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maligns those sacred doctrines which, per, my family in North Wales, I one morning haps, as a clergyman, he had solemnly awoke, after a disturbed night, soon after engaged to maintain and defend? Truly day-break; and the shutters of my winthe government would have a noble and dows being open, the light shone on the a busy occupation! But, sir, I would not bed where I lay. Not finding myself diswish C. to forget that the solemn protesta posed to return to sleep, I opened my curs tions, avowals, and engagements made and tain, and resolved to indulge myself in that entered into by clergymen of the esta: listless musing, that half delirium which is blished church at their ordination, are all of often so grateful to the mind. A sycamore a sacramental nature, and as obligatory tree, which, according to the tradition of upon their observance in the sight of God, our family, was planted towards the midas an oath taken before a civil magistrate; dle of the last century by my great-grandor, if possible, still more so. The same father, grew on the outside of my window; may be said also of all baptized and con- its branches, driven by the wind, were firmed laymen; and hence, all apostates of moving slowly backwards and forwards that description, have the guilt of perjury before the glass, and in the most dead stillalso on their heads, and are, consequently, ness around me, I could hear the noise of fit objects of secular judgment, and un- the breeze passing through its leaves. This worthy of public confidence. ..

tree was an acquaintance of mine from my But I must not enlarge upon this sub. infancy, but I had never before seen it in so ject, nor need I, for the arguments ad- interesting a point of view. The whistling vanced by C. are too weak and futile to of the wind, the movement of the branches čarry conviction to minds fortified with which seemed almost voluntary, and the truth, as those of most of your readers I alternate shades of light and darkness trust are. One paragraph of C.'s produc- thrown by this movement on the floor, tion I have not alluded to, viz. the third, gave it altogether a liveliness which struck which attempts to equalize the claims of me forcibly, and it required but little aid paganism and infidelity, with those of from the imagination to bestow on it con. Christianity, on the protection of the go- sciousness and animation.

< . vernments under which these erroneous : “How old, and yet "how vigorous," systems exist. I have passed this over, said I, “ is this beautiful sycamore ! A sir, in consequence of your own judicious hundred summers have shed their dews on note respecting it (col. 814,) which renders its leaves, and a hundred more shall witany observations from me unnecessary. I ness its unfading verdure; but he who shall, therefore, only add, 'in corroboration planted it has long ceased to live, and the of your remarks thereon, that as we know being who now contemplates it shall soon “Christianity to be a system of truth, com. be motionless also. Yet art thou not, Oh municated by revelation from the Source of tree! exempt from the laws of decay; all truth," so its defence is a duty which thy branches shall wither--thy trunk grow every magistrate owes to God, while the dry and sapless ;--the matter that forms vindication of all other systems is literally thee resolve into its parent earth, and min“fighting against God." -I am, sir, yours, gle with the dust of the man over whom &c:

S. TUCKER. thou triumphest! But hast thou indeed a

substance, or art thou only a creature of the THE WINTER'S WREATH FOR 1829. mind? An hour ago, where wert thou? Of this interesting volume we published a

In the arms of sleep, I perceived thee not,

and how do I know that thou differest in review in our number for November last, but having at that time no room for extracts, we

aught from the phantasms of the night,

which then seemed real? In a few hours more than intimated our intention of spee

hence I shall sleep again as before, and dily giving some specimens. This promise we

that which seems now a dream, shall again now redeem, by introducing to the notice of our readers the following instructive

become 'reality. In a few years I shall

sleep longer and deeper; and this pillow allegory.--EDITOR.

of down shall be exchanged for a pillow of

dust; but who shall say, that I shall then THE VISION.

be senseless? The night of the tomb may BY THB LATA DR. CURRIE.

present à new scenery before me, more "Sunt geminæ, somni portæ, quarum altera beautiful and complete; and when I awake

fertur, Cornea, qua veris facilis datur exitus umbris." to its enjoyment," I may look back on

Virgil. this fev'rous being,' as on a turbulent As I was passing a month of the delight- dream! Divine Berkeley! Thou second ful summer of 1780, at the ancient seat of Plato, but greater than the first-how just

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and sublimer are thy views ! Mind alone transcendent beauty, shooting from behind has essence : the forms of matter are but the mountain where we stood, across shadows. The whole choir of earth and the hemisphere, and tinging the clouds heaven! what is it? What, but a passing with various colours of celestial hue. I vision ?

gazed with astonishment and rapture; In this state of mind, so favourable to Whence," said I, " Oh, inhabitant of the operations of fancy, the impressions of heaven! arise those glorious visions, and sense gradually became more indistinct : a/ what do they represent ?" dark vapour seemed to spread itself over “A portion,” said Ithuriel, “ of the my eyes, and when my consciousness re- never-ending circle of being is presented turned, the following pageant appeared before thee in the tablet of human life. before me:

Thou standest on an isthmus : below thee I found myself on the side of a lofty is the sea of time; behind thee, where mountain, rising out of the sea, the waves | thine eye cannot penetrate, the boundless of which dashed against its base. The regions of eternity. The meteors that play water was covered with a thin vapour, on the heavens before thee, are irradiations through which the sight penetrated with from objects too luminous for mortal eye, difficulty; and the objects on its surface, which have penetrated across the dark seen indistinctly, seemed agitated by the vapours that overshadow this mountain, heavings of the surge. Casting my eyes and give a faint display of the real beauties behind me, I saw the mountain divide into of a brighter world. Again reflected from two branches, which appeared to lose the impending clouds, they are thrown with themselves in the clouds. Between them diminished lustre on the surface of the was a narrow passage, in the front of which ocean, where they assume a thousand unstood a being of more than mortal stature, substantial forms. It is these phantoms, His countenance had the bloom of youth: which they mistake for realities, that thy his eye, which was upon me, shone with fellow-mortals are pursuing: thy sight is divine radiance ;-in one hand he held a farther strengthened; observe them more spear, and with the other he beckoned me narrowly, and tell me what thou seest." to approach with benignant aspect. Won | “I see,” said I, “ the countenances of der and reverence took possession of my those who are advancing on the water, agitaheart; and I advanced with humble and ted by various passions; and I can discern hesitating steps. “Fear nothing,” said he, some of the objects which attract them, “ I am the angel Ithuriel, the servant of and which appear to dance before them on the Most High: obey me, and be in the billows as they approach. In their structed. I have strengthened thy sight : direct course I can discern a mighty whirlturn thy face towards the ocean, and tell pool, towards which all the waters of the me what thou seest.” The clouds which sea seem to flow, and the vessels are carhad brooded over the water were rolledried along by the power of its vortex.” away, and the sea was covered with vessels “ The whirlpool which thou observest," of different sizes, all bending their course said Ithuriel, “is the termination of mortowards the mountain where we stood. On tal life : the innumerable tribes that cover board of them I could discern the figures the surface of the ocean, must all be swalof human beings, sometimes directing the lowed up in its abyss. Many, thou mayst helm or expanding the sails, and at other see, that are on the brink of fate, are times resting indolently on the deck, and stored with provisions for a long voyage. trusting themselves to the tide. Many of How vain is their solicitude! their barks these vessels seemed to enjoy a steady and their ladings shall perish in the gulf, gale, but some were almost becalmed, and they themselves be cast up naked upon and others appeared to be tossed and agi- the shore !" tated by the violence of a tempest. All, While the angel was yet speaking, I however, approached us, though with dif- could discern the headmost vessel fast apferent degrees of celerity : the whole being proaching the whirlpool : on the deck sat a carried forward by a strong current, which man with contented air, and dull but plàcid set towards the shore.

countenance. His vessel was deeply laden, • While I was about to ask an explanation and moved evenly on the tide. He apof what I saw, the angel again addressed peared unconscious of his danger, his me. “ Direct thy view upwards," said he, attention being engaged by the figure of a “and contemplate the sky as it hangs over palace in front, resembling as far as I could the ocean." I turned my eyes towards discern the Mansion-house in London. the heavens, and saw them illuminated As he got up, seemingly with the intention with streaks of light, and with meteors of of preparing to enter it, he discovered the

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gulf immediately before him, and, starting | a harp before him, on which he seemed to with agony and terror, instantly disap- play; and his countenance bespoke a mind peared. :

agitated by lofty conceptions. Of the storm 1 After him, followed others of the same he appeared altogether heedless, his eyes description. Their vessels were, in general, glanced alternately on the surface of the laden with different articles of merchan- ocean, and the convexity of the sky; and I dise, but some were ballasted with gold could discover a beam of light reflected from and silver"; and others, to my surprise, the heavens, that played on his head. In this were deeply pressed down in the water, situation a sudden blast overset his bark, and though their lading seemed to consist only he was tumbled into the sea. He was, howof thin pieces of paper of an oblong form. ever, able to get on the inverted keel, and I Some of these persons seemed to be entirely could discern that he still preserved his harp. employed in gazing on their cargoes, but At times he resumed his employment with others appeared to have objects at some the same air of unconcem as formerly; but distance in their view, on which their at he was frequently interrupted by the rolling tention was fixed. Among these last, I of the vessel, and was generally half immersed could observe a man of an open and in the water. A few of the notes he struck, I ingenuous appearance, but with a face could hear; they were exquisitely melodious, marked with anxiety and care. The ves- and seemed to brighten the sorrow of his counsel under him seemed to have been buffeted tenance with an expression of elevation and by the storms, and rolled much in the hope. My heart was drawn towards this water. He kept his place, however, stea- unfortunate being; but while I was musing dily at the helm, with an air of fortitude in on his condition, I perceived that he also his countenance, which seemed at times had reached the termination of his voyage, clouded with pain, but more frequently and had sunk, like the rest, into the ineenlightened with comfort. He discovered vitable gulf. the abyss at some distance before him, and,

My eye again wandered at large over folding his arms, he resigned himself to his the surface of the water, when a new object fate with composure and magnanimity. engaged my attention. In the prow of a When on the verge of the whirlpool, I saw bark that advanced with great rapidity, I him lying backward, with the air and atti-1 saw a young man standing in a military tude of one that sleeps.

garb. His port was noble, his aspect com- The next vessel that followed was a manding, and his look was directed, with canoe, in one end of which sat a man of a the utmost animation and ardour, towards reddish hue. His body was almost naked, a phantom immediately before him. The and his face was painted of different co- colours in which this spectre was porjours. On his head he wore a crown of trayed, were so vivid as to be distinctly variegated feathers, and in his hand he car- visible. The figure seemed that of a beauried a bow. His countenance was some- tiful female in the dress of an Amazon; ore times agitated with keen emotion, and hand was laid across her breast, and with sometimes lethargic and dull. As he ap- the other she pointed upwards. The farproached the whirlpool, he arose erect in ther the warrior advanced, the greater aphis canoe, and, with eyes fixed on the peared his eagerness; and his visage gulf before him, sunk undauntedly under seemed to grow pale, and sicken with the the waves.

anxiety of his mind. But the instant he A great variety of beings succeeded, reached the gulf, his eye sparkled, his most of whom seemed unconscions of the cheek flushed, he sprang forwards, with fate that awaited them ; but some discerned extended arms, to catch the beauteous the abyss at a distance, and endeavoured to phantom, which burst in his embrace with steer a different course. They were able to a Aash of light that illuminated his counhold a direction somewhat oblique, but the tenance, as he sank under the waves, and power of the vortex soon overcame their diffused a splendour across the ocean far efforts, and sucked them under the tide. and wide. bi While I contemplated the immense The surprise and admiration which this erowd that was rushing forward, I saw a produced had no sooner subsided, than a vessel advancing that engaged my parti- | vessel attracted my notice, of a superior eular attention. It seemed extremely light, size. On the deck stood a man in the and violently agitated by the winds, which dress of a senator. His stature was tall, blew in succession in various directions. his attitude graceful and majestic; though On the deck sat a man, whose hair hung his hair was whitened with age, his counloose in the breeze, and whose temples tenance had the energy of youth, and his were covered with leaves of bay. He held | eyes seemed to brighten with unquenchable

121.--VOL. XI.

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fire. He looked around him with an air , my bed in the old castle of B— by the bay of authority and command; and I could of Caernarvon, with the sun-beams playing observe that his fellow-voyagers within his on my face. view gazed on him with awe and reverence. The vessel seemed to move proudly

ESSAYS ON THE STRUCTURE AND MEunder him; the waves curling and foaming against her stem. As he approached the

CHANISM OF THE OSSEOUS SYSTEM. brink of the whirlpool, he stepped forward

(Continued from col. 1106.) in the attitude of one that speaks, and rais

Essay IV. ing his hand above his head in high emo- That the ligaments of the joints tend most tion, he suddenly staggered forward, as if materially to their firinness and strength, is struck by lightning, and tumbled headlong sufficiently obvious; and that they are so into the gulf. The sound of his fall, which placed and inserted as to effect this, while seemed like the fall of a colossus, reached they allow a due freedom of motion, canme distinctly, and the waves appeared to not but be regarded as a beautiful example recoil all around.

of skill and contrivance. Whilst I was lost in sorrow and wonder, | But while the ligaments permit the mothe voice of the angel again saluted me. tion of the joints, it may be asked, How “ Grieve not,” said he, “ for what thou are the bones themselves fashioned so as to hast seen. The eternal Spirit, whose crea- form these joints or hinges, each in its tures we are, penetrates all nature, and is degree so flexible, and each so adapted to equally present in the depth and darkness its purpose? And here perhaps, in order of the ocean, as in the brightness of the to attain this end, we might expect to find summer's day. The beings that are lost to an elaborate complexity of conformation, or thy sight are yet under his protection, and an union of bones as intricate. Nothing, shall again emerge with renovated powers. | however, can be wider from the truth. On They are spirits like thyself, emanations the contrary, all is strikingly simple and from the supreme Spirit, and, after a course appropriate, exhibiting the impress of that of action and suffering, a part of which wisdom and providence, which in all the thou hast seen, shall again be united to the visible works of creation, but especially source from whence they sprung. Human in every part of the living frame, forces life is a single scene, in the great drama of itself upon our attention. Let us, however, existence. Earth, Oh mortal! is the school revert to this question, and consider what of minds. When thou minglest in its cares peculiarities characterize the extremities of and its pleasures, remember thy origin and the bones, (for in this piece of mechanism thy destination; let thy heart be purified the extremities alone are for the most part from baseness and vice, and bear thyself concerned,) so as to constitute, upon a due with the temper of an immortal. But look union, a moveable articulation. again on the ocean, and direct thine eye If, then, we examine a bone entering towards the north." I obeyed. On the into the formation of one of the principal verge of the horizon, a small vessel ap- joints, it will be found, as we have before peared, bounding through the waves. As stated, to enlarge towards its ends, and exit moved along, I could discern a man hibit in its termination the following chastanding on the deck with a pencil in his racters ;-in this example, a round head or hand. His attention was engaged by the ball, in that, bold projecting tuberosities vessels that were passing before him; and with furrows, or depressions more or less he seemed busy in recording their fate, as | marked between them; and in others, an they successively disappeared. But of his abrupt surface hollowed out into conca. own vessel he appeared to take no care or vities, encircled perhaps by an acute and direction; and he did not seem conscious elevated ridge: in each instance the aim that he himself was rapidly borne along by is evident; the round head is designed for the tide. I gazed on him by a secret sym- fitting into a cup-like socket, as in the pathy; as he approached more nearly, a hip-joint; the tuberosities into correspond. sudden thought struck me-alas! I knew | ing depressions, the intervening furrows his features, though I had never seen them being also in turn similarly occupied, as in but in a mirror. Confusion, surprise, and bones of the elbow-joint, or especially, for terror took possession of my mind. But a familiar example, as is seen in the shankas I saw the image approach the gulf, my bones (as they are termed) of a sheep; and eyes became dim; a thousand half-formed the concavities upon the flattened surfaces shadows danced before my sight; clouds which terminate others, receive the extreand darkness gathered around; the vision mities of a bone fashioned for accumelted away; and I found myself lying on rate adjustment. In some of the minor

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24

articulations, indeed, plain polished surfaces | cartilage. To the presence of this, the are merely applied together, and secured whole spine owes its capability of motion by necessary ligaments; to such, however, on all sides; and hence it follows, that on a limited motion only can necessarily be al. every change of the position of the trunk, lowed; and this we see exemplified in the the centre of motion in each vertebra is attachment of the ribs to the vertebræ, correspondingly altered. Thus when we

But while endeavouring to give a general bow forwards, the upper moved part bears view of the principles upon which the entirely on the bodies of the vertebra joints are constructed, there is one species | below; if we bend back, the oblique proof articulation so unique and peculiar, and cesses support the weight; if we recline to forming so singular a feature in the osseous one side, we rest upon the oblique prosystem, as to merit particular notice: we cesses of that side, and part of the bodies; allude to the articulations of that curious and in an erect position, the bodies and pile of bones, the vertebra.

oblique processes have each their share of In every point of view, the vertebral the superincumbent pressure. column is calculated to excite our interest The advantages resulting from this mode and admiration. - Arranged and constructed of arrangement are of the utmost value. so as to give grace and flexibility to the It must be evident, that upon every motion trunk, and yet so strongly and securely as of the spine several vertebræ at least must to form a complete defence for the spinal | be concerned ;-hence, the necessity of an marrow, lest that “ silver cord” be broken, acute curvature being made at the conjuncexhibiting, in the union of its bones among tion of any two, is obviated. The design each other, a proof of the most exquisite | of this is not only to give grace as well as design, as well as constituting one of the stability to the trunk, but to provide against essential parts of the skeleton, (never want the possibility of injuring by compression, ing in all red-blooded animals,) it presents or overstretching the spinal cord, or the a subject for manifold study. The vertebral nerves arising from it, which would, from column, if we regard it as a whole, pos | an opposite plan of mechanism, be in dansesses great freedom and facility of motion ger of happening continually. As it is, howalthough the freedom of each bone of ever, we may bend the body in every direcwhich the column consists, in its individual tion, (and it is astonishing to what a degree capacity, is very limited;- but to understand | this power may be improved by practice,) thoroughly the nature of this piece of me | in perfect security. chanism, it will be necessary to examine The whole range of vertebra present but singly the parts composing it.

few essential differences--the variations If, then, one of the vertebræ be offered being chiefly as it regards size, and the to our inspection, we perceive it to consist figure of the processes--but as far as the of a compressed circular, or somewhat mechanism of the articulations is concerned, oval-shaped body, with two flattened sur the same principle obtains throughout. faces, and throwing out several processes of To this rule, however, two of the cervical considerable magnitude. Encircled by vertebræ offer a remarkable exception; the these, and the body of the bone, is a large first named the atlas, the second he verteaperture, which, in the natural arrangement bræ dentata; but to understand their meof the column, forms throughout its length chanism, it is necessary that we should give a canal for the passage of the spinal cord, at least a general description of them. thus curiously and safely situated. The The classical name of atlas, then, is names of the processes are, the oblique, | given to the first vertebræ of the neck, of which there are four; the two transverse, from the circumstance of its supporting the and the spinal; and in the natural position head-a globe certainly of considerable of the vertebræ, the two lower and the two importance, at least to the possessor. On upper of the oblique processes of the examination, we find this bone destitute of adjoining vertebræ, are connected together. a body, or any thing analogous to the This arrangement presents itself, if we take bodies of the other vertebræ. It consists a posterior view of the spine, where we see simply of a ring of unequal thickness, furthe lower oblique processes of the upper nished with processes, and having several bone overlaying and resting against the articulating polished concavities. These are superior oblique processes of the next. five in number. The two superior, and by The bodies of the vertebræ are piled one | far the most concave, are adapted for reupon another, but are not in actual con. | ceiving the condyles or articulating surfaces tact-for between them is interposed an of the occipital bone of the skull, and being elastic cushion of considerable thickness, secured together, by strong ligaments, an partaking of the nature of ligament and I articulation is formed by their union, having

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