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the same day, the sun completes his jour- | her orbit : her synodical revolution from ney through the constellations and signs of this point is completed in 29 days, 16 the zodiac, as he enters the equinoctial sign hours, and 59 minutes, which is 4 hours Aries at this time, after a lapse of 365 less than her preceding one. Mercury is days, 5 hours, and 50 minutes. This is in aphelio on the following day, 88 days consequently the commencement of the having elapsed since he was in a similar spring quarter, and on this day the dura- position. On the 31st, Jupiter is stationary tion of the Sun above our horizon, and also in 15 degrees 16 minutes of Sagittarius; he of every other on the surface of the globe, now commences a retrograde motion, after is exactly 12 hours: the Sun has no decli moving direct during a period of 262 days. nation on this day, in consequence of his

P.S. The following statement in the last Occur. being vertical to the equinoctial line; his rences are erroneous, semi-diameter is 16 minutes, 4 seconds,

Col. 139, line 27, for "22" read "10".-Col.140, line 6

from bottom, for longest," read "shortest."-Line and 5 tenths, and it passes the meridian in 4, for "sbortest,” read longest. - Ditto for 1 minute, 4 seconds, and 3-tenths ; his « first quarters," read “full Moons,"-Line 3, fur

u 10 and 34," read “8 and 19." hourly motion in space is 2 minutes, 28 seconds, and 8.tenths. The Moon is noticed after passing the syzygy to ap

LIFE INSURANCE. proach the noble planet Jupiter, now considerably to the east of her; the first satel This science is nearly perfected, though its lite of this vast orb disappears in his sha principles and facts are not generally dow, on the morning of the 25th, at 51 known, even among subscribers. A muminutes 10 seconds past 2. On the fol tual insurance may be instituted thirty per lowing morning the Moon is noticed con cent under the public offices, and without siderably nearer this planet, and will pass capital. It is sufficient that a banker is him before her next appearance, the con employed to receive the yearly premium, junction taking place at 45 minutes past and pay the money insured, receiving cer3 in the afternoon. On the 27th, Mer tificates of health and death. cury arrives at his greatest western elon The just scale is this: A person in health, gation, and may probably be noticed by aged twenty years, engaging not to leave the skilful observer in the morning, a little Europe, or enter Italy, Greece, or Turkey, before sun-rise, as his distance from the should pay thirty shillings a year, to have great luminary of the solar system is up the power of bequeathing one hundred wards of 27 degrees ; the time that has pounds, to be paid at his death. A scale elapsed since his eastern elongation is 43 for other ages from ten to sixty years is days, and since his western 116 days; from made by the rule of proportion, founded this statement, it appears that the planet | on the probable duration of life, ascerhas been longer travelling from his western tained by tables and registers of insurance. to eastern elongation, than from his eastern The person twenty years old is likely to to western, which is a decisive proof of the | live thirty-three years, that is, half the dif ellipticity of his orbit. Saturn is stationary | ference between his age and EIGHTY-SIX on the 28th, in 27 degrees 24 minutes of this eighty-six is a number found by data Cancer: he now commences a direct mo- or documents.) A man of forty is calcu. tion, after moving retrograde for the space lated to live, perhaps, twenty-three years, of 133 days.

on the same foundation, 86-40~46 half At 19 minutes past 7 in the morning of 23. A child of ten may be accounted to this day, the Moon enters her last quarter have thirty-eight years further life. Thus, in the 7th degree of Aries; the time elapsed ten from eighty-six leaves seventy-six, the from the full is 7 days, 17 hours, and 28 half of which is thirty-eight. The prominutes, which is 7 hours, 37 minutes less fession should be considered, some being than the same period in February, and is doubly hazardous-colliers, miners, copper occasioned by the line of the apside form smelters, &c. ing a greater angle with that of the syzygies; A prudential society will not insure very the period from the first quarter, being half large sums to individuals, because it is of the orbit, is 15 days, 21 hours, and 30 ascertained, that insurance spread over a minutes, which is 3 hours 27 minutes less large surface, does not fluctuate in risk than the preceding period between the more than one-seventh the number of same points of her orbit, and 2 days, 8 deaths, one year more or less than another, hours, and 1 minute more than her motion There is no use in limiting insurance to from her last quarter to her first; or, in those who have an interest depending. It other words, she is longer by the above is enough that a man insures his own life, period in describing the higher part of or the life of one who consents to it.

239

Visit to the Dead Sea.

240

Frauds may occur by inguring diseased hundred and sixty-eight pounds, and six persons. The company should have their deaths deducted six hundred pounds, leave own surgeon's certificate, founded on in eight hundred and sixty-eight pounds. The quiries in the place of residence, as well as second year begins by receiving nine hunpersonal examination. A prudent mutual dred and ninety-four premiums, which, life insurance, should have nothing to do with the balance of last year, is two thouwith house or ship insurance. The com- sand three hundred and thirty-four pounds, pany are in fact the insured persons, whose and interest to the end of the second year committee preside over the bank account, is two thousand four hundred and four and surgeon's conduct.

pounds, subtract six deaths six hundred The average age of insurances that have pounds; which leaves one thousand eight been made, is forty-six years old, and the | hundred and four pounds. Then at the end average deaths are six in one thousand of the third year, there is in hand two each year, if the thousand began all at thousand seven hundred and fifty-nine twenty years of age. The receipts of the pounds. After forty years' increase of profit, company are to be vested at interest, and there must be a decrease to meet increased the probable accumulation will meet all demand, until in seventy or eighty years the demands, until in about eighty years all is gone to the subscribers' families. the chance is, that one thousand insurers, of This calculation differs from the fact, as twenty years old each, would exhaust the every day may produce new subscribers, profits.

and of every age; but it serves to shew the • The society should not insure less than progress of the system.

R. Y. one hundred, nor more than one thousand pounds; less than ten years, or more than sixty. There should be no insurance for

VISIT TO THE DEAD SEA. seven years of a life, or for two children “At last we reached the brink of the prejointly, on the plan which evades the usury | cipices which hang over the Dea Sea. The laws.

dawn was now appearing; and in the gray . The object of a prudent mutual insurance and cold light, the lake was seen far beis intended for the advantage of widows neath, stretched out to an interminable and orphans of the church, army, navy, length, while the high mountains of Arabia bar, medical tradesmen, working artisans, / Petræa, opposite, were shrouded in darkand all whose families are dependent on ness. The descent of the heights was long the life-interest of the head of the family, and difficult; and ere we reached the botThose who must insure very large sums on tom, the ruddy glow of morning was on particular circumstances, may resort to the the precipices over our heads. The line of public offices, and pay thirty per cent extra shore at the bottom was about two hunfor their object; but a society which takes | dred yards wide, and we hastened to the the smallest remunerating premium, should edge of the lake; but for several yards not risk it.

from it the foot sank in a black mud, and The Equitable Co. takes at the rate of its surface was every where covered with a forty-three shillings for seventy years old, grayish scurf, which we were obliged to reand has laid up in eighty years a surplus of move before tasting it. There was not a twelve millions of pounds.

breath of wind, and the waters lay like The disposal of a surplus is not equitably lead on the shore. Whoever has seen the attainable, it is so long to be deferred, and Dead. Sea will ever after have its aspect therefore the lowest premium is the best impressed on his memory; it is, in truth, principle. A small growing surplus is a gloomy and fearful spectacle. The prealways useful to meet peculiar adverse cur- cipices, in general, descend abruptly into rents of mortality; and if they occur in the the lake, and on account of their height, infancy of the society, it is necessary to it is seldom agitated by the winds. Its postpone payments until they are practicable; shores are not visited by any footstep, save but this is no longer than a year or two. that of the wild Arab, and he holds it in

The progress of a rise and fall in the superstitious dread. On some parts of the funds of the society, to its final close in the rocks there is a thick sulphureous incrustapayment of all demands, leaving probably tion, which appears foreign to their subnothing behind, is this: one thousand stance; and in their steep ascents, there are persons of twenty years pay thirty shil- several deep caverns, where the benighted lings every year, to bequeath one hundred Bedouin sometimes finds a home. No pounds payable at death. At the end of unpleasant effluvia are perceptible around the first year, the premiums and interest on it, and birds are seen occasionally flying them may amount to one thousand four across. For a considerable distance from

241

Antiquity, Origin, and Name of London.

242

the bank, the water appeared very shal- shone full on the bosom of the lake, which low: this, with the soft slime of the bot had the appearance of a plain of burnished tom, and the fatigue we had undergone, gold. But the sadness of the grave was on it, prevented our trying its buoyant properties and around ii, and the silence also. However by bathing. A few inches beneath the vivid the feelings are on arriving on its shores, surface of the mud are found those black they subside after a time into languor and sulphureous stones, out of which crosses are uneasiness, and you long, if it were posmade, and sold to the pilgrims. The water sible, to see a tempest wake on its bosom, has an abominable taste, in which that of to give sound and life to the scene. salt predominates; and we observed in. “We had now passed some hours at the crustations of salt on the surface of some of lake, much to the discontent of Ibrahim, the rocks.

who, pacing up and down the shore, and “The mountains of the Judæan side are gazing at the caverns, and the summits of lower than those of the Arabian, and also the cliffs, was incessantly, talking of the of a lighter colour: the latter chain at its probable approach of the Arabs, or their southern extremity is said to consist of darkespying us from above. The passage granite, and is of various colours. The over the wilderness of Ziph had given us hills which branch off from the western end a more complete and intimate view of the are composed entirely of white chalk : lake than the usual route to Jericho, which bitumen abounds most on the opposite conducts only to its commencement, at the shore. There is no outlet to this lake, embouchure of the Jordan. The narrow though the Jordan flows into it, as did beach terminated about two hundred yards formerly the Kedron, and the Arnon to the below where the cliffs sank abruptly into south. It is not known that there has ever the sea. We had now to walk to its exbeen any visible increase or decrease of its tremity along the shores, and over the plain waters. Some have supposed that it finds beyond to Jericho, in a sultry day; and a subterraneous passage to the Mediter- we took a last look at this famous spot, ranean, or that there is a considerable suc- to which, earth perhaps can furnish no tion in the plain which forms its western parallel. The precipices around Sinai are boundary. But this plain, confined by the savage and shelterless, but not like these, opposing mountains, is partially cultivated, which looks as if the finger of an avenging and produces trees, and a rude pasture God had passed over their blasted fronts used by the camels of the Bedouins; al- and recesses, and the deep at their feet, though in some parts sandy. It has never and caused them to remain for ever as been navigated since the cities were in- when they first covered the guilty cities.” gulfed : and it is strange that no traveller -Carne's Letters from the East, vol. 2, should have thought of launching a boat | p. 11. to explore it, the only way that promises aby success. Mr. H. travelled completely

ON THE ANTIQUITY, ORIGIN, AND NAME round it, but the journey was a very tedious and expensive one, as it occupied

OF LONDON. several weeks, and he was obliged to take (Transcribed verbatim, from an old volume printed a strong guard. He made no discovery.

in thc year 1681.) “The superior of St. Laba related that | Our famous antiquaries generally agree, the people of the country, who had crossed that the Britains, whose posterity now init on camels, in the shallower parts near habit the dominion of Wales, and are called the southern extremity, had declared to Welsh, were the founders of the renowned him that they had seen the remains of city of London. They were in the old walls, and other parts of buildings, beneath times, known by the name of Aborithe water: this is an old tale, although the gines, because they first inhabited the waters have the property of incrusting and country. preserving most substances. Some stunted 1. Some derive the name London (which shrubs and patches of grass, a mere mockery is the greatest probability) from the British of verdure, were scattered on the withered word Llhong, which signifies a ship, and soil near the roeks. The golden and trea- | Dinan, a town, that is, a Town of Ships, cherous apples will be sought for in vain, this city being in all ages, since its foundaas well as fish in the lake, which have also tion, very renowned for shipping and navi. been asserted to exist. Its length is pro- gation. Very easy to renge bably about sixty omiles, and the general 2. Others from Llhwindian, because (as breadth eight: it might be six miles over, Cæsar in his Commentaries, and Strabo, where we stood. The sun had now-risen mention the ancient Britains called their above the eastern batrier of mountains, and fortified woods Llhwn, which is equivalo

123,- VOL. XI.

243

Origin of Dooms-day Book.Druidical Circle.

244

to a fenced town; and that where St. Paul's that is, Pecunia Londinus Signata, money church now stands, there was in old times stamped in London; and the overseer or a wood, where a temple was built for master of the mint was called Prepositus Diana ; it being the custom of those pagan Thesaurorum Augustensium, that is, provost times to build their fanes or temples to of the treasures of Augusta in Britain.. Diana, in woods or groves; and so it signi- | Preston Brook, Jan. 9, 1829. S. X. fies Diana's town.

3. Some derive it from Llhandian ; the Britains still calling Llan a church, and so THE ORIGIN OF DOOMS-DAY BOOK. may signifie Diana's church or temple;

(Extracted verbatim from an old volume printed for there have been frequently digged up

in the year 1681.)" oxen's heads and bones, which have been The Dooms-day Book was six years in offered as victims or sacrifices there, viz. in

making by William the Conqueror, and is a Camera Diana. So that this word came

cense or compute of all England as it was in tract of time to be pronounced London.

then, viz. all the lands, with the value and Cæsar (Comment. lib. 5.) called it Civi.

owners, and account of all cities, towns, tas Trinobantum, viz. the City of the Tri

villages, families, men, souldiers, husband. nobants, (some would have it translated

men, servants, cattle; how much money, the state of Trinobants,) for Troja Nova, or

rents, meadow, pasture, woods, tillage, Troy Novant, New Troy ; which appel

common, marsh, heath, every one possesslation was in old tinies by many ascribed

ed. So that in disputes about taxes, this to London, as Geoffery of Monmouth, the

determined it without further controversie, Welsh historian, affirms.

as the Book of the great Day of Doom It is said by the same author, thạt King

will then, (and therefore so called.). It is Lud repaired this city, and much aug- kept under three locks, and not to be mented it with fair buildings, calling it looked into under 6s. 8d. And for every Caire-Lud, that is, Lud's Town, and from line transcribed, is to be paid 4d. him Ludgate takes its name. This city was built 2789 years ago, that

Preston Brook, Jan. 9, 1829. S. X. is, 1108 years before the birth of Christ, and (by the exactest computation) in the

DRUIDICAL CIRCLE IN THE PARISH OF time of Samuel the prophet, and 350 years

BEECHING STOKE, IN THE HUNDRED OF before the building of Rome. Of all histo

SWANBOROUGH, WILTS. rians, Cornelius Tacitus, who first called it Londinum, says, that it was in his time, On the road from the village of Beeching (which is about 1655 years ago,) Copia Stoke to Marden, the remains of a DruidiNegotiatorum & Commeatu valde celebre; 1 cal circle, exactly similar to that of Avethat is, very famous for multitude of mer- bury, are clearly perceptible, though the chants and traffick, (or commerce.) He- / mound is not so high, nor the ditch so rodian, in the Life of the Emperor Severus, | deep, as at that magnificent monument. says it was urbs magna & opulenta, that when we say that it resembles Avebury, is, a great and rich city. Marcellinus says, the remark must be understood as referring that in his time (which is 1200 and odd to the manner in which the ditch is placed years ago) it was vetustum oppidum, an in the interior of the mound, evidently deancient town. Fitz-Stephens tells us, that noting that it could have been used for no hæc civitas urbe Roma, secundum chronico purpose of protection, but merely to enclose rum fidem, satis antiquior est, &c. viz. some consecrated spot, the exact use of This city, according to the credit of chro- which is still a subject of dispute among nologers, is far more ancient than Rome. antiquaries. This circular entrenchment · In the flourishing estate of London it was has no stones, nor can any marks be percalled Augusta, a name denoting dignityceived where they have stood. The situaand majesty; for the great Octavian, suc- tion, moreover, resembles that of Avebury, cessor to Julius Cæsar, took to himself the which stands on a gentle slope of a hill, name of Augustus, as a title most sacred with its aspect to the south-west. and honourable, This, Marcellinus wit | We are informed by a gentleman, who . nesses, in his 27th and 28th books, calling it has long resided in the neighbourhood, that Augusta, and that in old times it was it originally displayed a lofty tumulus in called London. It was very famous by the centre; but this was levelled some that appellation under the emperor Valen- years ago by a farmer, who then occupied tinian: . And in Constantine's time there the soil. In the course of its demolition, was a mint appointed there, and money | he discovered what is usually met with in stamped with this impression, P. Lon. S. British barrows, some human bones, and

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over them two horns of deer. There is about the autumnal equinox, and as the also, near the south-east quarter of this gusts or belching out of the vapour regucircle, a small tumulus surrounded by a larly follow the ingress of each succeeding trench, and around it a small mound. wave, it is certainly corroborative of the What was the purpose of it, is a question opinion formerly hazarded, of the influence of great perplexity. Some one has sug- of salt water on, and connexion with, the gested, that it might have been the seat of interior of the cliff. the arch-druid, when he came there once The latter end of August, several of the in every year to pronounce summary judg- fissures exhibited masses of ignited rock, of ment in civil and ecclesiastical causes, there a bright red, such as the fire of a glassreferred to him. This, however, is no more house appears when seen from a distant than the merest conjecture.

place, and occasionally since, during the Crossing the road from hence, it may be night, similar vivid indications have been traced under the brow of the hill ; it is visible; but the continued clear sky, and then lost for about sixty yards, when we powerful effect of the sun's rays, have lately again recover it, and follow the outline as prevented the appearance of fire during far as the water-meadows, which it origi- | daylight. nally embraced, extending, as may be sup- The dry and disordered surface of the posed, nearly down to the little river Avon. cliff yet presents all those important and All this portion is now levelled, and we variegated exterior features, which have leave the meadows, and ascend to the cul- from time to time induced the inquisitive tivated fields above them. Notwithstand and natural observations of the casual ing so much levelling for the purposes of visitor; it is variously coloured, particularly agriculture, its form is in some parts very in the neighbourhood of the apertures, prindecided, and nothing is left for imagination cipally with red and yellow materials, or invention, so far as relates to the circular visibly excoriated. The original slope of plan and design of the entrenchment. The the side, no longer preserved, is entirely pretended tumulus on the summit is a broken and deranged in furrowed cliffs and hopeless subject for conjecture.-Crypt, crevices, the strata so contorted, as to preNov. 1828, No. 20.

sent the most decisive demonstration of recent and pretty deep convulsion.

- The singularity of this phenomenon canBURNING CLIFF AT HOLWORTH. not but excite the liveliest emotions in the The interesting subject of Holworth cliff most indifferent spectator ; what then must has now, for more than a year and a half, be the sensations of the more refined philooccupied no inconsiderable share of public sopher, contemplating this burning mass of notice; to some it may seem like an old mixed substances, forming, as it were, garment, “worn threadbare;" but in the barely a speck or point, among the inmind of the naturalist and geologist, its scrutable secrets of nature, which leave the living and active agencies cannot fail of most extreme energies of human intellect still exciting particular and urgent motives and ingenuity, at an immeasurable dis. for further information.

tance.-Dorset County Chronicle. . The varying appearances of the cliff have been so minutely detailed, that little can now be said, without partially repeating

MASSACRE OF THE MAMALUKES. what has been already described, the effects Grand Cairo is encompassed by a wall, of which, as a “twice-told tale," would be which is about ten miles in circumference, lessened on repetition.

and of great antiquity. Mount Mokotam The additional feature, so remarkably | stands near the city, of which, and the apparent in April last, of the vapour issu whole country, it commands a most extening out in irregular and occasionally in sive prospect. This mountain is of a yellow terrupted streams, has again become a pro colour, and perfectly barren. Beneath, and minent trait of this phenomenon. The in a very elevated position, is the citadel, fissures in its craggy side, now “belch out which is of great extent, and in many parts clouds of rolling smoke," but humid and very ruinous. This fortress is now more earthly, impregnated with most nauseous famous for the massacre of the Mamaluke effluvia, from eight orifices, accompanied Beys, than for any other event. The Mamawith those characteristics incident to such luke force in Cairo consisted of from five to an extraordinary occurrence. It is deserv- | ten thousand choice troops, commanded by ing notice, that as this novel feature hap- their various Beys. It was a novel and pened on the former occasion about the splendid spectacle to a stranger, to view the vernal equinox, so the recurrence now falls exercises, the rich accoutrements, and capi.

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