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early period, that we find human beings him to them. But it has been accounted in distant places, and unknown to one for from natural causes, and in a way still another?
more rational. The opinion of the existence of pre- The complexions of mankind are known Adamites, has also been supposed to receive to differ according to the climates which strength from the knowledge and cultiva- they inhabit. Every person acquainted tion of the arts in the days of Adam, of with the world, knows that the negroes are which we have intimations in Gen. iv. 20, natives of Africa; they inhabit a vast con. 21. But, when we recollect that the world tinent, not cooled by refreshing breezes from had existed for about an hundred and thirty the sea; their air is incessantly heated by years at the period to which the quotation sweeping along vast fiery sands; they have from Genesis refers, we cannot be surprised the sun vertical, and his beams reflected with to find, that such inventions and arts as great violence from their high mountains. are more essential and necessary to human The heavenly bodies had been adjusted society, in the several stages of it, were, and arranged; the sea and the land seeven at so early a period, known, and, to a parated the one from the other; the sea considerable degree, cultivated.
stocked with fish; the earth with a variety In opposition to the received doctrine, of vegetables and animals for the benefit that all the nations and individuals of man and comfort of man; and now he was kind, spread over the face of the whole created, and had assigned to him, in the earth, are the descendants of one man, as world, a place that rendered him far supetheir common parent, certain writers have rior to all the other inhabitants of it. He pleaded the visible diversity between one was appointed the vice-regent of the great part of them and another. One circum God, in this part of his vast universe. stance especially has been urged; the great diversity of complexion by which one part of mankind is distinguished from another.
REMARKABLE INSCRIPTION. That mankind are visibly distinguished by (From Clarke's Commentary: Luke i. ver. 68.) their white and black complexion, is well “How astonishing is the following Invocaknown. But will this prove that they are tion of the Supreme Being (translated from two different species of beings, or that they the original Sanscreet, by Dr. C. Williams) must have descended from different original still existing on a stone, in a cave near the parents ? Can we not trace the diversity | ancient city of Gva, in the East Indies. of complexion to other causes, and account “ The Deity, who is the Lord, the posfor it, in a full consistency with our received sessor of all, appeared in this ocean of naprinciples ?
tural beings, at the beginning of the Kalee To trace the history of that part of man- Yoog. (the age of contention and baseness.) kind called Negroes, and to account for He who is omnipresent, and everlastingly their peculiar complexion, would lead into
to be contemplated, the Supreme Being, disquisitions and speculations foreign to my the Eternal One, the Divinity worthy to be present design. How whimsical and ludi
adored-APPEARED here with a PORTION crous is the reason which the Mahometans
of his Divine NATURE. Reverence be assign for the diversity of complexion
unto thee in the form of Bood-dha!* Reamong mankind! They pretend that the verence be unto thee, an INCARNATION of first man, after the manner of certain irra the Deity, and the Eternal One! Reverence tional animals, was made spotted, partly be unto thee, O God, in the form of the white and partly black; and that this is the God of Mercy: the dispeller of pain and cause of the different colours which ob.
colours which ob- | trouble, the Lord of all things, the Deity tain among his posterity. But, may not the who overcometh the sins of Kalee Yoog : different complexions of the human species the guardian of the universe, the emblem be accounted for in a manner far more ra- 1 of mercy towards those who serve thee.tional and satisfactory?
O'M!+ The possessor of all things in Now there are, in the general, too ways
VITAL FORM! Thou art Brahma, Veeshin which writers have explained this point. It has been pretended, that the black com
* Bood-dha. The name of the Deity, as author plexion of part of the human species is of happiness. preternatural, and that the reason of it is
* OM. A mystic emblem of the Deity, forbidden
to be pronounced but in silence. It is a syllable this :-It was inflicted as a signal judgment
formed of the Sanscreet letters a, oo, which in conposition coalesce, and make o, and the usual conso
pant m. The first letter stands for the Creator, his father's nakedness; all the negroes are
the second for the Preserter, and the third for the
Destrovcr. It is the same among the Hindoosas black complexion is communicated from 79. Yehovah, is among the Hebrews.
308 noo, and Mahesa. Thou art Lord of the souls of the dead; and - that, in the case universel Thou art under the form of all before us, an evil spirit rappeared before things, moveable and immoveable, the pos- Saul in the likeness of Samuel. (See Pasessor of the whole l and thus I adore thee. trick on 1 Sam, xxviii. 12.) But this opiReverence be unto the BESTOWER OF SAL- nion gives an unwarrantable advantage VATION, and Ruler of the faculties ! Re- for the support of idolatry, to those imverence be unto thee, the DESTROYER of postures that were practised by heathen the Evil SPIRIT! O Damordada,t shew sorcerers and diviners. Besides, the very me favour! I adore thee, who art cele- apparition of a spiritual and incorporeal brated by a thousand names, and under being, and the gift of prophecy, are real various forms, in the shape of Bood-dha, miracles, and cannot take place but by the God of MERCY! Be propitious, O divine appointment; and lastly, the hisMost High God !"- Asiatic Researches, torian calls the appearance to . Saul, vol. 1. p. 284, 285.
Samuel, which he could not do with
truth, if it were no other than the devil, · THE WITCH OF ENDOR.
who here appears, not as a tempter, but WITCH' of Endor, in Biblical History,
as a very severe reprover of impiety and is a woman who had a familiar spirit,
wickedness. and who was employed by Saul to con
| Many learned men have, therefore, 'sult the deceased Samuel concerning the
maintained, that it was neither Samuel, issue of his contest with the Philistines.
nor an evil spirit, who here appeared to See 1 Sam. xxviii.
Saul; but that the whole was the work .“ The explication of this part of sacred
of human imposture. In support of this history has greatly perplexed commentators
opinion, it may be pleaded, that the woand critics. Some, in deference to the
man to whom Saul applied to call up authority of the ancient fathers of the
Samuel, was merely a ventriloquist, posChristian church, who ascribed to magi
sessing an art very serviceable to those cians and necromancers the power of
who counterfeited the answers of the dead. calling up the souls of the dead, have
This opinion, however, like the foregoing given a literal interpretation of this history,
one, contradicts the sacred historian, who and supposed that Samuel actually ap
not only represents the pythoness as peared to Saul. But to this opinion it
affirming, but himself affirms, that she has been justly objected, that it is repug
saw Samuel, and that Samuel spoke to nant to the order of the natural world,
Saul : nor has he dropped the least hint and to the doctrines of revelation re
that it was not the real Samuel of whom he specting the state of the dead. It can
was speaking. not be supposed consistent with a just
Others have supposed, that the appearreverence of God, to believe that he has
ance of Samuel to Saul was a divine subjected the souls of the departed, not
miracle: though whether the miracle conexcepting those of the most eminent saints
sisted in raising Samuel, or in presenting and prophets, to be remanded back from
an image or representation of him before their distinct abodes, by the practice of
Saul, it is not necessary to determine. the most execrable rites; and at the call
Accordingly, the apparition must be of some of the vilest of mortals, and com
ascribed, not to the power of enchantpelled to reveal what he has seen fit to
ment, but to the immediate appointment conceal. - Natural reason confirms the
of God, as a rebuke and punishment to suffrage of scripture, when it brands the
Saul. This opinion is maintained by whole magic art, to which evocations of
Dr. Waterland, in his Sermons, vol. ij. the dead, and all necromantic divinations,
p. 267, and defended by Dr. Delany appertain, as founded in imposture.
in his life of David; but combated by *Others, who cannot admit that witches
Dr. Chandler, with objections which, are able to disturb the souls of good men,
as far as they affect the scripture history much less of prophets, are nevertheless
of the matter, are answered or obviated of opinion, that these wretched women
by Mr. Farmer, in his Dissertation on can cause the devil to counterfeit the
Miracles, p. 486...
. Brahma, the Deity in his creative quality. Veeshnoo, he who flleth all space, the Deity in his preserving quality. Mahesa, the Deity in his destroving quality. This is properly the Hindoo Trinity : for these three names belong to the same Bring. See the notes to the Bhagval. Geeta.
¢ Damordada, or Darmadevi, the ludian god of virtue.
THE INJUSTICE OP SLAVERY REPRES
• HENDED. SLAVERY was, slavery is, and slavery, ever will be, a curse to every slave-holding nation. The capturer of Africans is a robber,
310 croniesisconsinvoriscono..cócorrorvoisvooroorovonimirroromanomosomoroso. and the purchaser of Africans, is a buyer of The blood of the slain, and the sighs of stolen property. The might, and not the right, the living, record the chains of insulted of European governments, only, can legalize justice, and withheld humanity. The pause this traffic. Civilization was designed to of silence is succeeded by the important moralize, and not to brutalize mankind. inquiry-What is to be done? What atoneHorse-stealing, sheep-stealing, and house ment is to be made, for the long continubreaking, are all of anterior date to negro ance of so foul a deed? Who shall prefer stealing, and yet, notwithstanding their 'an the best and most worthy claim to remunetiquity, each is accounted a capital offence, ration-the planter, or the slave? The most and subjects the perpetrator to death. The clamorous are generally the least deservslaves in the West Indies are condemned to ing. The planters, to deafen inquiry and perpetual servitude, for the crime of having investigation, proclaim themselves as the been taken in Africa; or, for having been only sufferers. A perpetuity of right is born in West India; and the European who claimed by them to the African race; they steals or murders the African escapes with have interwoven the slave with common impunity.
chattels, and they brand him or her with Por Can Europeans look at the true portrai the initials of their own name. Justice is ture of this exhibition without a blush. It inverted in slave-holding colonies : colonial is beyond the reach of exaggeration to over- | laws are made to give the lie both to hucolour this picture. It would not be unjust manity and truth. Slaves bear the names to take from a plunderer that for which he of their different masters, as a bill of exhas hazarded his life. European robberies change its different endorsements. The are heroic, when contrasted with the rob- branded slave exhibits the cruelty and inberies perpetrated in Africa. To rob a man justice of his pretended owner. To the yet of his property, is a minor offence, when unborn European, the yet unborn African compared with the taking away his liberty | is doomed to be a slave. Disembowelled or his life,
Africa laments the loss of her legitimate Are Africans human beings? or does offspring. their sable skin exclude them from the rank That the abolition of slavery should have of civil society? This is a question of the ever needed advocacy, and that this advohighest importance. That any one Euro | cacy should plead in vain, is most unacpean nation should delay the administration countable. Should slavery cease, will it of justice to the imprisoned and enslaved not astonish future generations, to think how "African, until all are agreed, is truly para- an evil of such magnitude could have condoxical. Injustice and cruelty admit not tinued so long ?—that an evil must exist of an apology. Gradual emancipation of before a remedy can be applied, is granted; the enslaved African, is, as defensible as but, after all the means hitherto applied, would be the gradual restoration of stolen that it should yet remain in its full vigour, property to its rightful owner. If Africans, will half imply that European governtaken by force from Africa, or born in a ments have not a legislative control over state of slavery in West India, are to suffer European colonies. procrastinated imprisonment, as a punish - That British America should justify her ment for such offence, justice would ask rebellion against Great Britain, and contiWhat punishment is due to the perpetrators | nue to hold the Africans in chains, demonof such African robbery, or to the holders strates a genuine spirit of selfishness, which of the parents and children of West Indian will entail a blot upon that people, never to slaves ? Policy opposed to right bears a be obliterated. very suspicious character. That the African
"He, who alone, for his own freedom craves,” has an indefeisible right to his liberty, can Will not object to see a world of slaves; never be successfully controverted. When Freedom my own, 'tis only that I want ;
All, all beside is patriotic cant." and where power usurps the dominion of right, a father may become a slave to his Some European governments seem not
to be aware of the sad consequences of ** That the European 'never had a right slave-holding; nay, there are, in some of to take and enslave the African, admits not the legislative bodies, individuals who are of controversy. I have sought, but I have themselves holders of slaves. - Is it to be sought in vain, for an excuse for the holder expected, that such 'men will promote jusof a slave. To create crime, and then to tice to the oppressed African? To the justify crime, is making bad worse. Euro- | British House of Commons, the slave quespean nations have involved themselves in a tion has been more like a trial of skill in labyrinth, out of which they never can ex. debate, than a question of life and death to tricate themselves.
| the slave. Eight hundred thousand human
Description of the Leprosy, und Elephantiasis.
beings, groaning beneath accumulated op- | dered ther, of millions of her natural-born pression, hardly excites so much animation, subjects ) Europeans 12 have demoralized as whether there should be two or three Africans in Africa, and brutalized Africans commissioners of excise; or whether the in West India. The only charge that can lord chancellor shall have assistance, or be brought against Africa is, that she has work himself into the grave. my m oney been guilty of the crime of not being able 49 Were the sufferings of West India seen, to repel European invaders, szá, 999 instead of only being heard, there is scarcely Every other kind of robbery falls infial senator, save and except a proprietor of nitely short of African robbery. Africa has slaves, who would not come forward to been robbed of the very vitals of existence; advocate the abolition of slavery. The the very beings to whom she gave birth, whole population of slaves in West India and whom she was destined to support. are linked together in one common political An excuse for slavery is only to be found in chain; they are placed as sentinels over animal human nature ; its perpetuity is each other, it is at their peril to quit their only to be justified by the ancient law of station; and at the peril of all the rest, to unabrogated human power. All the lions, connive at such escape. The slaves are tigers, elephants, wolves, and other beasts imprisoned, and bound with every tie, save of prey, with all the wars in Africa, not and except that which would prevent their occasioned by European interference, have labouris
not produced so much waste of men, and 1. To allow the slave a right to purchase his shedding of human blood, to Africa, as own freedom, or that of his wife or chil-has European plunderers. dren, is such a right as a pauper in Britain European plunderers in Africa are a dishas, to purchase an estate, or to commence grace to human nature; and the more so, a stock-jobber.
under the character of civilized human 1. The only charge which can be laid beings. With no better grace, or stronger against the African is, the want of a capa- claims on justice, can the dealers in slaves bility of self-defence. And the glory of the justify that merchandise, than can the man, European is, that he has taken the advan who possesses stolen property, urge his tage of his superior knowledge, to make the claim to what he knows had been stolen.“ African his slave,
Never was a slave exhibited for sale in Power is the fundamental law of nature; / West India, without both buyer and seller it is the universal law of the whole animal knowing that such slave was the bona fide creation; the only authority amongst beasts property of himself. Never was a cargo of isti superior strength and superior instinct. Africans landed in West India, without the Man- is the only animal which appears to colonists knowing that such Africans had have arisen above natural instinct; he alone been brought to West India by force. Not possesses the prerogative of reason; he is any expedience can apologize for slavery. the only creature which is elevated above Since the laws of civilization, 'slavery is an the law of nature. Nations are a part of outlaw; slavery belongeth not to the code mankind, governed by laws, and by a con of civilization. Municipal rights belong to centrated power. Laws are the develop the great family of civilized mankind. ment of nature, founded upon revelation, The slave may be deprived of the phy. reason, and justice. Civilization has abro- sical power of escape ; but never can be gated the government of barbarism, and deprived of his moral right to liberty. That substituted in its place the law of revelation the African has a black skin, that he is and reason. European nations are strong, lazy and refractory, is but a mere European by the concentration of power; Africa is libel upon the African, and an insult to weak, from the want of it. If Africa had Deity. So far as he is what the Almighty possessed the advantage of a concentrated made him, he stands upon an equality with power, and a disposition to act as European the European. . !! ! W T nations have done, the latter might now
":"DEN have been in the very state in which the
DESCRIPTION OF THE LEPROSY, AND -formier actually is.. I appeal to all slaveholding nations in Europe, whether their
ELEPHANTIASIS... 28 ali conduct towards Africa has been that of The LEPROSY derives its name from the civilized justice, or of barbarized power? | Greek term Aetepa (lepra) from deado (lepis) However civilization may have operated in a scale, the body, in this dreadful disease, térnally in European nations, European na. being covered with thin white scales, yor tions have acted barbarously towards Africa. smooth shining patches, so as to give it, in They have availed themselves of the un- some instances, the appearance of snow. protected state of Africa, and have plun- | Nosologists class some species of this ma
Description of the Leprosy and Elephantiasis.
lady i under the ordero Squame,dr bscaly cracked itando nough..1 Contemporary with diseases, and other species of it under the the last symptoms, or very soon afterwards, order/Tubercuta, tori tuberculari affections. ulcers appear at the inside of the joints of That kind of leprosy which is described by the toes and fingers, directly under the last Moses in Leviticus xiii. appears to have joint of the metatarsal or metacarpal bones, been what was termed by the Greeks, or they corrode the thick sole under the
Leuce, (nevin,) and by the Arabians ALI joint of the os calcis, or os cuboides. There baras, or more correctly Baras. In some is no previous tumour, suppuration, or pain, instances it has been considered as assum- | but apparently a simple absorption of the ing the form of Elephantiasis; and in others, integuments, which slough off in successive not appearing very dissimilar from the layers of half an inch in diameter. A sani.
Frambasia, or Yaws, of the West Indies.* ous discharge comes on; the muscle, pale 431 The Leuce, or White Leprosy, is thus and flabby, is in turn destroyed; and the described by Mr. Robinson, a medical joint being penetrated as by an auger, the practitioner of India :-“One or two cir extremity droops, and at length falls a viccumscribed patches appear upon the skin, tim to the cruel, tardy, but certain poison. (generally the feet or hands, but sometimes The wounds then heal, and other joints are the trunk or face,) rather lighter-coloured attacked in succession, whilst every revolvthan the neighbouring skin, neither raised ing year bears with it a trophy of this slow nor depressed, shining and wrinkled, the march of death. Thus are the limbs defurrows not coinciding with the lines of the prived one by one of their extremities, till contiguous sound cuticle. The skin thus at last they become altogether useless. circumscribed is so entirely insensible, that Even now, death comes not to the relief of, you may with hot irons burn to the muscle, nor is desired by, the patient, who dying by before the patient feels any pain. These inches, and a spectacle of horror to all bepatches spread slowly until the skin of the sides, still cherishes fondly the spark of life whole of the legs, arms, and gradually often remaining, and eats voraciously all he can of the whole body, becomes alike devoid of procure ; he will often crawl about with sense : wherever it is so affected, there is no | little but his trunk remaining, until old age perspiration, no itching, no pain, and very comes on, and at last he is carried off by seldom rany swelling. Until this singular diarrhea or dysentery, which the enfeebled apathy has occupied the greater part of the constitution has no stamina to resist!", 1 skin, it may rather be considered a blemish In the Elephantiasis, to which the than a disease ; nevertheless, it is most im- | Leuce or Baras may be considered as hakportant to mark well these appearances, foring an affinity, and probably sometimes they are the invariable commencement of terminating in it, the tubercles, when the the most gigantic and incurable diseases malady has for some time proceeded, begin that have succeeded the fall of man; and it to crack, and at length to ulcerate: ulcera is in this state chiefly (though not exclu tions also appear in the throat, and in the sively) that we are most able to be the nose, which sometimes destroy the palate means of cure. 13
and the cartilaginous septum; the nose falls, « The next symptoms are the first which and the breath is intolerably offensive: the denote internal disease, or derangement of thickened and tuberculated skiq of the exany functions. The pulse becomes very tremities becomes divided by fissures, and slow, not small, but heavy, as if moving ulcerates, or is corroded under dry sordid through mụd the toes and fingers numb scales, so that the fingers and toes gangrene ed, as with frost, glazed and rather swelled, and separate, joint after joint. Aretaus, and nearly inflexible. The mind is at this and the ancients in general, consider Eletime sluggish and slow in apprehension, phantiasis as an universal cancer of the and the patient appears always half asleep. I body, and speak of it with terror. AccordThe soles of the feet and the palms of the ing to Dr. John Mason Good, this disease hands then crack into fissures, dry, and hard is called by the Arabians juzam and juzamas the parched soil of the country; and the lyk, though more generally judam' and extremities of the toes and fingers under the judamlyk, from an Arabian root whichrimnails are incrusted with a furfuraceous sub- ports erosion, truncation, excision From stance, and the nails are gradually lifted up, Arabia the term juzam has passed into (until absorption and ulceration occur. Still India, and is the common name for the there is little or no pain; the legs and fore same disease among the Cabirajas, lor armalıswell, and the skin is every where Hindoo physicians, who accordingly rde
nominate it fisadi khun, from its being wote See De T. Bateman's Practical Synopsis of Cutaneous Diseases: Order it. p. 25, and Order
supposed to infect the entire mass of blood; vii. p. 273. London, 1819, 8vo. fifth edition. | but more generally, khora.