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average of these murders has been for many | viz. Jared, he flourished from the fifth to years from forty to fifty per month! I the fourteenth century. Men, as well as fear that little more can be done in the cattle, having greatly multiplied in the age General Court.” Another proprietor, in a of Jared, there arose a necessity for the catmore recent letter, expresses the same sen tle to migrate, in order to find pasture; and timents.

their attendants, of course, migrated with The necessity, propriety, and importance them; hence arose a wish for moveable of societies to promote the abolition of tenements : that wish called forth mind; human sacrifices in India, appear evident. and Jabal, no doubt a man of genius, for « Human sacrifices were first forbidden at his own use invented the tent; and from Rome by a decree of the Senate, B. C. 95 this circumstance was denominated, “ the years; but some persons still continuing father of such as dwell in tents." With them privately, the Emperor Augustus the shepherd's life arose the shepherd's renewed the prohibition with effect. Tibe. pipe; for “ Jubal, the brother of Jabal, rius suppressed them in Gaul, and Claudius was the father of all such as handle the harp extirpated the Druids, as well as their san. and organ.” guinary worship, in that country. These From these notes, extracted out of the sacrifices existed in Britain till about A. D. only book which contains authentic informa60, when Paulinus Suetonius overthrew the tion respecting the old world, viz. the Bible, Druids and their inhuman rites, so that they | we.conclude, that during the first eight or never afterwards revived. And will it be ten centuries, tents were not in use, but endured that our own heathen conquerors cities were built, and men dwelt in permahave done more for us than we are willing nent edifices, and doubtless continued so to to do for our Indian subjects ? Shall the do until the general deluge swept them from mere natural principle, “ Homo sum, hu- the face of the earth. mani nihil a me alienum pulo," have exer That stately edifices had crowned the cised an influence on pagan Rome, and face of the olđ world, and were erected at shall Christian Britain refuse to acknow an early period of the new world, appears ledge the force of the same argument ?" certain from the eventful history of the (Poynder's speech on human sacrifices in tower of Babel, recorded in the book of India, p. 220.) Let all who feel the tender Genesis. This event occurred early in the visitings of nature,'--all who would deliver second century; and such is the notoriety their country from “ blood-guiltiness,"-all | which it has attained, that, in almost every who look for the time when they shall not nation of the earth, traditionary notices hurt nor destroy in all his holy mountain," thereof remain to the present hour. promote the establishment of kindred in- In the days of Abraham, and the patristitutions in every part of the united king archs his descendants, Canaan was replete dom, and by a constant and simultaneous with cities; many of which were walled expression of the public voice to the Senate and embattled for war. The character of of the nation, “relieve the oppressed, judge this land of promise, given by Jehovah, the fatherless, plead for the widow.”

viz. “ whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass," Deut.

viii. 9, gives us a definitive idea of the THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE DARK AGES. quality of its building materials : stone ever .. (Continued from col. 331.)

abounds where copper ores are found ; and

stone, as well as clay for bricks, are whereWHATEVER order of architecture prevailed ever iron ores are abundant. The mounin the old world, it appears to be certain, I tain Horeb is a granite rock, and much that permanent mansions were constructed of that material is scattered over the vast during the most early ages of time. Cain, wilderness which divides Canaan from the after the impious murder of his pious bro- | sea of Edom. ther Abel, wandered to the land of Nod, From the numerous remains of ancient on the east of Eden, and there built a city. edifices in Egypt, and the copious notes of The universal custom of the first ages, as to the most early writers thereon, it is evident the erection of permanent dwellings, is also that architecture flourished in that country confirmed by that portion of the sacred vo- at an early period after the flood. These lume, Gen. iv. which relates to the posterity edifices were formed of most durable maof Cain. There we are told, “ Jabal was the terials; granite as well as marble enter into father of such as dwell in tents, and of such their structure in abundance; and inexas have cattle." Jabal was the sixth in haustible rocks of these remain in and near descent from Cain, and if he was contem- | Egypt to the present hour. The circumporary with the fourth in descent from Seth, stance, that in Egypt there is no rain,

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noted in the sacred volume, Zechariah xiv. 1 “ who was king in Jerusalem," arose agree 18, and by all historians and biographers, ably to the models exhibited to these his gave great facilities to the erection of splen servants by the living God, who faithfully did edifices in that country; because pro- | executed what he designed. From the jecting terraces and platforms were sufficient proportions of its columns, the embellishshelters, without the load of a cumbrous ments of its porticos, and the general roof. Light was thus introduced at the top, as description of its architecture, we have well as through windows in the sides and reason to suppose this superb temple beends of these fabrics, which set off to great came a model for succeeding ages; and advantage the sculptures and paintings, as that to its excellence may be fairly ascribed well as all the interior ornaments, of their the vast improvements made in architecture palaces and temples.

by those nations, whose remains furnish The tabernacle erected in the wilderness, studies in that art to the first architects in on the exodus of Israel out of Egypt, was a this enlightened age. master-piece amongst those moveable edi- From Egypt and Canaan, architecture fices which are denominated tents. No passed to Babylon, where it reigned its day, erection of that description ever equalled in unclouded splendour; and from thence it, either ancient or modern. If a tempo- to Media-Persia; and finally, to Greece, rary palace could be erected worthy of where, finding a genial soil, it took root, “ Him who inhabits eternity" to dwell in, and grew up a tree of wonder to all afierthis certainly was the edifice. The descrip. ages. Whatever was excellent throughout tion of this unparalleled tent, contained in the earth, the Grecian architect adopted; and the book of Exodus, has attracted the atten- in his hands, fraught with science, this art tion of all the thinking portion of mankind was wrought up to a perfection unknown to in every age subsequent to its erection, and former ages, and never surpassed by any will continue to attract the attention of all subsequent age to the present moment. As these until the end of time. Here, first all nations have admired the Grecian orders since the fall of man, was the kingdom of of architecture, so every polished nation heaven set up upon earth, amidst the family bas imitated them ; although few have arof Abraham. The Shechinah or Divine rived at that perfection which they attained Presence, here abode, and reigned over the upon their native soil; and the reason I chosen nation, and through them over all conceive is obvious, viz. science was frethe earth; giving oracular responses to his quently lacking in those who imitated the ministers, and directing all the affairs of his Grecian art, and this lack rendered the people. Hence the narrations of his love, edifices which they constructed, disproporihe inspirations of his Spirit, and the pro tionate in their parts, and of course immuigations of his will, as from a living perfect. fountain, flowed to the hearts of prophets, Rome, during the proudest days of that priests, kings, nations, peoples, and tongues, mighty city, although its architects affected from age to age. Many have been the to erect edifices by an order intrinsically imperial tents, which, spread amidst mighty their own, never arrived at this pre-emiarmies, have dazzled the eyes of wondering nence; for no one ever hears of the Roman spectators during the ages of time, and order of architecture. The remains of that whose gorgeous streamers have defied the city, although magnificent in the extreme, nations; but not even one ever yet arose possessing edifices of extent and grandeur superb enough to be, for a moment, com never surpassed, if equalled, by any city in pared to the riches, elegance, splendour, and the world, are evidently so strictly allied to glory, of this tent of tents—the tabernacle the orders of other nations, and especially of the Most High, who then condescended to the Grecian, that they rather bear the to dwell with men: to whom, as due, be features of foreigners than those of abori. glory for ever; yea, for ever and for ever. gines of the soil upon which they were Amen.

founded, and where they stand the proudest If the wilderness of Horeb possessed | monuments of antiquity now extant. its itinerant fabric of excellence, the land The Gothic, Saxon, and Norman archi. of Canaan possessed, in after-ages, its per tecture, in succession, prevailed, on the demanent edifice of equal worth, both being cline of Rome. All these were partial designed by, and executed under the super imitations of preceding orders, rather than intendence of, the great architect who built originals, and generally inferior to the origi. the universethe Jehovah-Elohim of crea- nals which they affected to imitate. Having 'tion. The tabernacle, by the agency of not the science of the Grecian architect, Moses, “ who was king iu Jeshurun," and they had recourse to the massive, and thus the temple, by the agency of Solomon, lost the elegant. The leading features of

Osseous System-Essay VIII.


sonoro............ the Gothic, Saxon, and Norman, architec- | cenic. But we have no evidence that either ture were, massive walls, nearly devoid of the Goths or Saracens invented, or even buttresses, massive columns, and massive generally used, this species of architecture; semicircular arches. In some of the most but, on the contrary, that it was in general ancient cathedrals of Europe, these orders use among the Christians only. It was, exist apart, in sundry portions of the same indeed, in use during the Saracen domina fabric; which portions have evidently been tion, when that fierce people had overrun severally erected at different, and probably the East, and established themselves in distant times. In other edifices, these Spain; and continued in use, after the orders may be seen playfully running into | Moors had driven the Saracens out of each other in the same compartment, if Spain, and swayed there in their stead. playfulness can exist in such massive mem- | The name, therefore, which has been bers. It seldom happens that one of these ascribed to this last variety, is rather relaorders pervades the whole of any extensive tive than real. Who was the inventor, or fabric, without an alloy in some of its parts, even the principal architect, that introduced at least, of foreign extraction.

it into general use, is involved in darkness, From the period when Greece attained even more impenetrable than the ages its lofty pre-eminence, and eclipsed the which gave it birth. Some have fancifully nations around, to the time of the Normans, supposed it originated in the East, particuall Europe followed in its train, bowed to larly in Arabia ; but where are the proofs ? its exalted genius, and humbly imitated its Whatever originates in any country, is gegigantic art. Indeed, architecture, during nerally in use in that country; and the these ages, was studied in the models of time is not yet come, when every trace of Greece, rather than in the science of that buildings like these would have been noble art. But we have now arrived at a

totally obliterated in the country which period when the science, as well as the art, gave them birth. But who has seen and became the study of men, whose genius

described to us fabrics of this peculiar burst the cerements of this architectural class, which existed prior to its general tomb; and no sooner did they arise, than

| in Europe, whose remains appear in that their works proclaimed the resurrection of

country? The fact seems to be, that during mental energy in the production of a new the empire of the Saracens, this mode of order of things, although this event occurred architecture prevailed in the countries in the darkest ages of the world.

which they overran; and as this fierce Instead of the clumsy wall, the yet more people, who were the awful scourges of the clumsy column, and the massive extended

Infinite, sent to execute his wrath upon arch, arose walls of just proportions, with depraved men, who called themselves by buttresses at intervals, ornamental as well his name, (Christians,) came from the East, as useful, light, airy, clustered columns, it has been gratuitously ascribed to them, crowned with interesting segments, or

that they brought this mode of architecture pointed arches, mullions in unison, on

along with them, and established it in the which rested segments, interlaced and in countries which they subdued ; from whence tersected, each succeeding each, up to alti it spread to surrounding nations. “The tudes which amazed the beholder; while,

| abomination which maketh desolate,” was yet more exalted, groin joined to groin,

rather the attribute of this eastern enemy to with splendid key-stones, formed an over

the Christian name, than that of inventors shadowing roof, which gave to the whole or improvers of any useful art; and the fabric a celestial harmony within, at once

countries which the retributive justice of superb and uniform; the floor, the walls,

the Infinite gave into their hands, have and the roof, seeming one material. The cause to mourn their presence; yea, their external portions of these fabrics were | posterity will mourn their desolating raequally novel and grand. Buttressed square | vages, even for years to come. towers, crowned at great elevations with

(To be continued.) tall, decorated pinnacles, or surmounted with lofty spires, overtopped the elevated

ESSAYS ON THE STRUCTURE AND MEbattlements of these edifices, which being

CHANISM OF THE OSSEOUS SYSTEM. seen far and wide, conveyed to the most cursory observer ideas of grandeur before

(Continued from col. 239.) unknown. Nor did his wonder cease, but

Essay VIII. rather increase, on a closer inspection.

At the conclusion of our last essay, we inVarieties of this order of architecture troduced the skull to the attention of our have borne the names of the Modern | readers; we now proceed in continuation Gothic, the Florid Gothic, and the Sara- l of our subject, to observe that the skull

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consists of several bones, forming in their | nium and face, indicate immediately the natural arrangement the walls of a capa proportion of the brain to two of the chief cious chamber, in which the brain is se external organs, viz. those of taste and curely deposited. Two of the bones which smell; and also in a greater or less de. assist in enclosing the brain, contain each a gree the perfection of the internal faculties, curious and elaborate cavity, within which compared with all those which may be deare deposited the organs of hearing. The nominated external. When we consider face also consists of many bones, com- these circumstances, it will not appear pacted firmly together, and forming several strange that the form of the head, and the recesses or cavities, for the reception of the proportions of the two parts which com. various organs of sight, smell, and taste; pose it, should afford indications of the but although the face is occupied by three faculties of animals of their instinct-of organs, still the greatest portion of it is their docility—in a word, of all their sendevoted to two, namely, those of smell and sible being; and it is hence that the study taste; and we may observe, that the more J of these facts becomes so important and the organs of these two senses are deve- interesting to the naturalist. As we have loped, the more volume the face acquires, already observed, man, of all animals, has and the greater is its proportion to the skull. the largest cranium, and in proportion the On the contrary, a skull, large in propor- smallest face; and it may be stated as a tion to the face, indicates a predominance general rule, with certain modifications, of the intellectual powers; for experience that the more animals depart from this, the would lead us to infer, that by the relative greater their debasement and intellectual magnitude of the brain, and consequent | inferiority. capacity of the skull, is determined the Among the different methods which have ratio of intelligence or mental endowments been used, to determine with some degree of the animal. Hence, in man, the pro of accuracy the relative proportion of these portion which the volume of the brain, or parts, the most simple (but which, howthe skull, bears to the face, is greater than ever, is not always sufficient or satisfactory) in any other creature, and this proportion is that which consists in drawing what is decreases as we descend the scale below termed the facial line, and noting the him. But, on the contrary, a cranium angle which it makes with the base of the small, and a face proportionally large, are cranium, The facial line is supposed to indications of the predominance of the pass by the upper front teeth, and by the organs of sense over the powers of intellect. most projecting part of the forehead; and

The nature of every animal depends in a the line from the base of the skull, which great measure on the relative energy of determines its angle, is drawn from the exeach of its functions; it is, if we may so ternal opening into the ear, and by the express ourselves, carried along, and go-| lower edge of the aperture for the nostrils, verned by, whichsoever of the senses nature so as to intersect it. It must be evident has created the strongest; and although the that the more the volume of the cranium varieties arising from this cause are less is augmented, the greater the anterior proobservable in man than in any other spe- jection of the forehead, and the greater cies of animals, yet we may continually see the angle the facial line would form with examples of it, even in the human race. that intersecting it, from the base; and, on

It may be observed that the brain, the the contrary, in proportion to the dimicommon centre of all the nerves, is the nished volume of the cranium, will this place also where the perceptions of all the angle be more acute from the inclination of senses meet, and the instrument by means the facial line. The facial line in man, of which the mind combines with these beyond all other animals, forms the greatest perceptions, compares them, draws from angle,-and, receding from him, it bethem the various results, and, in a word, comes more and more acute in the various thinks and reflects. And it may be also races of quadrupedes, birds, reptiles, and farther observed, that those animals ap- | fishes. proach the nearest in their intellectual These circumstances were not unnoticed powers to man, which have the mass of by the ancients-indeed, they appear to medullary substance constituting the brain, have studied them. Not only have they bearing an increased proportion to the remarked, that a perpendicular facial line rest of the nervous system; that is to say, was an indication of a nature more refined those in which the central organ of the and exalted, and one of the characters of senses outweighs or predominates over their beauty in the human countenance, but, exterior organs of sensation.

acting on ideas brilliant, if not correct, they The respective proportions of the cra- have advanced beyond the rule of nature ;


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thus, in all those figures to which they , able; in technical phraseology, they are would give an air more than human-intermed the frontal sinuses. In the human the statues of their gods, and in those of subject they affect the facial angle in a very heroes, or men whom they would make to trifling degree, but in many other animals participate in divinity—the facial line may the case is different; in the sheep, for exbe observed to incline considerably for ample, they are very extensive, and in the ward ; from this it would seem, that, ac- elephant they spread over nearly the whole cording to their ideas, man occupied a of the skull, subdividing it into cells of station between these more perfect, but ima various sizes, and producing, when a secginary beings, and the brute creation, and tion of the bone is made, an appearance that their gods and heroes receded still somewhat like that of the honeycomb; more than he from the form and nature of and hence, from the space which intervenes brutes.

between the two laminæ, and the conseThis angle being determined in the quent projection of the external table, the manner just described, (and which was first skull assumes a magnitude which in reality proposed, we believe, by the celebrated it does not possess, and the facial line an Dr. Camper,) it is found that the heads of angle more obtuse than is properly warEuropean adults ordinarily give it ranging ranted. Another circumstance, which mifrom 80 to 85; in the Negro it is 70, with litates against the test of the facial angle, is, variations according to age. In infancy, that in many species of animals, and espeowing to the incomplete development of cially those of the order rodentia, (emthe face, its facial line always inclines more bracing the hare, squirrel, &c.) the bones forward; the application of the facial angle, of the nose occupy so large a space, that as a test, is therefore inadmissible. The the cranium is thrown, as it were, behind ancients gave to their figures of men, when them, and without the slightest elevation of they would impress them with a character its walls, so as to render it impossible to of majesty, a facial angle of even 90°, and define the points through which the facial in the figures of their deities, they have line should pass. even advanced it to 100; it is this which Among the individuals of the brute crerenders the eyes more sunk, and the lower ation, however, to which the facial line is at jaw apparently shorter or more contracted, all applicable, the widest variations, as than in nature. It was, however, to the might be expected, are found to exist. In figures only of deities or heroes, in whom the ape tribe the angle ranges from 67° to the intellectual powers were supposed to 30; in the horse it is 23; in the sheep have been so developed as to have raised about 30 ; and in some quadrupeds them almost above humanity, that they only 20. gave this voluminous brain; for their close 1 But a more correct, as well as a more observations of nature had led them to universally applicable rule, for ascertaining understand, that in proportion to the ex- the proportion which the cranium bears to traordinary development of the muscular the face, is by making a longitudinal verpowers, are the nervous or sensorial con tical section of the whole head, and meatracted, and that in such, consequently, the suring the respective areas which the skull brain and skull bear a disproportionate and face occupy in such a section. In the smallness to the magnitude of the frame; | European, the area of a section of the hence, in the statues of the athletic, gifted skull is almost four times larger than that with prodigious bodily strength, the head is of the face, the lower jaw being excluded. small, and deficient in those characteristics In the Negro, the area of the face increases of high intellect, which stamp the sage or by nearly a fifth, and in the Calmuc Tartar deity; this observance of nature we see rather less, perhaps about a sixth. In the especially exemplified in the statues of the ape tribe, the area of the skull is little more Gladiator and of Hercules.

than double that of the face; in most carBut the facial line, as a test, for ascer- | nivorous animals, as the dog, bear, tiger, taining the relative proportions of the face | &c. the areas are nearly equal. In the and cranium, is not equally applicable to order rodentia, to which we have just before every species of animal, and for the follow- alluded, that termed belluæ, including the ing reasons : There are situated in the bone rhinoceros, elephant, &c. all ruminating of the forehead, between the two tables of animals, and those with an undivided hoof, its structure, two large cavities, which in have invariably the area of the face greater many animals are very extensive; in man than that of the cranium ; in the hare and they are small, and placed just above the marmot, for example, of the order of roorbits of the eyes, where a slight projection, I dentia, it is a third larger; and in the which they occasion, is generally observ- 1 porcupine morë than double; in the 'cow,

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