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Osseous System-Essay IV.

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Otter ..

Fox .....

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Stag

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a slight and circumscribed motion. In-while in the other quadrupeds the number deed, the only movement immediately oc- is seven, as in man. In the Ternate bat curring to the head from its union to this there are no bones added to the os sacrum, first vertebra, is slightly backwards and the caudal vertebræ being wanting. Alforwards, as in nodding.

though strictly it may be a departure for a The two articulating surfaces immedi moment from our main subject, the articuately beneath these, are united to two cor- | lation of bones, it may not be uninteresting, responding of the succeeding vertebra, while speaking of the mechanism of the or the vertebra dentata, and the motion vertebral column, to subjoin the following resulting from the mechanism of this joint | Table, exhibiting the number of vertebræ is rotatory. To the articulating surface on in a few of our common quadrupeds :the inner side of the ring, is secured the odontoid process of the vertebra dentata —

Dorsal Lumba Sacral| Caudal. a process which, in a great measure, con

Common Bat..... stitutes the principal difference between this Great Bat.....

Hedghog..... and the remaining vertebræ. This process

Shrew arises from the upper surface of the body Mole. of the bone, and proceeds within the ante

Badger ... rior arch of the ring of the atlas, where it

Weasel .. is so fastened by ligaments, as to allow the

Cat......

Dog ..., atlas to revolve upon it as a kind of axis, the bone being thus prevented from slip Hare ping during the rotatory motion, which is Rabbit

Common Mouse.. performed with greater security. The ver Field Mouse... tebra dentata is united to the third cervical Norway Rat

Hog ..... vertebra by its body and oblique processes. In this it resembles the rest of the verte Goat .... bræ of the spinal column, and its motion is

Sheep

16 also the same.

Horse........... From what has been stated on the mechanism and motion of the spine, we may conclude, that the head, from its union with To return, however, to our subject. How the first vertebra, or atlas, is enabled to many various species of motion the re execute the movement of slightly nodding; spective articulations of the body are conthat from the union of the allas with structed to perform, is a question which the second or vertebra dentata, the head naturally suggests itself, and claims our acquires the power of rotatory motion, or consideration. Although there are scarcely turning from side to side, independently of two joints to which the same degree of the motion of the body; and that to the motion is allotted, yet it appears, we think, union of the remaining bones of the spine, upon inspection, that there is not in reality and its peculiar mechanism, the whole that variety in the nature or species of trunk is indebted for an infinite variety of movements, which one might be led from a movements, of equal utility and graceful. cursory view to imagine; for, if we except ness.

that undefined neutral species, which bones The number of vertebræ differs in various united to others only by cartilage (as the species of animals. In the human subject ribs to the sternum or breast-bone) natuit amounts to twenty-four, viz. seven cervi- rally possess, and which arises simply from cal, twelve dorsal, and five lumbar. The the elasticity of the conjoining medium, as fifth lumbar (or last vertebra) rests on the is seen also in the vertebræ, we shall be led, os sacrum, which presents the appearance upon a closer examination of the mechaof fine vertebræ consolidated together, and nism of the articulations, to conclude, that terminated by four distinct bones, forming they are capable of only two distinct spewhat anatomists term os coccygis. In cies, the one a simple and circumscribed most quadrupeds these distinct bones are hinge-like motion, exemplified in the joints numerous, and bear the name of caudal of the fingers and knees; the pther, a vertebræ, or vetebræ of the tail. Among rotatory motion, more or less confined, birds, the cervical vertebræ vary in dif- but still allowing movements of great freeferent species, from nine to twenty-three; dom and extent, and in the shoulder-joint and the lumbar vertebræ are ossified into almost unfettered liberty. The construction one piece with the haunch-bones.

of a joint, so as to enable it to rotate Among quadrupeds, in the three-toed freely, necessarily endows it with the power sloth, the cervical vertebræ amount to nine ; l of performing every other movemeni of

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which we can suppose an articulation of between Me and you, and every living the body capable; but as the rotatory mo- creature of all flesh; and the waters shall tion is not in every instance free, but ge- no more become a flood to destroy all nerally more or less confined, the other flesh. And the bow shall be in the cloud; movements included in that become also and I will look upon it, that I may reconfined in proportion; but let the motion member the everlasting covenant between it is capable of describing be a complete God and every living creature of all flesh circle, or a part only, still it follows, as a that is upon the earth. And God said matter of course, that such joint can per unto Noah, This is the token of the form (as far as the extent of its freedom) covenant, which I have established be. the hinge-like motion also.

tween Me and all flesh that is upon the Hammersmith. W. MARTIN.

earth.”

This solemn compact, spontaneously (To be continued.)

entered into by Jehovah with man, and thus circumstantially detailed, has especial

reference to certain things, then brought ON THE RAINBOW.

into existence; which things were, by the MR. EDITOR.

gracious providence of the Infinite, to be Sir, -On looking over my port-folio, I

my portfolio. I continued in existence to the end of time, found several essays, which, having been

without the interference of mankind, called into existence at sundry times, and

although these things should continue to on a variety of occasions, had there exist throughout all his generations.reposed together, although diverse in

What these things are, is well worth the matter and form. years untold : if you think | inquiry. This question has occupied the them meet for the public eye, they are at

| pens of almost all commentators upon your service for insertion in the valuable

the Bible, and many first-rate writers have miscellany which you send forth to the

also exercised their skill thereon, without world.

exhausting the subject: something yet WM. COLDWELL

remains to be said, and something will

remain after this essay is published. King Square, London, Oct. 29, 1828.

Drops of rain are spherical; and, We have a special and copious note according to Sir Isaac Newton, when the respecting that beautiful and splendid rays of light from the sun strike a drop of phenomenon, the Rainbow, in the sacred rain, some of them enter it, are refracted volume, immediately upon the establish- on entering the first surface, reflected from ment of the new world, which arose out the second, again refracted on leaving the of the ruins of the old world, from beneath last surface, and on passing out of this the waters of the general deluge: this note aqueous sphere, these rays descend to the I subjoin, from the ninth chapter of the eye of a spectator who stands in a certain book of Genesis.

angle between the sun and the rain, and " And God spake unto Noah, and to there cause to him the appearance denohis sons with him, saying, And I, beholdminated the primary rainbow. The pri1, establish My covenant with you, and mary rainbow never exceeds a semicircle, with your seed after you, and with every because the centre of the bow is always living creature that is with you, of the opposite to the sun; and no rainbow can fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of appear before the sun rises, or after the sun the earth with you; from all that go out of sets; viz. when the sun is below the horithe ark to every beast of the earth. And | zon. But the primary rainbow is less than I will establish My covenant with you;a semicircle, in proportion as the sun is neither shall all flesh be cut off any more elevated above the horizon; and, therefore, by the waters of a flood; neither shall at noon it forms the mere segment of a there any more be a flood to destroy the circle. earth. And God said, This is the token If rain descended in detached showers of the covenant which I make between Me upon the antediluvian earth, then the rain. and you, and every living, creature that is bow was visible in the old world, in a with you, for perpetual generations : I do manner similar to its appearance in the set My bow in the cloud, and it shall be for new world, and therefore was no new a token of a covenant between Me and phenomenon to Noah and his family : this, the earth. And it shall come to pass, however, is an undecided question. We when I bring a cloud over the earth, that find a note. in the account of creation the bow shall be seen in the cloud : and I which the sacred volume contains, to this will remember My covenant which is effect :

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“The Lord God had not caused it to 1 fracted and reflected by these minute rain upon the earth : but there went up a aqueous spheres, form a rainbow, visible inist from the earth, and watered the to the eyes of man upon the plains whole face of the ground.”

below. If the antediluvian world enjoyed per- The earth itself, in the manner of a petual spring, without change of seasons, plain, prevents the entire image of the or alternations of heat and cold, rain and sun's face from being depicted on the drought, and man thereby, in the order of cloud, and terminates it in a semicircle; divine Providence, attained nearly his the two ends of which, like two feet, thousandth year, ere he sunk by decay of seeming to rest upon the earth. The rainnature, into death, as some suppose; then, bow, therefore, on appearing to Noah and at the moment of the general deluge, the his family immediately on the subsiding finger of the Lord induced rain, for the of that universal rain which produced the first time, upon the earth ; first to drown its general deluge, must have been peculiarly impious inhabitants, and, secondly, on the consolatory. It lulled their fears on the cessation of the general deluge, by adverse approach of rain, excited their hopes, and extremes of cold and heat, moist and dry, confirmed their faith in God; who, having to break down the constitution of man, I promised to maintain this bow in the and reduce the term of his natural life clouds throughout their generations, had from a thousand years to threescore years also promised to look upon it, 'and, reand ten; then the rainbow was new to membering the covenant, never again Noah and his family, altogether. Which permit an univessal rain to blot out the of these positions is true, who can inform | broad seal of His covenant from the face us? There is no voice-none to answer; of heaven, and deluge the earth, to the and, therefore, as we found these ques. destruction of mankind. The rainbow is, tions, so must they be left to a future therefore, an appropriate sign of Jehovah's day.

covenant with man, that the earth shall The rainbow could not appear during no more be destroyed by a flood ; because, the rain which produced the general deluge; while it is maintained in the clouds, no because that rain was universal-there universal rain can take place, and produce were no chasms in the circumambient va- | another general deluge; for, an universal pours which then shed their waters upon the rain would exclude the rainbow in toto, earth. A circular halo might have ap- and no general deluge can take place peared during this universal rain, to those without universal rain. who had ascended the mountains, if any The rainbow points out, whenever it of the antediluvian mountains were higher appears, even to the remotest posterity of than the clouds which produced the rains Noah, that the covenant of Jehovah of the general deluge; but they could not with him stands firm, and will stand firm, have observed a rainbow: a circular ap- unaltered and unalterable, throughout pearance, or halo, of this description being every age of time. Not a day, perhaps sometimes visible to this day in moun. not an hour, has passed, from the moment tainous regions, where the eye looks down the general deluge subsided, to the present upon descending rain. But the rainbow hour, when a rainbow was not visible to would appear when this universal rain had the eye of the Infinite in some portion of subsided, and a shower descended upon the atmosphere of this globe; for, scarcely the earth, because a shower descends from can a shower of rain descend, where it is a detached cloud, viz. a cloud which day, but a rainbow must be formed. has terminations. A cloud may be one Since the general deluge, no instance of mile or a hundred miles long, or even a universal rain has occurred; for in some thousand, and its breadth may be in pro- countries it never rains; Egypt, for inportion, no matter how large or how stance, as well as others; therefore, every small, but it must have dimensions, and rain since that period, except showers thus be detached from other clouds ; during night, must have produced a rainotherwise, as has been already noted, the bow, visible at some one point upon or rain descending therefrom cannot produce near our sphere; and, from the best a rainbow; but if it is thus detached from calculations, it results, (that rain, on some the universal mass of vapour, it must, on one portion of our earth, falls every hour. producing rain, produce a rainbow. A The bow of the covenant of God with man breach in the mass of vapours, permits the is thus perpetually in the clouds of heaven rays from the sun to enter and strike the the broad seal thereof, seen by angels and descending drops of rain, on their passage by men, adorns the sphere it is destined to to the earth ; and these rays, when re- save, not only in one, but frequently in

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numerous parts at the same moment. but would be new to Noah and his family As He promised, so does Jehovah look in the new world, and hailed by them as a upon the bow; and, remembering His co- glorious seal, then and there affixed to the new venant, restrains the extended and extending covenant formed between Jehovah and man. showers, and these never become universal Certain it is, that, “At that tasted fruit,” rain, and blot out the seal of His covenant when judgment was passed by Jehovah from above the earth. How admirable upon the rebel man, the earth was cursed does the providence of Jehovah appear for his sake; and when the iniquity of the amidst the destruction of the old world : first race of men was filled up, a second He deals out judgment, but with what judgment, pronounced by the same Judge, caution! His wrath is calm deliberate consummated this curse, and swept away wisdom; how unlike the wrath of man, at once the world defiled, and the whole how diametrically opposite to the ferocity race which had defiled it; reserving only of Satan! Jehovah destroyed the old eight persons, to repeople the new world : world by water; fire would have destroyed and if, during the awful catastrophe of the all; but Noah, his family, pairs of unclean, general deluge, the original balance of this and seven of clean beasts and birds, are sphere was lost, the state of things which providentially saved in an ark, while the now exists might, in the order of divine fishes, being in their own element, are un providence, arise therefrom; and this will harmed. Thus no new creation becomes continue until the end of time. See Gen. necessary; the providence of the Infinite | viji. 22. suffices to renew the whole. That great poet and philosopher, Milton,

ASTRONOMICAL OCCURRENCES FOR in his inimitable poem, Paradise Lost, has

JANUARY 1829. the following passage.

The planet on which we are destined to " Some say He bid his angels turn askance

pass our transitory existence is situated in The poles of earth twice ten degrees and more From the sun's axle : they with labour push'd that part of its orbit on the 1st, that a line Oblique the centric globe : some say the sun drawn from its centre through that of the Was bid turn from th' equinoctial road, Like distant breadtb to Taurus with the Seven

Sun's, will pass through the 54th minute of Atlantic Sisters, and the Spartan Twins,

the tenth degree of Capricorn, in which Up to the Tropic Crab; thence down amain

part of the heavens the great luminary of By Leo and the Virgin, and the Scales, As deep as Capricorn, to bring in change

the solar system will appear; its declinaOf seasons to each clime; else had the spring

tion being 23 degrees 1 minute south, and Perpetual smiled on earth with vernant flowers, Equal in days and nights, except to those

its semidiameter 16 minutes 17 seconds Beyond the polar circles ; to them day

and 8-tenths : the Earth is this day in the Had unbenighted shone, while the low sun, To recompense his distance, in their sight

perihelion part of its orbit. After the Sun Had rounded still the horizon, and not known has descended beneath the horizon, and the Or east or west; which had forbid the snow

shades of night are spread over this porFrom cold Estotiland, and south as far Beneath Magellan. At that tasted fruit,

tion of the surface of our globe, the planets The sun, as from Thyestean banquet, turned Mars and Saturn will arrest our attention, His conrse intended else how had the world

the former in the constellation of the Inhabited, thougb sinless, more than now, Avoided pinching cold and scorching heat ? Fishes, and the latter in that of the Crab. These changes in the heavens, though slow, pro.

The situation of Mars is a little to the west duced Like change on sea and land, sideral blast, of 20 Pisces, a star of the fifth magnitude, Vapour, and mist, and exhalation hot,

which he is approaching; he sets at 32 miCorrupt and pestilent. Now from the north Of Norumbega, and the Samoed shore

nutes past ten in the evening. Saturn rises Bursting their brazen dungeon, arm'd with ice, at 36 minutes past 5 in the evening, and is And snow, and hail, and stormy gust and flaw,

observed to the south of y Cancri, forming Boreas and Cæcias and Argestes loud, And Thrascias rend the woods, and seas up-turn, an isosceles triangle with the third and With adverse blast up-turns them from the sout

fourth of this constellation, y Cancri being Notus and Afer, black with thund'rous clouds From Serraliona : thwart of these as tierce

the summit; he is receding from these stars. Forth rush the Levant and the Ponent winds, At 7 minutes past four on the following Eurus and Zephyr with their lateral noise, Sirocco, and Libecchio. Thus began

morning, the lunar orb appears above the Outrage from lifeless things."

horizon, situated in the constellation Libra,

and directing her course to the beautiful "Perpetual smiled on earth with vernant flowers, planets Jupiter and Venus, which rise · Equal in days and nights,"

about an hour later, and are noticed above and, “there went up a mist from the Antares; the Moon will evidently pass them earth, and watered the whole face of the before her next appearance, the conjunc. ground,” the rainbow would not display tion taking place with Jupiter at 10 mi. its radiant hues to man in the old world: nutes past nine in the evening of the 2d,

trage and Liber Pith th

If the spring

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and with Venus at 20 minutes past four in this time is in the 30th degree of Cancer, the morning of the 3d.

with upwards of 4 degrees south latitude. On the 5th, at 30 minutes past six in She is now observed considerably to the the morning, the Moon comes to a conjunc south of Saturn, and passes him at three tion with the planet Mercury, and at 52 | the next morning. At 44 minutes past minutes past three in the afternoon she is five the Earth arrives at the 30th degree of new in the 14th degree of Capricorn, her Cancer, when the Sun appears to enter latitude being 5 degrees north : she is in the sign Aquarius." perigee on the 16th. On this day Venus On the morning of the 21st, at 45 mihas ten digits illuminated on her eastern nutes past two, the Sun and Saturn are in limb, her apparent diameter being 12 se- opposition, the Earth being situated beconds; she has considerably receded from tween them; the telescopic observers of Jupiter. On the evening of the 7th the this wonderful planet will notice the major crescent of the Moon is observable in the to the minor axis of his ring, as 1006 to western part of the heavens; she is direct- 368, and will also have a good opportunity ing her course to the planet Mars, which of observing the moons which revolve now appears considerably to the east of around him. On the 22d, at 15 minutes 20 Pisces, and is observed approaching a past one in the afternoon, the Sun is in conline drawn through a Andromeda and Al- junction with the Georgium Sidus. The genib. The Moon is noticed to have / Moon is also in apogee, and crosses the approached nearer this planet on the even- ecliptic in her ascending node on the ing of the 8th, and is observed gradually 25th. On the 28th, at 21 minutes past approaching 9 Aquarii, which she is very five in the morning, the Moon enters her near: at 1 minute 47 seconds past six, this last quarter, in the 8th degree of Scorpio. star is hid behind her dark limb, the point | At 12 minutes 23 seconds past six in the of contact being 17 degrees from the ver-morning of the 29th, the first satellite of tex: the emersion takes place at 59 mi- Jupiter disappears in his shadow; the Moon nutes 1 second past six, at 123 degrees passes him, on the 30th, at four in the from the vertex on the right. There is also afternoon. an immersion of p Aquarii on the same evening, at 39 minutes 47 seconds past seven, at 94 degrees from the vertex on the left;

POETRY. at 7 minutes 52 seconds past eight, the star emerges at 151 degrees on the left.

(For the Imperial Magazine.) On the 11th, the Moon crosses the ecliptic in her descending node, having

THE NATIVITY. passed the planet Mars on the preceding

High rose Immanuel's star of grace, afternoon. At 18 minutes past seven in Resplendent in the orient sky; the morning of the 12th, she enters her

The shining liosts, all veil'd their face,

While life's superior orb pass'd by. first quarter in the 22d degree of Aries, and is observed in the evening approaching

Led on by Truth's unerring light,

The eastern sages sped their way, the constellation of the Ram. On the With hearts o'erflowing with delight, 14th, at 15 minutes past seven in the morn

They came where God the Saviour lay. ing, the Sun and Mercury are in conjunc Before his face they prostrate fell,

And humble adoration paid, tion, the former being between the Earth

Hail'd him, the King of Israel, and Mercury, which is termed a superior And at his feet rich presents laid. conjunction; after this day the planet be

To give their joy-fraught bosoms ease, comes an evening star, setting after the The love of God,"transported sung ; Sun.

The listening heavens return'd the praise,

And repercussive valleys rung. The fair empress of the skies is observed

May beaven-born faith's directing s to increase in magnitude and splendour,

To-day illumine every mind; and nightly to approach the planet Saturn. And guide each wandering soul from far. On the 11th, at 50 minutes 21 seconds

The Lord of life to seek and find. , past eight in the evening, she will occult To Christ, who bruised the serpent's head.

And bought for man the bliss of heaven, the star , Geminorum; the observer will

Be joyful adoration paid, notice its disappearance at 167 degrees And gratitude's sweet incense given ! from the vertex on the left; the reappear

CHORUS. ance takes place at 51 minutes 21 seconds

Loud anthems raise to God on bigh. past nine, at 104 degrees from the vertex

And bail with joy the Saviour's birth, on the right. On the 19th, at 17 minutes. Who life and immortality, past 12 at night, the Moon attains her From glory brought to sons of earth! maximum of splendour; her situation at Dartmouth.

J.M.M.

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