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descriptions of several basaltic causeways the earth, or any planet, in two-fold and delightful caverns in the midst of lavas, motions, as local consequences of those but I have never found any thing which local motions, and that the velocity of fall comes near to this, or can bear any com. is the exact arithmetical ratio of the two parison with it, for the admirable regu- acting forces. larity of its columns, the height of the It follows therefore,—1. That any two arch, the situation, the form, the elegance of these quantities being given, we get the of this production of nature, or its resem- third, and that by two well-known quanblance to the master-pieces of art, though tities, the diurnal rotation and the fall of art has had no share in its construction." a body in a second, we determine the
Similar to this are the animated obser- orbicular velocity and the true distance of vations of the learned prelate before-men- the earth from the sun. And,-2. As the tioned.-“How splendid," says he,“ do fall is determined by a definite force or the porticoes of the ancients appear in velocity, so acceleration is limited, and our eyes, from the ostentatious magnifi- cannot exceed the original velocity which cence of the descriptions we have received produces it.* of them : and with what admiration are With reference to the major problem, we seized on seeing the colonnades of our it should be considered that the motions modern edifices ! But when we behold of the earth are of two kinds, absolute the cave of Fingall, formed by nature in in the orbit, and relative in rotation. the isle of Staffa, it is no longer possible The first carries forward the entire mass to make a comparison, and we are forced with a velocity of about 98,000 feet per to acknowledge that this piece of nature's second at the calculated distance, and, architecture far surpasses that of the as a translation in space, is an absolute Louvre, that of St. Peter at Rome, all that motion. But the second is only a relative remains of Palmyra and Pæstum, and all motion of the parts within and' upon that the genius, taste, and luxury of the the earth one among another, and as such Greeks were ever capable of inventing.” | serving to confer relative phenomena In Pennant's Tour in Scotland, 4to. 1790, among the parts. . and St. Ford's Travels, are accounts of this In a single motion of rotation in one island, with plates.
place, all the parts from the centre to the circumference have respectively increased
degrees of force, but in this case of ON THE EXACT ARITHMETICAL CONNEC- | motion, the centre is a point of no force. •TION OF THE EARTH'S TWO MOTIONS If then any part from either side fly off
WITH THE VELOCITY OF FALLING by its tangental force, the centre, having BODIES.
no force, and being a point determined MR. EDITOR,
by the balance of the sides, shifts up or SIR, Since I last intruded on your down, backward or forward, as required, readers a speculation relative to the by the diminution of either side, and probably immense number of planets hence, by the single motion of rotation attached to the solar system, I have deter- of a body in one place, a mass is dispersed, mined the arithmetical relations and de- or tends to disperse. pendence of the velocity of a falling body Of course it is the momentum of the on the two-fold motions of the earth, largest side or longest lever, which seems which motions occasion the fall of every to pull the centre, and there is therefore body towards the centre. In this deter- a mutual action of the sides, in their mination lay the experimentum crucis, determination of the centre of their which I have long sought, and which rotating motions, which mutual action many eminent mathematicians had told is as the velocity of rotation. me would be the test of their faith in my This being understood, and it is so theory of motion, and the signal for their easy, that it is almost easier to understand conversion from the theories which depend it at once, than to read its elucidation, on the anti-mechanical miracles of attrac- we shall then as easily perceive the tion, repulsion, &c. &c.
change of disposition which arises when A very slight exertion of plain common we give such a mass in relative motion, sense will lead every one of your readers, a greater absolute motion in space than whether mechanically learned or not, to the velocity of the exterior parts in rotaunderstand the slight data on which the solution of this very extraordinary problem . These and many other corollaries, I have is founded. The problem is this, That | printed in a sheet of Theorems, at Is. 6d.; they
inay be had at No. 3, Charing Cross, and of a dense bodies fall towards the centre of the Booksellers.
tion. This in the case of the earth is force of the centre to that of the whole nearly as 64,3 to 1, that is, the absolute surface, i. e. as 98,000 feet of velocity, motion in space, is to the equatorial rela- nearly, to 6096, which is as 16,075 to 1, tive velocity as 98,000 nearly, to 1524. I and then we know that 16,075 feet per
This new and superadded absolute second is the actual mean fall of bodies to motion now determines and fixes the the earth. centre with a force in the ratio of the Of course this determination applies two velocities. A relative velocity of 1 to all latitudes, because no latitude is cannot now overcome the absolute velo. detached from the mass of the earth, and city of 64,3; and the centre being thus the conjoint action and reaction passes a determined point, it cannot be moved through the equator or centre to all and shifted by the tangental dispersion of opposed parts, while 6096 is a general either of the sides; and hence the ten- expression for the relative force of the dency to tangental dispersion is destroyed whole surface and all its parts. Of course, by a force of 64,3 in the centre, to a if the sphere is not true, and any part force of 1 at the equatorial circle : while, revolves more or less than a true sphere, be it remembered, the opposite hemi- then 6096 varies, and varies the result, spheres, or every opposed part of them, is and hence the variable lengths of seconds acting and reacting with a force of 1 pendulums, Acceleration is a consequence through the centre.
of continuous force, till in 13 seconds it But the earth is not a mere equatorial becomes 6096 feet per second, and then circle, and therefore the velocity or force the motion is uniform, for the effect canat the surface of the equatorial circle not exceed the cause. does not express the total force of the I need not remark to your arithmetical entire surface of a rotating sphere. If the readers, for nature is too simple to require revolving area of the equatorial circle abstruse mathematics, that if the velocity gives 1524 feet of force or velocity, the of the equatorial rotation be multiplied entire surface, which it is well known is by 4, and again by the average velocity 4 times the area of any great circle, gives of a falling body, we get as a product the 1524 x 4, or 6096, for the total of the exact velocity of the earth's centre in its relative rotating force of the sphere's orbit! Then multiplying this by the entire surface. It is then the relation of number of seconds in a year, and dividing 6096 to 98,000, which determines the by 3,14159, and by 2, we get the mean fall of a body, those numbers expressing distance of the earth from the sun or respectively the forces with which the centre of its orbit. This in my “ Theorems" opposed parts by the relative motion, I have on these physical data shown to mutually and conjointly act and react, be 93,200,000 miles nearly, without and the determined and uniform velocity affecting all the precision which so curious of the centre, which is now the necessary a problem merits, but as a mere exemcommon centre of both motions.
plification of my principles. It is just as though the area of the equa- I fear to weary your readers, or I would torial circle were made of a plastic material, add many curious consequences, all in and protruded upward or downward in accordance with phenomena—as in relation an hemisphere; each hemisphere would to the double tides, the precession of the then be double the area, and two hemis- equinoxes, the earth's rotation, the falling pheres would be quadruple,-then in back of the moon's nodes, the progresthe same proportion that the velocity of sion of the line of apsides, &c. &c. but the equator produced one degree of force I have no desire still more to pique the at the surface, the velocity of four times the lovers of antiquated philosophy, and it is same surface would produce four times the my anxious wish to retire from these force. Let it be remembered, that we profitless discussions, and from the world, are speaking of experiments at the surface, in peace.--I am, sir, yours, &c. &c. and therefore the forces of the surface are
R. PHILLIPS. to be alone considered, and these forces Hyde Park Row, April 20, 1829. are generated by the velocities of the parts.
Now then, if a body on the surface is surrendered to the unrestrained action of THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE DARK AGES. the two forces of which every body on
(Continued from col. 440.) or connected with the earth is the constant patient, the swing or momentum of the ICANNOT dismiss this subject without opposite side pulls it, so to speak, through indulging myself with a relation of some, the centre, with a force which is as the at least, out of the many observations
which have occurred to my mind during | founded at the west end ; one on the north the investigation thereof.
and the other on the south side thereof. In far the greater portion of the cathe These three towers generally correspond, drals belonging to the Saracenic order of as to form, but not as to size : the centre architecture which I have examined, (ex- tower is much more massive and taller ceeding thirty,) I observed the following than the other two; which correspond characters :
both in form and size. In some cases, These cathedrals in general, are founded they are all crowned with battlements in the form of a cross : I suppose, out of and tall decorated pinnacles, and in others reverence to the sacred Person who ex- surmounted with lofty spires. An im piated the sins of man, by dying upon mense window generally occupies the this Roman engine of infamy and cruelty : whole east end, upon which the architect for it was equally infamous as it was appears to have expended all the science cruel, in the estimation of that community, as well as art in his possession; while two to suffer such a death. The ground-plan lesser windows, of nearly the same form, consists of three parallel aisles, from east are exhibited in the north and south to west, and one cross aisle, or rather broad gables, at the ends of the cross aisle : and area, from north to south; which cross another, of equal size with the two last, aisle is considerably nearer to the east occupies the whole space between the two end of the cathedral than to the west ; towers at the west end. thus forming a cross of the same shape The division of these cathedrals into as that on which the Redeemer of mankind centre and side aisles, gives great facilities, suffered death.
both as to roofing and lighting these imThe position of these cathedrals, as mense edifices. In roofing, the columns well as the parish churches, is, in most which separate the centre from the side cases, exactly in accordance with the car- aisles, are piers to pointed arches, which dinal points of our sphere : their 'length crown their capitals, and these are bases being from east to west, and their breadth to solid walls : thus two walls arise, which from north to south. Thus was placed extend from end to end of these fabrics, the tabernacle, thus was pitched the camp and divide the roof into three parts. of Israel in the wilderness, thus was This division shortens the bearing of the founded the temple at Jerusalem, and principal beams SO materially, that they the pyramids in Egypt; and thus did are severally only one-third the length Pyrrhus, who had opportunities of viewing they would be if the roof was one. This the camp of Gilgal, pitch his camp; and is a most desirable attainment in construct and in imitation of his, thus did the Ro-ing large fabrics; because it is the long mans pitch their camps in every part of bearing of the principal beams which the world. This circumstance is of creates such imminent danger to those who especial use to travellers. If they can but occupy the edifice. Numbers of these behold a church, or even the square tower buildings are of such vast dimensions, of a church, the cardinal points come out that beams which would reach from side at once; and they are instantly assured to side could not have been procured ; as to the direction in which they are and if they could, either whole or by moving.
splicing, have been extended over the vast The elevation of those cathedrals, pre- area which the floor of some of these sents in general three square towers, con- cathedrals occupy, as they must have been siderably elevated above the fabric itself. suspended by their extremities, notwith. One of these occupies the centre, where standing the art of trussing exists in a the middle aisle and the cross aisles meet | degree of perfection scarcely ever to be in order to form the cross; and lest its exceeded, the danger would have been walls should obstruct the body of the extreme. If light was admitted through cathedral, this centre tower is surmounted the outer walls only, the side aisles would upon four piers and arches, which piers be light, while the centre aisle, which is range with the columns of the side and the most important, would be dark : but cross aisles, and being hewed into clusters, on carrying up the walls which rest upon although they are massive, the accordance the columns on each side the centre aisle, is appropriate. Thus the tower is imper- windows may be and are constructed ceptible in the body of the cathedral, and therein, which admit light from above to the pointed arches, which are the foun- fall thereon, and render the centre aisle as dations of its walls, seem a continuation light as the side aisles. of those which form the side and cross Perhaps no form could have been deaisles. The other square towers are vised more adapted, than this treble cross
to the pompous pageantry of Rome. The in bond, which all the courses of a wall magnificent - windows at the east end, have each with each. Whenever, theredirectly over the altar, fraught with paint fore, an edifice fraught with these arches ings of legendary lore, the lofty choir, falls to decay, the large arches, losing their immediately adjoining, crowded with collateral supports, come down into total thrones, canopies, stalls, carvings, niches, ruin; and in coming down, bring with and statues, finished by the imposing them large portions of the fabric in a screen and elevated organ, and accom- state of ruin equal to themselves. Thus modated on the right and left with out of a large edifice, a few prominent sacristies, vestries, shrines, and altars, parts only remain; such as a vestibule, amidst the side-aisles, gave the most or staircase, or . portico, &c. &c. while imposing effect to those awful ceremonies, indiscriminate ruin lords it over all the in which the frequent change of person rest. or vestments predominated ; and held / A pointed arch, the characteristic of even elevated minds in trammels, not to the modern Gothic, may be and frequently be shaken off without an effort too great is built up with and bonded into the for those days of darkness. The centre, wall : in this case, it consists of solid side, and cross aisles were equally genial ashlar, similar to the wall itself. The to those pageant processions, wherein the extremity of every individual course of host was elevated, or relics were displayed, ashlar, in an arch thus constructed, has a or the images of the Virgin and saints; tendency to topple over the preceding long, lofty, and spacious, and accessible course, and, thus coming forward, fall each from each, not only at their extre- perpendicularly down the opening over mities, but every where between the bases which the arch is suspended; but the of the columns, the longest processions, jutting of the two segments at the extreme by preconcerted routes, found ample room altitude prevents this from taking place for display and effect therein ; secure from in the topmost courses ; and every indi. inclement storms, and aided by the impos- vidual course of ashlar counteracts this ing architecture which surrounded them. tendency in the course below it, from the The Protestant cathedral, stripped of this springing to the crown of the arch. There unreal, presents a vacancy which it is is, therefore, very little thrust, outward in attempted to fill up by stately monuments, an arch thus constructed : the courses and erected to the memory of the dead; and connexion of the segments preserves the this would certainly do much towards equilibrium of the whole : and so long as effecting the intended object, if genial | the wall continues upright, the arch, as a designs were disposed in appropriate component part thereof, continues also, situations, so as to compose a scientific The courses of these arches being all whole : but, alas, in what we now see, | horizontal, rest each upon each, perpenwe behold the fac-simile of a statuary's dicularly; whereas the courses of a semilaboratory; or rather a modern image of circular arch lie in every angle, from a crudity, reminding us of all the confusions horizontal to a perpendicular direction, launched upon ancient Babel.
and every course has a different bearing. Having examined, with great attention, These causes operate upon a fabric numerous remains of extensive edifices passing into a state of ruin, and give to in every state, from an unroofed fabric each order, features the very reverse of to a heap of ruins, I have observed a each other. While the arches of a Grestriking difference between the wrecks | cian structure lie, with a large proportion of a Grecian and a Gothic structure. A of its other members, brought down by semicircular arch, the characteristic of their fall, in indiscriminate ruin beneath the Grecian order, rests upon its two your feet; the arches of a Gothic edifice extremities; it is therefore suspended in soar above your head, secure in the ashlar air. The crown of this arch has a ten- wall into which they are built, and form dency to descend perpendicularly; this objects of veneration, in conjunction with tendency would, if they were not backed the columns on which they rest, impressing with solid materials, throw out or throw every beholder with awe at the exalted up its two sides, and thrust out its extreme grandeur of the scene. points. Hence we have a tendency Thus it appears, the modern Gothic or inward, and four tendencies outward, in Saracenic architecture possesses original the same arch. This semicircular arch features; and that, although invented in also is an erection separate and distinct the dark ages, it is not a modification of from the wall which rests upon it: and other orders, but a distinct order, and no portions of the two have that connexion worthy of this distinction.
Osseous System-Essay IX.
530 .... ...................roccorror · When we behold an edifice of chaste | - If christian churches were in after-ages architecture and fine proportions, dedi- erected in the Grecian order, were they cated to, and wholly set apart for God, not desecrated by the idolatrous usages of for the worship of the Only True God, the Romish church, at po distant period and Jesus Christ whom He hath sent, in from their consecration to the Most High His Spirit, we rejoice in this appropriate God? Pictures, relics, images of Jesus, adaptation of science and art to the very the Virgin Mary, saints and sinners not object to which the wisdom of gratitude a few, in these were knelt unto, invoked, would direct the affections of man, viz. and honoured; and services to these suto the Most Worthy,--the beneficent perseded the sacred word and the holy Creator, Redeemer, and Sanctifier of man- service of the One Lord, He who created kind. From Him hath flowed, from Him all things. To say these were not, and doth flow, and from Him will flow, for are not worshipped, is only to say what ever and for ever, all the good of man: the heathen always declared, and do to Him, therefore ought to flow, with his declare unto this day; viz. that they did best affections, in one all-hallowed stream, not and do not worship the idol,--the the gratitude of mankind. “The gold is wood, the stone, the silver, or the gold, of mine, the silver is mine, and the cattle which the idol was composed, but the upon a thousand hills; yea, the world is god, which, after consecration, they supmine, and the fulness thereof, saith Jeho- | posed resided therein. Where then is vah." To render up to Him the best, is the difference? therefore, only to render Him up His But if the Grecian orders of architecture own; and to withhold it from Him to were polluted to these vile and debasing whom it of right belongs, is a robbery of purposes, can it be said of the Gothic the most serious cast. To desecrate a and Saracenic, these are pure? Alas, temple built expressly for, and dedicated alas! these have also inherited the baneful to the Most High God, by profanation pollution of former orders; and many of with idols and idolatrous rites, is a con | them to this day are the very sinks of tempt which we could hardly believe so corruption, in countries only divided from puny a being as man could be guilty of our own by a narrow strait of the ocean. in the face of the Omnipotent. Yet, even this atrocious crime has been perpetrated : such acts did Israel in Jerusalem itself; and such acts have been ESSAYS ON THE STRUCTURE AND MEcommitted, not only by the seed of CHANISM OF THE OSSEOUS SYSTEM, Abraham, but by the Gentiles; yea, even
(Concluded from col. 440.) by men professing themselves to be Christians. Man, alas! can therefore, not
Essay IX. only withhold, but put forth his hand, In our last essay, commenting on the exand take from God that which the gra- ternal difference which exists between the titude of others had dedicated to Him. face of man, and that of the brute, we
The Grecian orders of architecture stated that one of the sources of this difwere originally polluted by appropriation ference depended upon the position and to the worst purposes of idolatry. The form of the jaws. temples, with their whole suites of apart-! If we turn to the human cranium, we ments, as well as their courts, were devoted immediately perceive that the jaws do not to demons; and demon worship through- advance, or that they advance at most in out, in its most obscene and atrocious a very trifling degree, beyond a line drawn rites and usages, pervaded all these perpendicularly from the forehead. In edifices : and even the most sumptuous some instances indeed, this line is not mansions were devoted to this debasing touched ;-a peculiarity strikingly observidolatry; for there the household gods able in the heads of the ancient figures of appeared, as within the temple appeared gods, or heroes. But when we turn to the the idol or idols to which it was dedicated. brute creation, we see in this respect a In the celebration of these services the wide difference; the prolongation of the worst passions of mankind were con- jaws exhibiting a marked characteristic. tinually pandered to, and the worst actions To this rule, the ape tribe, although apof fallen beings held up to admiration ; proaching, in general external conformation, while the adorations of man were ad- the nearest to man, offers no exception. dressed to demons, or heroes, many of In the human subject, and we believe in whom proved by their acts on earth, that most species of the ape-tribe, the upper jaw they were of their father the devil.
consists of two portions ; but in the lower 126, VOL. XI.