells, covered with a wild verdure; silent ... (To be concluded in our next.) oil and solénin paths, where overhanging rocks
shut out all intrusionir .. i prisen !
No one can walk round Nazareth without DESCRIPTION OF NAZARETH, FROM A
feeling thoughts like these enter his mind, RECENT VISIT.
while gazing often on many a sweet spot, On the following day we arrived at Naza- traced, perhaps, by the Redeemer's footreth, which we could not perceive till we steps, and embalmed by his prayers. were at the top of the hill directly over it, Carne's Letters from the Eust, vol. i. as it stands on the foot and sides of a kind | p. 288. of amphitheatre. Ils situation is very romantic; the population amounts to about
* MOUNT TABOR, CANA, &c. twelve hundred, who are mostly Christians, The Spanish Catholic couvent, in which The next day we rode to Mount Tabor, all travellers are accommodated, is a large about six miles distant; it stands alone on and excellent mansion, though the number the plain, and is a very small and beautiful of monks is reduced to less than one half, mountain, rising gradually on every side: on account of the poverty of the establish- about the fourth part of the ascent towards ment, from the failure of remittances from the summit is covered with a luxuriance of Europe. The church of the convent is wood. The top of Mount Tabor is flat, rich, and contains a fine organ. Below and not of large extent; the view from the floor, and entered by a flight of steps, thence is most magnificent. At the foot is the cave, or giotto, where the angel is shown the village, amidst a few trees, Gabriel is said to have appeared to Mary; that was the birthplace of Deborah, the a granite column was rent in twain by the prophetess. · Herman stands in the plain appearance of the angel, the lower part about six miles off, and at its foot is the is quite gone, but the upper part, which village of Nain., passes through the roof, is suspended in , We next proceeded towards Cana by a the air.. The priests tell you that it has no narrow and rocky path over the mountains. support from above, and that it is an ever This village is pleasantly situated on a lasting miracle. There is a handsome small eminence in a valley, and contains altar in this grotto. L i m , two or three hundred inhabitants, the ruins * We next visited a small, apartment, of the thouse are still shown, where the which is shewn as the workshop of Joseph; miraele of turning the water into wine was this stands at a short distance from the performed. The same kind ofuo stone church; part of it only remains, and is water-póts i are certainly vin use in the certainly kept very neat, Not far from this village: we saw several of the women is the school where our Lord received his bearing them on their heads as they education, and which looks much like other returned from the well. The young women schools. But as curious a relic, as any, is are said to be handsome.lvi) pihto 119 a large piece of rock, rather soft; about As the lightiiwas fading, we returned to four feet high, and four or five yards, long, the convent, and enjoyed our comfortable its form not quite circular: on this, our cell and repast. Here for the first time we Lord is said to have often dined with his ate of the delicious fish caught in the lake disciples. 1 as f o ini," of Tiberias ; they are very much of the size w About a mile and half down the valley and colour of mullet. Being admitted to is shown a bigh and perpendicular rock, as an audience of the emperor, the old man the very spot where our Lord, according to bewailed bitterly the dreadful degeneracy St. Luke, was taken by the people to be of the age, and departure from the faith, as thrown over the precipice. » About mid- shewn particularly in the revolution of New way down, in the face of the rock, is the Spain, whereby the revenues of the convent spot where his descent was arrested, and were so reduced; the Devil, he said, was the marks of his hands, and part of his active and powerful beyond belief in the form, are shown, where he entered into the present day. What grieves the monks the rock and disappeared. The good fathers most is, that they cannot live half so well
as they used to do:— the wine was very | Judginent, on the south side of the city. bad ;-however, I gave some comfort to How interesting was het aspect, beheld one of the fathers, by buying, at his own over the deep and rocky valley of Hinnom! price, a small piece, really scarcely visible, her gloomy walls encompassing Mount of the body of St. Francis, carefully secured Zion on every siderzand as yet there was in a small enclosure of glass. Ibid. p. 290. no sound to disturb the silence of the
scene. The beautiful Mount of Olives was
| on the right, and at its feet the valley of VISIT TO THE CITY OF JERUSALEM. Jehoshaphat, amidst whose great rocks and : By moonlight next morning, we were trees stood the tomb of Zacharias, the last on the way to the sacred city; for about of the prophets that was slain : the only three hours it led over the plain, and then stream visible, flowed from the fountain of ascending the hills, became excessively Siloam, on the side of Zion opposite. It disagreeable, in some parts so narrow, that is true the city beloved of God has disonly one horse could proceed at a time, appeared, and with it all the hallowed and that not always with safety, as the rains spots once contained within its walls: and had made the rocky paths much worse keen must be the faith that can now than usual. At the end of nine hours, embrace their identity. Yet the face of however, as we proceeded over the summit nature still endures :'the rocks, the of a rugged hill, we beheld Jerusalem at a mountains, lakes and valleys, are unchanged, small distance before us. Its 'aspect cer save that loneliness and wildness are now, tainly was not magnificent or inspiring, but where once were luxury and every joy ; sad and dreary."
and though their glory is departed, a high • On reaching the gate of Bethlehem, we and mournful beauty still rests on many of were speedily admitted, and, after some these silent and romantic scenes. 1: Amidst research, procured a lodging in the house | them a stranger will ever delight to wander, of a native, not far from the walls, and near for there his imagination can seldom be'at the tower of David. We had had enough fault; the naked mountain, the untrodden of convents, and a traveller' will find him plain, and the voiceless shore, will kindle self much more agreeably situated,' and into life around him, and his every step be more at his ease, in living orientally, than filled with those deeds, through which confined within the walls, and obliged to guilt and sorrow passed away, and "life conform to the hours, of a monastery and immortality were brought to light.”. however, there is no 'avoiding one's fate. The day had become bot ere I returned I had my divan and coffee, excellent wine to my dwelling, just within the walls. It and music in the evening, and wished only was the most desirable time of the year to to remain in peace. But, in a day or two be at Jerusalem, as the feast of Easter was repeated messages came from the superior about to commence, and many of the of the convent, urging my entry into it: l pilgrims had arrived. The streets of the it was so 'unusual for a traveller to lodge city are very narrow and ill-paved, and the without, and so unsafe in these times, and houses in general have a mean appearance. he would come himself to temonstrate with The bazaar is a very ordinary one. The me; so that I was fain to comply. An Armenian quarter is the only agreeable part unlucky letter from the convent of Constan- of the city: the convent, which stands near tinople, and an unwillingness to lose the the gate of Zion, is very spacious and fees whicho every traveller ripays, I were the handsome, with a large garden attached to causes of this civility. They put me there it, and can furnish accommodations for into a little cold cell, with a single chair eight hundred pilgrims within its walls : and table in it, and a small flock bed, as if the poorer part lodging in outhouses and I came to perform a pilgrimage; and the offices in the courts, while the richer find pictures of saints and martyrs on the walls every luxury and comfort, for all the apart. were poor consolations for the substantial ments in this convent are furnished in the comforts I had lost. Here, however, it oriental manner." The wealthy pilgrims was my good fortune to meet with a most never fail to leave a handsome present, to amiable traveller, A. M. G., an Irish gen- the amount sometimes of several hundred tleman, whoser companion had just left pounds. If a pilgrim die in the convent, him for Europe. Pr i meros do all the property he has with him goes to • The morning after my arrival was a very the order. The church is very rich, and Jovely ones and, though it was in Febru. ornamented in a very curious taste, the floor ary, perfectly warm. I passed out of the being covered, as is the case in all their gate of Bethlehem, and traversing part of religious edifices, with a handsoine carpet. the ravine beneatly, ascended the Mount of The lower division of the city, towards
the east, is chiefly occupied by the Jews ; | ancient walls must have made the most it is the dirtiest and most offensive of all. extraordinary and unnecessary curve ima Several of this people, however, are rather ginable. Its elevation was probably always affluent, and live in a very comfortable inconsiderable, so that there is little to style; both men and women are more stagger one's faith in the lowness of its attractive in their persons than those of present appearance. The exclusion of their nation who reside in Europe, and Calvary must have deprived the ancient their features are not so strongly marked city of a considerable space of habitable with the indelible Hebrew characters, but ground, of which, from the circumscribed much more mild and interesting. But nature of its site, there could have been few passengers, in general, are met with in little to spare. But tradition could not the streets, which have the aspect, where err in the identity of so famous a spot : the convents are situated, of fortresses, from and the smallest scepticism would deprive the height and strength of the walls the it of all its powerful charm. Besides that, monks have thought necessary for their de- the disposition of the former Jerusalem fence. Handsomely dressed persons are appears to have been, in other parts, suffiseldom seen, as the Jews and Christians ciently irregular. rather study to preserve an appearance of The mosque of Omar, the most beautipoverty, that they may not excite the jea- ful edifice in the Turkish empire, stands, lousy of the Turks.
in a great measure, on the site occupied The population of Jerusalem has been by Solomon's Temple. The area around variously stated; but it can hardly exceed it is spacious and delightful; and being twenty thousand ; ten thousand of these planted with trees, affords the only agreeare Jews, five thousand Christians, and the able promenade in the city. Christians, same number of Turks. The walls can | however, are never allowed to enter it. with ease be walked round on the outside Its situation is little elevated above the in forty-five minutes, as the extent is level of the street, so that Mount Moriah, scarcely three miles.
formerly the highest eminence that joined On the east of the city runs the valley or the city, and where the temple stood, is glen of Jehoshaphat; that of Hinnom, now shorn of its honours. The loftiest part which bounds the city, on the south and of the town at present is the western, bewest; and into these descend the steep tween the gates of Bethlehem and Zion, sides of Mount Zion, on whose surface the where the convents are situated. city stands. To the north extends the The sides of the hill of Zion have a plain of Jeremiah, the only level space pleasing aspect, as they possess a few around; it is covered partly with olive olive-trees and rude gardens, and a crop trees. It does not appear possible for the of corn was at this time growing there. ancient city to have covered a larger space On its southern extremity, a short way than the present, except by stretching to from the wall, is the mosque of David, the north, along the plain of Jeremiah; which is held in the highest reverence by because the modern walls are built nearly the Turks, who affirm that the remains of on the brink of the declivities of Zion and that monarch, and his son Solomon, were the adjoining hill. But the height of this interred here, and that their tombs still hill is very small, for Jerusalem is on every exist. In a small building attached to the side, except towards the north, overlooked mosque, and where a church formerly by hills, higher than the one whereon it stood, is the room in which was held the stands. When about midway up Mount last supper of our Lord and his disciples : Olivet, you are on a level with the city we looked into it through some crevices; walls; and the disparity towards the south it had a mean and naked appearance. , is still greater. The form of the town is In an apartment a little on the left of more like that of a square than any other, the rotunda, and paved with marble, is and its walls are lofty and strong. There shewn the spot where Christ appeared to are five or six gates : the golden gate, the Mary in the garden. Near this begins the gates of Damascus, St. Stephen, and Zion, | ascent to Calvary : it consists of eighteen and that of Bethlehem. Close to the lat very lofty stone steps : you then find your ter is the tower of David, a place of con self on a floor of beautiful variegated mar. siderable strength.
ble, in the midst of which are three or four The circumstance that most perplexes slender white pillars of the same material, every traveller is, to account for Mount which support the roof, and separate the Calvary's having been formerly without the Greek division of the spot from that approcity. It is at present, not a small way priated to the Catholics; these pillars are within; and in order to shut, it out, the l partly shrouded by rich silk hangings. At
the end stand two small and elegant altars; hills of Judgment and those adjoining over that of the Catholics is a painting of Olivet. the crucifixion, and over the Greek is one The strong and commanding position of of the taking down the body from the Mount Zion could have been the only cross. A number of silver lamps are con- reason for fixing the capital of Judea in stantly burning, and throw a rich and so extraordinary and inconvenient à situasoftened light over the whole of this strik tion. Very many parts of the coast and ing scene. The street leading to Calvary the interior afford a far more favourable has a long and gradual ascent, the eleva- site in point of beauty and fertility, or for tion of the stone steps is above twenty feet, the purposes of commerce. The city, of and if it is considered that the summit has old, was often subject to a scarcity of been removed to make room for the sacred water; the fountain of Siloam and another church, the ancient hill, though low, was on the east side, with the brook Kedron, sufficiently conspicuous.
being the chief supplies without the walls; The very spot where the cross was fixed but the latter, probably, possessed little or is shown; it is a hole in the rock, sur- no water during the summer heats. It rounded by a silver rim; and each pilgrim was reckoned as a memorable act in one prostrates himself, and kisses it with the of the kings, that he made a pool and a greatest devotion. Its identity is probably conduit, which are still called Hezekiah's, as strong as that of the cross and crown and are at the end of the eastern valley. of thorns found a few feet below the sur- The whole compass of the ancient city, face: but where is the scene around or according to Josephus, was only thirty within the city, however sacred, that is not three furlongs, so that an extension of half defaced by the sad inventions of the a mile along the plain of Jeremiah to the fathers?
north would give it its ancient size, and Having resolved to pass the night in in a great measure, it is probable, its the church, we took possession, for a few ancient position. The present circumhours, of a small apartment adjoining the ference is, no doubt, correctly stated by gallery that overlooked the crowded area Maundrell to be two miles and a half. beneath. As it drew near midnight, we Josephus distinctly states, “the old wall ascended again to the summit of Calvary. went southward, having its bending above, The pilgrims, one after another, had drop- the fountain Siloam," and this fountain in ped off, till at last all had departed. No the side of Zion is not far without the prefootstep broke on the deep silence of the sent wall. Again, the historian says, "the scene. At intervals, from the Catholic old wall extended northward to a great chapel below, was heard the melody of length, and passed by the sepulchral caverns the organ, mingled with the solemn chant- of the kings," which caverns, or 'tombs of ing of the priests, who sang of the death the kings, are now above half a mile and sufferings of the Redeemer. This ser- without the walls, to the north on the plain vice, pausing at times, and again rising of Jeremiah. But the small valleys which slowly on the ear, had an effect inexpres divided the interior of the old city are sibly fine. The hour, the stillness, the now filled up, and many of the elevations softened light and sound, above all, the levelled. The whole surface of the hills belief of being where He who “ so loved on which Jerusalem and its temple stood, us'! poured out his life, affected the heart of which Mount Moriah cannot now bé e and the imagination in a manner difficult distinguished, were, no doubt, much loftier to be described. ! Hour after hour fed fast formerly, or else the hollows beneath have! away, and we descended to the chamber been partly filled up. The latter, it is of the sepulchre." How vivid the mid- very probable, has been the case. These night lights streamed on every part! the hills, the history observes, sare surpriest had quitted his charge, and the rounded by deep valleys, and, by reason of lately crowded scene was now lonely. This the precipices belonging to them on both was the moment, above all others, to bend sides, they are every where impassable." over the spot, where the sting of death This description does not apply to the pred and the terrors of the grave" were taken sent appearance of either; no precipices, away for ever.
pirin e ither steep or difficult, existing. It ist) · The confined situation of the city is But although the size of Jerusalem was redeemed by the magnificent view many not extensive, its very situation, on the parts of it command of the Dead Sea, and brink of rugged hills, encircled by deep the high mountains of Arabia Petræa, form- and wild valleys, bounded by eminences ing its eastern shore.' This view is towards whose sides were covered with groves and the south-east, over the valley; between the gardens, added to its numerous towers and