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Biography of Sir Astley Paston Cooper.
to the history of opinions and dicoveries | enriched with valuable communications in the disease, is omitted: the author has from this indefatigable practitioner; and appeared desirous of incurring a personal among the rest, may be mentioned “ The responsibility for the accuracy of every Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal," case and assertion; and to confine himself to which be voluntarily transmitted, at the to the results of a multitude of dissections, very commencement of the work, some of which actual demonstration exists in curious cases. one or two cabinets of anatomy, or to In 1811, Mr. Cooper, favoured the the records of numerous operations, of profession and the public with a series which living witnesses remained at the of experiments instituted by him, in order time when he published the respective to ascertain the resources with which nature cures to the world. Under a plan thus is provided for distributing the vital fluid circumscribed, to have made so valuable throughout the bodies of animals, when an accession to the kindred arts of ana- the principal trunks of arteries are detomy and surgery, displays a brilliant stroyed. To determine this point, Mr. C. testimony of extensive knowledge, pro tied the aorta descendens of dogs, very fessional skill, unsparing industry, and near to the heart, in such a way as to stop scrupulous integrity in the author.
the current of blood from passing by that In 1807, our indefatigable observer vessel, to all the lower parts of the frame. completed his design by publishing, in The animals seemed to sustain no great the same splendid form, a treatise on inconvenience by this treatment; the “ Crural and Umbilical Hernia." These wounds soon healed, the health was not two works have been since concentrated | impaired, the secretions proceeded as in one volume, with additional cases, and usual, and the creatures even remained edited by the author's pupil and coadjutor, active and lively. When they were Mr. Key of Guy's Hospital.
destroyed, after some weeks or months, In 1805, Mr. Cooper co-operated with in order to ascertain what changes had some of the most eminent London prac. | happened from the destruction of a part titioners, in founding a social institution presumed to be so essential to life as for reciprocal information and public the aorta, it was found obliterated where improvement. The first-fruits of this the ligature was fixed, and that the blood “Medical and Chirugical Society," ap- had been transmitted by anastymosing peared in 1809, when a volume of its branches. Transactions was published. In their On the resignation of Mr. Cline, there preface, the editors give a modest ac- could be no hesitation in regard to the choice count of the plan on which the institution of a successor; and Mr. Cooper from was founded: “ The varied forms of this period may be considered as standing disease, whether medical or surgical, and unrivalled in the double situation of surgical the modes of treatment which may be operator and anatomical preceptor. found adequate to their removal, are To the acquisition of wealth, distinctions subjects concerning which the Society of the most flattering description were necessarily feels the highest interest. soon added. He was nominated surgeon Cases having a fatal issue are often not to his Majesty; and in 1821, he had the less instructive than such as terminate satisfaction of relieving the august perfavourably. They frequently tend to sonage from a very uneasy excrescence point out more accurately the plan to which had formed on the top of his head. be pursued in the treatment of similar The operation was painful, but the King complaints ; they afford valuable infor bore it without evincing any emotion; mation relative to the probable causes | and when complimented by Mr. Cooper of failure, and, when dissection is per. for his fortitude, he replied, “None of mitted, they throw light on the more our family was ever known to want couitimate nature and modification of the rage.” For his skilful performance of disease.”
this service, the dignity of a baronet was This volume contains “ two cases of conferred upon the surgeon, the 27th of Aneurism of the Carotid Artery," by Mr. July, in the same year, with remainder, Cooper; the first of which terminated in default of male issue, to his nephew fatally, and the second fortunately. The Astley Paston Cooper, Esq. the third son subsequent volumes of the transactions of the late reverend Samuel Lovic Cooper, were also enriched with valuable papers A. M, rector of Ingoldesthorpe and Barfrom the same source. Other publications ton, in the county of Norfolk. devoted to the extension of science and On the 11th August, 1828, Sir Astley was professional improvement, have also been gazetted as sergeant-surgeon to the King,
On Trust in God.
which may be said to complete bis profes dispenses with unsparing hand; in the sional honours. His fame, however, rests | rudest storm with which persecution can upon a more stable foundation than such assail him, or the world's “ loud laugh" adventitious distinctions : and as long as terrify and annoy. Its influences are not the two noble establishments to which he unproductive or inoperative-they mitigate is attached shall adorn the metropolis, anxiety, and abolish fear ;--they dispel dethe name of Cooper will be venerated, jection, and disavow ambition's airy good. by the public, no less than by the faculty, They encourage and animate him under to whose history it gives so brilliant a | whatever misfortunes and unforeseen dislustre.
tresses may arise, however inclement his It remains only to observe, that though sky, or impervious the clouds which obpassed the meridian of life, the powers of struct his vision, that “his God will supply this celebrated practitioner continue to be all his need, according to his riches in employed for the general benefit of man- glory by Christ Jesus." kind, and the particular instruction of Complete resignation, and entire depensurgical students.
dence upon God, is all that he requires to Sir Astley Cooper has been twice mar- confirm and establish the compact entered ried : first in 1791, to Anne, daughter of into, at the time we renounced the vanities
Thomas Cock, Esq., an eminent London of the present world, and dedicated ourmerchant. This lady died at Gadesbridge selves entirely to his service, and he will Park, Hertfordshire, on the 19th of June, assuredly and invariably produce, from the 1827, aged 53, having never had any issue. darkest scenes of human life, light, comfort, On the 5th of July, in the following year, Sir and joy. Trust in him, is a duty at once Astley married at St. George's Church, Ha- imperative, obligatory, and enjoined on all nover Square, Catherine, daughter of the his followers, in consideration of past falate John Jones, Esq., of Derry Ormond, in |vours, present benefits, and future mercies. the county of Cardigan.-Mr. Bransby Whom can we solicit better, or to what Cooper, the brother of Sir Astley, and being can we appeal higher, than He, who member of parliament for Gloucester, has | is the author of “ every good and perfect distinguished himself by his zeal in de gift;" to direct our erring footsteps, lest fence of the Protestant establishment, and they slip, and we perish irrecoverably? It opposition to what is called Catholic is an unspeakable privilege, an inexpressible Emancipation.
W. source of satisfaction, to have him for our
guide and comforter, protector and friend. ON TRUST IN GOD.
They who place their whole security in
prosperity and temporal advantages, trust The faith of Christianity, when it is vital to an object that is weak and fluctuating, and practical, penetrates the heart, and de | uncertain and variable. Common enjoytermines the conduct of life, is the greatments will not always satisfy, nor vastness prompter of devotional feelings, and the in. of possessions always afford security. We spirer of holy aspirations. It then exists, may be deprived of them by accident, for not in name only, but in reality; is not the they are insecure; robbed by invasion, or fortuitous creature of imagination, but the vitiated by envy and neglect. All human constant indwelling inhabitant of the breast. things are in incessant motion, and unceas
He who is deeply imbued with the spirit | ing activity ; they vary, they alter, and deof religion, and possesses the graces of a cay. Those exalted and quenchless spirits renovated mind in full exercise, will be | whom we have been accustomed to revehumble and submissive to the appoint- rence, and by habit taught to venerate, in ments of Providence, however severe ; political or moral science; who, by their under privations the most painful, sorrows mighty schemes and noble plans of imthe most piercing, and sufferings the most provement for the diffusion of knowledge, pungent. The grand principles of his reli were the wonder of nations, and the flower gion, all conspire to teach him to surrender of their species,--they, too, depart,—they himself unreservedly to his Maker; to con- too, disappear from sight, like those of infide with undissembled sincerity in his wis- famous character and dishonourable name. dom, to provide for his temporal necessities, The subject of conversation, and the theme and to replenish his spiritual wants. That of discussion, are succeeded by others, divine principle of religion implanted by which equally engage the attention, and God himself, and rendered fruitful by the awaken the ardour of curiosity. As time influences of the blessed Spirit, sustains and advances, the scenes change, and events in upholds when the world forsakes him ; succession follow each other. Principles, amid the thickening damp which adversity systems, and opinions, which were once 299
On Trust in God.
esteemed as infallible, and regarded as once fortifies and prepares him for whatsacred, are now exploded; some being al- ever station in life he may be destined to most obliterated from the page of history, Occupy. When placed in the most dark and others scarcely to be discerned by the and cheerless state, he enjoys an elevation twilight of tradition. We often hear of of mind which is only the concomitant of men, who were installed in power, suddenly conscious virtue. It goes far to annihilate degraded; who were attended with the human misery, and to alleviate its sorrows pomp of title and the pride of royalty, and calamities. He has learnt to regulate abased and dethroned. We read of the his passions, and moderate his desires, and rumour of war, and the convulsions of by so doing, to increase his peace and hapempire --of intolerance on the part of those piness. Infinite goodness often uses the who govern, of conspiracy and democratic evils of the present life, to produce good bigotry on the part of those who are go- effects, to execute its righteous purposes, verned-succeeded by other commotions, and complete its beneficent plans. The followed by other plots and intrigues. | discipline of adversity, and the constraints
The human mind is equally exposed to of poverty, are intended to advance salumutation, with the transitory condition of tary improvements, and to impart necessary all external objects. It is intimately asso- | Instruction. This has rectified many danciated, both in its nature and the casual gerous errors of the mind, suppressed the alliances it may accidentally form, or with overflowing volatility of the animal spirits, which it may be brought into contact. Our and subdued many irregular passions, which ideas and sentiments undergo many changes 1 gave a bent and direction to its movements. in the progress of life. The difference be- This has enforced humility, and strengthentwixt the buoyancy of youth and the deed dependence ;-has implanted true wispression of age is perceptible, is great. dom, and its indispensable accompaniment, The gay vigour of imagination, the pleasing self-knowledge. This inculcates the prac. illusions which the pencil of hope had de- tical lessons of patience and self-denial, in lineated in animating perspective, have the most unfavourable situations possible vanished; and the sober, and chastened for the active virtues to flourish and luxudictates of judgment, and prudential cau- riate. From prosperous and adverse cirtion, have succeeded ; thus the condition of cumstances, the Most High can cause them internal, as well as external things, materi- to conduce to their ultimate good, and exally varies their appearance with unceasing tract from them the most beneficial results; rapidity.
but especially the latter, he uses to train his Since the fall of man, the world itself adopted and sanctified children for a better bears ample evidence that it has been con- world, an enduring home. The pressure of vulsed and disordered to its very centre, by adversity teaches them the feebleness of some posterior cause, that has penetrated their nature, and the weakness of their most its structure, and disfigured its formation. boasted powers, when destitute of the It is composed of perishable materials, and smiles of Providence and the favour of is perpetually, though silently, tending to Heaven. wards its dissolution. It is continually One cause, and a powerful one it should changing its aspect, and presenting signals be, to induce the Christian to place un. of mutability and decay. Its perpetuity limited confidence in his divine protector, cannot be ascertained, nor its duration de- arises from previous mercies, and antececided. The Christian is an inhabitant of a dent benefits. The motives for trust in God world where every thing is rapidly receding are cogent, and the incentives binding and from him, where everything is hourly imperative. He, in common with mankind varying its appearance, and unstable in its in general, receives the bounties of nature, condition. But what a blessed consolation, the enjoyments of health, and the other what a certain satisfaction, to know that the nameless concomitants of pleasurable exobject of his affections, the reality of his istence, which proceed from an interchange reward, God and heaven, remain the same, of kind sentiment, and the reciprocal oblipermanent and unchangeable, a " dwelling- gations of social life. The joys and assistplace in all generations, a refuge in all ances, those amiable qualities of true friendstorms."
ship, are his, equally so with the high-born Trust in God, is the good man's support sons of fortune, and remain lovely and while in this inconstant, this mutable state. unimpaired in every emergency. His divine Prosperity does not immoderately elate him, Benefactor is continually giving him fresh nor adversity deeply depress him. He manifestations of his uninterrupted protecis weaned from an undue love of the world, tion and care; and laying him under larger and its fallacious vanities. Religion at contributions for gratitude and trust. It is 301
On Trust in God.
he who implanted the first principles of life, I his probationary with his triumphant and the first impulse of activity and mo- state; he feels an assurance that he here tion; who imparted vigour to the limbs, sees but the surface of a fathomless depth. elasticity to the muscles, and growth to He here, can only give a doubtful estievery member of his body; who watched mate, when viewing a material mountain, and guarded him through the imbecility of of the number of particles of which it is infancy, the dangers which surround his composed, from a specimen of its quachildhood, and his providence is mysteri- lities, or a description of its geological ously superintending him through the years peculiarities. “He here sees but in part; of manhood, to the final close of his mortal | but when that which is perfect is come, course, in direct subserviency to his vast de- then that which is in part shall be done signs and intricate plans. It is he who first away." actuates the thinking principle, and inspires The grandeur of religion appears more it with an energy that is divine, deathless, conspicuous, it attains a sublimer attitude, and immortal, who bestows on man his and shines with a surpassing majesty all intellectual activities, mind and thought, its own, when employed in solacing and and embellishes, some partially, some libe. sustaining the Christian under distress rally, with those shining qualities of genius and personal bereavement. When his and talents.
family are torn from him by the cold It is the same bounteous hand which rude hand of death, or a valued friend dispenses health and prosperity, content- drops into the grave without any intimation ment and peace, to some individuals of of the change; and deprives him of all the human family; that permits to others he loved below, he appears a wanderer, disease and adversity, dissatisfaction and a sort of solitary detachment of humanity, envy. It is he, who has said, “the hairs to himself, --- disconsolate, unknown, of your head are all numbered, and not were it not for that blissful assurance, a sparrow falleth to the ground without that the separation is only temporary, and his knowledge,” that manages and directs, that there is a time coming, which will to the most beneficial issue, our temporal usher in a resurrection of the just, by interests and worldly affairs, to the best Him, who on earth declared, “I am the possible advantage. What an irresistible resurrection and the life; he that believeth motive is this to the afflicted Christian! | in me, though he were dead, yet shall he who weeps in secret at the losses he has sustained, and the embarrassments that | Religion, which abounds with precepts have unexpectedly happened to frustrate for his entire trust in God, enables him his schemes, and disconcert his intentions, also to bear with patience and pious to acquiesce in his providential dispen | resignation, the troubles and perplexities sations, to submit to his authoritative of life. While it inculcates adherence to appointments, which are ultimately pro- duty, constancy in virtue, and dependence pitious, benign, and just, without mur. upon God, it no less frequently expresses, muring or repining. This is the product in animating strains, the immortality of of that peace, and the offspring of that | reasonable natures, and the future inhefaith, which the world and its illusive ritance of the righteous. This has been phantoms “can neither give nor take the joy and solace of good men in every away," and which, with humble pros age, their constant light in darkness, their tration of soul, causes him to exclaim, unfailing comfort in adversity, their perin the language of his divine Lord and petual support under persecution. The Master, on another occasion, “ Not my most apparently insurmountable obstacles, will, O God, but thine be done." Know and formidable difficulties, have dwindled ing, and remembering the promise, “what into insignificance and empty shadow, he knows not now, he shall know here. equally mean, equally unsubstantial, when after," he is persuaded, that if he were brought into competition with everlasting to decide for himself, though it might be life, and the promised crown. The hope more consonant to his present feelings, of a future state, and the cheering certainty it would be less conducive to his ultimate of its near approach, have in every land, happiness. In consequence of the dim. and in every period of time, when this ming and obscuring influence of sin upon celestial beam of consolation had disthe faculties of his soul, from his inap- sipated the horrible darkness by which titude to understand, to their utmost reason is enveloped, and through which extent, the connecting links of that inter- it ineffectually essays to pierce and peneminable chain of causes, which in some trate beyond, made captivity freedom, measure associates time with eternity, / slavery liberty, and thrown around the
304 crocrroccooncorrevoorooroverannocromisronronnerrusswoco. exile the attractions and endearments of the extreme! It is also understood here, domestic Slife. This untroubled lustre, that Adam was the first man, and the this distant, brightness, has guided with original progenitor of the human race. intrepidity the martyr to the stake, and The supposition of pre-Adamites, or a race the christian hero to crucifixion, and of human beings existing prior to Adam, is death in every shape. In the present not only without foundation in the sacred day, this is the humble Christian's sted-'| scriptures, but contrary to them. That there fast succour, his exhaustless fount of con could not be an unbeginning and infinite solation, when distressed and forlorn, when succession of generations of mankind, deprived of his dearest relations, and might be demonstrated from reason itself. nearest ties of affection and consanguinity, That Adam was the first man, from whom for what else can strengthen and revive all other individuals of the human family
descend, the scripture plainly declares. ro “When friends bave vanished to their viewless It has, indeed, been pretended, that the
home, And he is left companionless to roam,
Dieta common opinion that Adam was the first O! what can cheer his melancholy way,
I man, goes upon a false interpretation of But hopes of union in the land of day?"
the Mosaic history, Gen. chapters i. and ii. When surrounded by complicated diffi- It is alleged, that the design of that history culties, and encompassed by dangers, | is not to inform us of the origin of mankind while traversing this vale of tears," the in general, but of the progenitors of the thorny wilderness of time, the pious Jews. Accordingly it has been pretended, Christian is assured in the word of God, that Moses mentions a twofold creation, " that all things work together for good, one of mankind in general, chap. i. 27. and to them that love God, and are the called another of the sacred race in particular, according to his purpose.”
chap. ii. 7. That, in both places, there is J. Ro--CE. mention of the creation of man is certain.
But may not the same thing be intended in
both? Such repetitions in the scriptures are GENERAL REMARKS ON THE CREATION OF not either unnecessary or improper. Is it DU MAN.
not, to every unprejudiced mind, manifest, (Extracted from the Writings of the late Rev. that, till the sixth and last day of the creaMichael Arthur, Edinburgh, and published about tion, not one human being existed ? Does the year 1788.)
not the beginning of the Mosaic history And God said, Let us make man in our image,
plainly inform us of the origin of all man after our likeness ; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that crée peth upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in
first appearance ? CroBell 400.j UT tbe image of God created he him ; male and female The supposition of a race of human created he them."-Gen. i. 26, 27.
beings prior to Adam, has been thought to With special solemnity is the account have countenance from the great number of of man's creation introduced here. It was the inhabitants of the world at the time of the joint work of the co-eternal Three. the martyrdom of Abel, in Gen. iv. 14, 16, With what unanimity do they concur in it! 17. But the supposition, that mankind In relation to it, they speak thus, “ Let us were multiplied and numerous when that make man in our image, and after our unnatural murder was committed, is not at likeness. Bij
all incompatible with the received doctrine, Self-knowledge ever has been esteemed that Adam was the common parents of all most necessary, not only among Jews and mankind. For Seth, who was given in Christians, but even among Pagans. Most place of Abel, whom Cain slew, was not necessary is it that we know what man was, born till the hundred and thirtieth year of and what he is now. Let us go as far as the world ; and, as he was given initiati of Eden, and view man coming out of his Abel, it is natural to think, that the denthe Divine Maker's hand. Happy man! But of that martyr might happen in the year how precarious is sublunary bliss ! “ The immediately preceding. Now, as it is crown is fallen from man's head.”. “He highly probable that in the first ages of the has sinned."
agai upay in world mankind were unconimonly fruitfel The answer goes upon the supposition, it is reasonables to suppose that they athus that the creation of man was the peculiar might be 'multiplied to many thousands. to work of God. The notion that a human is a prevailing opinion, that, at that periodo being could be produced by the influence there were not fewer than a hundreditkou of the heavenly bodies, or by the acci- sand of Adam's descendants in the world. dental combination of atoms, is absurd in Is it any wonder, then, thongh cat that