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The Miseries of Ireland, and their Remedies.

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superfluous tenantry from the estates as the society which would not be endured any leases fall in, compelling some thousands | where but in Ireland."* of our hapless fellow-men and fellow-sub- To prevent, therefore, not merely the jects, either to die of famine, or live by general spread of famine, disease, and pildepredation and beggary, and thus making, lage through the sister kingdom, but the what might at first have been a humane | emigration of the starving peasantry of Irepreventive, worse than the disease it is de land into this country, the consequent designed to remedy.

pression of wages to the very lowest point One gentleman, reputed for humanity, at which animal life can be supported, and declared before the parliamentary com an inevitably large addition to our poor's mittee, that a very extensive plan of im- rates, already enormously high, it is indisproving estates was now going on in Ire. pensably necessary to adopt some plan of land; that as his leases fell in, he had let emigration, or to furnish the people with an estate, formerly occupied by ten families, some means of employment at home. With to two ; and when asked what had be. regard to the first expedient, it is much to come of the other eight, consisting of forty | be regretted, that the plan recommended persons, he replied he did not know, but by the parliamentary committee, of requirbelieved they were living amongst the ing the emigrants themselves to provide the neighbouring colliers; and he observed, expenses of the outfit and voyage, and that só tenaciously did these poor people giving them no assistance till located cling to their huts, when ordered off the abroad, would only aggravate the mischief land, that he was obliged to pull down by expatriating those, whom, as possessing their cabins over their heads, and force some capital, it were desirable to keep at them to retire !

home; while it would be altogether irreAnother witness stated, that he had levant to the poor outcast tenantry, to known eleven hundred persons thus dis- whom almost any change must be for possessed of an estate, and the land relet the better, and emigration with proper to the larger tenants; that the ejected pea- facilities would be a vast and immediate santry went upon the estates of adjoining benefit. proprietors, but that many of them, having Indeed, the speedy adoption of such a no means of earning an honest livelihood, measure seems absolutely necessary, in the were necessitated to resort to thieving and first place, to relieve an immense weight vagabond habits for support.

of present misery, which must otherwise From another estate, twenty-eight or soon inundate both countries; but as it is thirty families out of forty were ejected; computed that Ireland contains nearly and as the men could get no employment, 5,000,000 acres of waste land, why should the women and children presented the not parliament provide means to enable the affecting sight of being obliged to go beg- unfortunate beings who may hereafter sufging on the highway. But the evidence fer ejectment from their homes, to convert farther proves, that in some parts of Ire- the most reclaimable parts of the bogs into land, as Tipperary, Cork, and Limerick, arable land ? Many humane and intelthe system of compulsory ejectment cannotligent persons believe that immediate rebe carried into effect without military force, course to such a plan, would altogether and incurring extreme danger to the life supersede the necessity of emigration; as of any tenant who should dare to take pos- “the first expense incurred in transporting session of the vacated lands; and that in a family abroad would build a cabin, enmany cases, murder and arson have been close a farm, supply utensils, and, with little the consequence.

more assistance, enable them to reclaim These are only a few out of the numer- | many a waste, but fertile tract, in their own ous similar examples adduced in the report country. If poor labourers are sometimes of the emigration committee; but they for- known to pay thirty and forty shillings an cibly shew the necessity of prompt legis- acre for permission to build a hovel on lative measures in behalf of the outcast the edge of a bog, and reclaim a certain tenantry. “Mr. Malthus would perhaps portion of the surface at their own exsay, that in time the ejected population pense, only give the forlorn peasantry farms would become absorbed: but it is fearful | on the waste land, rent, tithe, and tax free to contemplate the process of absorption; for thirty years, with a little aid in draining, and to think of two millions of human and the expense of emigration as a small beings perishing for want, or hanged for capital to begin with, and it is probable violence and outrage, implies a state of there would not be a sterile tract, or a

* Report of the Emigration Committee.

* Eclectic Review, Jan. 1828.

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The Miseries of Ireland, and their Remedies.

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starving man, in Ireland, at the end of their sence is not necessitated by attendance in lease."*

parliament. But in addition to these measures, we 3dly. A very principal cause of the deconceive the introduction of manufactures gradation of Ireland is, the want of any is essentially necessary for the future and community of feeling or interest between permanent prosperity of the sister island. the higher and lower classes, and the inNo country can now arrive at any consi- equality of civil rights. The former is the derable degree of wealth and civilization result of the latter, as well as of that system without them, as we may be convinced by of misrule under which Ireland has groaned a glance at those states whose population for seven hundred years. The landlord are nearly altogether employed in the cul. severely exacts a rack-rent from the labourer tivation of the soil. They are altogether of the soil, while the health and comfort of indispensable to the formation of that mid- the latter are generally far more neglected dle class of society, the want of which is than are those of the slave in the West the very bane of Ireland, and which is, in Indies. “Let any one attend a public every community where it obtains, the meeting in London or Dublin for the spinatural bond of union between the rich and ritual improvement of the Irish peasantry, poor, and the chief bulwark and depository and he will hear my lord A-, or the hon. of virtue, liberty, and public happiness. Mr. B-, or the rev. Mr.

C h arangue, On the subject of manufactures, there with melancholy gratification, on the menneither can nor ought to prevail the slight-tal darkness and moral depravity of these est feeling of jealousy between the two people, and make a merit of declaring they countries, since the interests of both are have come from home to announce to the inseparable, and whatever elevates or de world the vice and wickedness of their own presses the condition of Ireland, must tenantry, from whose hard labour they exequally tend to accelerate or retard the im- tract their support, and who naturally look provement of Great Britain at large. up to them for countenance in return."'*

2ndly, Absenteeism, another fertile source . If the Irish clergy and proprietors are of the calamities of Ireland, it is calculated, really concerned for the spiritual improve. “drains from the country a capital of four ment of the people ; if they would conmillions; and if this, which is now spent vert their dependents from Popery to Proabroad, were poured back upon the nation, testantism, they must evince a paternal what an incalculable advantage it would be solicitude for their physical and temporal to a people, whose greatest evil is poverty happiness, and for their elevation to the and want of employment,'* And we con- same rank on the scale of civil society as ceive that while “the union," so called, has the other classes of the empire. It has contributed nothing to alleviate the moral been well observed, that superstition is the or political ills of Ireland, --by transferring natural ally and refuge of misery and her senators to this country, it has fearfully wretchedness, and that the surest method augmented the evils of non-residence of conversion would be to alleviate the suf

That it would be expedient to repeal the ferings, and augment the personal and act of union, we do not affirm; but we social comforts, of the population. And think it undeniable, that it ought to be fol- although Catholic emancipation would not lowed up by every measure that is calcu- of itself be a panacea for the miseries of lated to realize the views of its projector, Ireland, it would be a powerful means of and to make it an union of the feelings removing “the assumption of superiority and interests, as well as of the legislatures, on the part of the few over the many; of the two countries. In particular, we break down the wall of separation bethink clerical residence might and ought tween the two classes; raise a proscribed to be enforced universally, and without ex. and despised people to that consideration ception, throughout Ireland,--that no such which they ought to hold in their native wound might be inflicted on religion, and land; and give to the Catholic tenant that the community, as they received from the respect in the eye of his landlord, which his conduct of the late lord Bristol, bishop of mere industry and activity cannot give him : Derry, who, deriving an income of fifteen for the tenant, notwithstanding he posthousand pounds a year from his benefices, sesses the elective franchise, has been supspent it in rambling over Italy, and was posed to hold it only in trust for his Proreported not to have entered his diocese for testant landlord. So long as any civil distwenty-four years !—while a tax should be abilities remain, the Catholic will still be laid upon every lay proprietor whose ab- viewed and treated as a helot, his feelings 155

* Eclectic Review, Jan. 1828. + Ibid.

Eclectic Review, Jan. 1828.

Poetry.

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will be disregarded, and his comforts over- with whom we have nothing to do, not looked. The hog and the dog will be well of persons on whom we have never infed and lodged, and the hovel of the flicted an injury;. but, of persons as intistarving tenant will still stand beside the mately bound to us, as we are to each gate of the demesne. And so far as the other, our fellow-subjects, men knit to us agitation of this question generates a con- by the closest bonds by which political and siderable alarm in the country, and gives moral obligations can bind men together ; an impression of insecurity, it is one cause to whom the gospel is presented, not with of the evil of absentees, and the removal a diadem of love upon its head, and mercy of it would be a remedy. It surely is in its hand, but arrayed in all the terrors most desirable to take from the opulent of oppression and injustice."'* Under such any excuse for abandoning their country, circumstances, to think of convincing the and to induce them, by every means, to judgment, or converting the heart, is in live at home, and so become the benefit, the highest degree chimerical and abinstead of the bane, of those who support surd. As well may you expect to perthem.

suade a man of your friendship and humaThe settlement of the Catholic question nity by putting him to the torture, “ to would also have a most powerfully healing gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles.” influence on the minds of the people, by | August 8th, 1828. BRITANNICUS. allaying that irritation and prejudice which are most inimical to the spread of the reformed faith in Ireland. “ We fear,"

POETRY. continues the able writer just cited, “that the obstacles to its success lie deep in (For the Imperial Magazine.) the present state of Ireland. The sacred

STANZAS, cause of the Reformation ought not to rely

ADDRESSED TO DR. ADAM CLARKE, on civil disabilities for its auxiliaries; and the word of God is both degraded and

On finishing his Notes on the Bible. enfeebled, when we call in the aid of pains

Thou hast done with thy work ;-but say, what

detained thee? and penalties to support it. The Protes Could genius, how brilliant, thy mind so tant faith has hitherto been rejected in Ire engage ? land, because it has been enforced by

10, no! 'twas the AUTHOR whose grace bas sus

"tained thee." penal statutes; and it will be rejected as That held thee so long, while entranced with long as a penal statute remains. To argue

his page; The Author, - who gives to proud genius its birth;

The page,-of all pages the brightest on earth : be done on equal terms. So long as ad The first of His works, where His mind is reveal'd,

The last,-for He spake, and the vision was mission to office is held out as a bribe to

seal'd. the rich, or food and raiment to the naked

Thou hast done with thy work ;-and sweet the and starving poor, the argument is against reflection! us. Remove the disabilities of the one, That doctrines erroneous flowed not from

thy pen ; and raise the degraded state of the other, | For awful, when heresy meets with protection, and raise the degraded state of the other, then, and not till then, we argue on equal Where learning is seated-from talented men :

Like water-spouts bursting from clouds in the sky, terms. As matters stand, such things are

Or torrents descending from mountains on high, said of the means used, as we ought not to The loftier their source, the more dreadful the give a handle for ; and if there be any woe,

For wide devastation is witnessed below. foundation for the statements conveyed to us,

Thou hast done with thy work ;-and on it-while we can only say-Pudet hæc et opprobria

gazingdici, et non potuisse refelli."*

May'st smile on the baby-bred triflers around. As the American Indians refused to

Whose volumes, like gardens, which mock them

while raising, embrace the religion of their conquerors, Will class with the children's, which spangle lest they should go to heaven, and be tor the ground,

Where, stuck in abundance, and just for a day, mented by the wretches who had despoiled The flowers and the branches but bloom and decay; them of their lives and property; so the For never by thee-well aware they would fadeIrish Catholics will reject Protestantism

Were blossoms, or shadows, or fictions displayed. till it is presented to them in the endearing

And now it is finished,-alone thou appearest ;

For whom hath thy Maker permitted to close ? characters of humanity and justice. To To those, in such works, as to thee have come adopt the language of a clergyman in re nearest,

The grave, in their toil, hath imparted repose ; ference to colonial slaves, but which, with

But thou, as full mellow with age, as in fame, a very slight variation, may be applied to Distinguished in labour, as foremost in name, the sister island; “We have five millions,

Canst move as the ADAM, or towering canst stand

Sole heir of the Paradise reared by thy hand. not of a remote nation, not of individuals

• Speech of the Rev. J. W. Cunningham, at the telectic Review, Jan. 1828.

anniversary meeting of the Antislavery Society.

III

thee,

157 Poetry.

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ricorronomocco..........mere Though numerous the authors from whom thou

HADDON HALL, hast cited, No thought thou hast taken, but soon hast

A FRAGMENT. thou show, With others, more bright, thou could'st pay,-and

REMNANT of ancient grandeur! Once the pride delighted

Of feudal greatness! Once the lonoured seat In princely profusion, to give of thine own:

Of Peveril's noble race! How changed, how And so, with the ocean, which drinks up the floods,

fallen! But pays them in showers to the meads and the

Untenanted, deserted, thou art left woods,

Without inhabitant. Centuries have elapsed Nor less to the torrents, more bounteons and clear,

Since thy last lord was gathered to his fathers. Which swell as they roll, and roll on with the

Yet proudly rising on thy rocky base, year.

Firm and unyielding, (as thy sons had left

Their spirit in thee,) scorning yet to bow Exuberant in thought, and as ceaselessly teeming,

To Time's imperious mandate, which has long With compass, minuteness, and energy joined,

Gone out against thee, standest sublime, And clear as the day, when the sun is aye beam

Great in decay, magnificent in ruin! ing,The freshness and balm of the morning com

Oft hast thou borne the tempest's utmost rage, bined

And when the furious storm has dashed against Thy mind, in its fulness, like soil in its strength,

| Thine adamantine front, and thunder deep Sends verdure and bloom to the uttermost length

Reverberating, rolled awfully around, Of twigs, and of foliage-of all it sustains,

While the blue lightnings flashing, seem'd to rend Till thought, in her summer of majesty reigos. The troubled skies, and wrapped the heavens in

fiame. When puny polemics with envy were burning ; Nor Storm, nor thunder shook thee, thou remaind'st Too noble to stoop to their baser employ,

Firm in the dread commotion, and beheld'st, Thine eye, while insphered in thy loveliness, turn Unmoved, the fierce contending elements ! ing

Looked downward in pity, on works to annoy; So stood a Hampden, when the darkening tlag But vain were their efforts thy glory to shroud, of despotism o'er his country waved ; As vain as the skirts of a dark sailing cloud,

Opposed th’inglorious standard, and undaunted, To tarnish the glory of stars of the night,

Amidst contending factions, greatly dared Which travel unsullied in beauty and light.

To assert and vindicate a Briton's rights.

And thou too, Mina, who indignant saw'st The hopes of thy friends were aye soaring before Iberia's sons degenerate, meanly stoop thee,

To kiss the rod which scourged them, crouching Like newly-fledged eagles to heaven they rose, low, And stooping again, they were seen hovering o'er

Beneath th' inglorious sceptre of a weak

Or superstitious monarch, grasp'd thy sword, With palms, never worn by the brows of thy And stood the patriot of a sinking race!

foes :
While glory, with trumpet seraphic and loud,

Let not the thoughtless foot of giddy mirth
To deafen the foeman and gladden the crowd, Profane this venerable mansion, nor the shout
Was mounting and swelling thy fame in her flights, of vacant laughter rudely dare to insult
Till echoes were heard over Zion's loved heights. Th’unfortunate. With reverence I approach,

Awed by the dignity of age, each step
And now thou hast donc, I would gaze on thy

Demands a pause, and even the very wind

Sighs, as it sweeps the long-neglected pile. setting, As oft I have gazed on the sun in the west,

I love these ancient ruins,-they inspire Wbile clouds upon clouds with his gold he was

A pleasing melancholy; not indeed fretting,

The ebullitions of a boisterous joy, Till all was illumed like abodes of the blest;

But soft as evening, mild as the moonbeam Whose beams, when his form was no more to the

On the still waters, alluring all the soul eye,

To contemplation; call forth all her powers,
Still lingered behind on the earth and the sky,

And make her conscious of her dignity;
And lingered behind like the light thou hast While wrapt in fancy she surveys the flight

Of by-gone years, marks their dependence in
When setting below, thou shalt rise into hea.

The general scale of history, and as century rolls ven.

Slow after century, her enraptured eye

Pierces the misty veil, and nobly dares Let men to their fellows, when death shall divide

To "hold high converse with the mighty dead." them, Pronounce the eulogium to give them a name,

Reflection saddens as I slowly cross And raise the proud marble, which, towering beside them,

The foot-worn entrance, and the spacious court,

Whose broad moss-covered pavement soft receives Shall publish the virtues they never could

The stranger's passing step, that it disturb not claim :

The general silence. And mutilated forms Whilst living, thy praise is in records above,

Start from the time-scathed walls, and widely And dying, thy page shall thy monument prove;

show And this shall survive, which thy hands thus have l on their bared foreheads, deep imprest the stamp, reared,

The mouldering stamp of the broad seal of fate. When marbles and columns have all disappeared.

Nor yet would I forget the ancient dame. Thy fame, for its height, like a mountain is tow Our sage conductress, through the lone

Untenanted apartments, whose short step
Unsullied in nature as new-driven snow,

And antiquated presence suit full well
And on it the smiles of the public are showering, Her tale of other days. On her brow
Like suns in their turns, and as warm in their Are scattered thin the gray-discoloured locks,
glow;

(Like the scant gleanings of a harvest field,)
And these, as with thee, like the sun on the hill, Yet though her furrowed cheek betrays the lapse
Descending but slowly-though beautiful still Of more than sixty winters, her faint voice
Unwilling that others his beamings should share, Raises its feeble tone, while sbe recounts
Are lingering upon thee, as brilliant as fair.

The martial prowess, and the gallant deeds

Of Rutlands and of Vernons, . .
September, 1826.
J. Everett,

S. C. Z

given,

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Poetry.

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AMERICAN POETRY.

" THIS WORLD IS ALL A FLEETING SHO

THERE is an hour of peaceful rest,

To mourning wanderers given; There is a tear for souls distrest; A balm for every wounded breast"Tis found above-in heaven!

There is a soft, a downy bed,

'Tis fair as breath of even; A couch for weary mortals spread, Where they may rest the aching head,

And find repose in heaven!

.. THE PARTING LESSON.

(Addressed to Fidele.)
COME hither once again-one more farewell !
I'm sure I've not said all I wish to say.
I could an age on ey'ry sentence dwell,
Yet I must hasten, ere thou go'st away.
Then hear me. I a lesson bave for thee,
It is to teach thee when to think of me.
Whene'er thou see'st a rosebud somewhat pale,
And hung about with many tears of dew,
Then wilt thou read upon its leaves the tale
Of how, since I return'd thy fond adieu,
I have been often wearing tears for thee;
Because thou art so far away from me?
When all around is sleeping-save some lone
And pining bird, which sings in plaintive notes ;
Listen to it awhile, and think upon
Thy solitary one, who fondly dotes
Upon thy dear and cherish'd memory,
Grieving like him, in sorrow's tones for tl

hee.
When the bright moon unto the night is true,
And flings to ev'ry cloud that passeth by
A ray of kindness : watch her silver hue.
Compare thyself to night, and think that I,
Like her, (tho giving smiles to all) must be
As she is true to midnight, true to thee.
When leaves look brightest-when the trees put

on,
To hail the spring, their gayest livery,
In gladness that the wintry hours are gone ;
Mark them !-and know that thy return will be
To me, as spring to a deserted isle,
And welcom'd with affection's warmest smile.

M. E. S.

There is a home for weeping

By sin and sorrow driven; When lost on life's tempestuous shoals, Where storms arise, and ocean rolls,

And all is drear-but heaven! There faith lifts up the tearful eye ;

The heart with anguish riven; And views the tempest passing by, The evening shadows quickly fly,

And all serene-in heaven. There fragrant flowers immortal bloom,

And joys supreme are given; There rays divine disperse the gloom ; Beyond the confines of the tomb,

Appears the dawn of heaven!

AN EPITAPH ON DR. FRANKLIN.

PHRENOLOGY; A PARODY.

New region it before unati soared

"Credo quid impossibile est."

LIKE Newton, sublimely he soared

To a summit before unattained, New regions of science explored,

And the palm of philosophy gained. Bv a spark which he caught from the skies,

He display'd an unparalleled wonder, And he saw, with delight and surprise,

That his rod would defend us from thunder. Oh I had he been wise to pursue

The track for his talent designed, What a tribute of praise had been due,

To the teacher and friend of mankind!

But to covet political fame,

Was in him a degrading ambition. A spark which froin Lucifer came,

And kindled a blaze of sedition.

Let Candour then write on his urn

" Here lies the renowned inventor, Whose flame to the skies sought to burn,

But inverted, descends to the centre."

It must be so-Spurzheim, thou reasonest well,
Else whence this sparkling wit, this depth of
we thought?
The sure precursors of my future fame.
Or why this groove uncóuth, this strange protu-

berance, This facial angle so acutely cut! 'Tis Fate himself has set his seal upon us, And destiny has made the impression plain. 0! destiny, thou pleasing dreadful power, Through what bewildering mazes must we pass ! What doubtful systems search, of modern struc

ture, And of ancient date, to ascertain thy fundamental !!! law, For shadows, clouds, and darkness, rest upon it. Here will I hold. And if the powers above us O'er-rule the will with absolute control (And that they do, Phrenologists assert'in all their

works, Let fools delight in virtue :

For how can such attachments make us hap
1 Or bow, or where this system finds support,

I'm weary of conjectures, who can end them?
Hail! ye expounders of the mystic code,
What plans have ye arranged, what schemes

devised!
Since those dark days when Esculapius lived,
The aspects of the stars have been observed,
The cracks and crannies of the gaping earth,
The flight of birds, the flitting clouds of heaven,
But chiefly man tattooed by nature's hand. OD
Here round his temples wit and humour sh
There lurk the living lineaments of love,
And every part and particle express,
The certain actions of his future life.
And as the assassin pounces on his prey,
To quiet conscience, and excuse himself,
He daringly declares, It must be 80”.96BTSV
For Spurzheim has explained the Book of Fate. al

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TO THE NIGHTINGALE.

LITTLE love-lorn nightingale,
Sweet is heard thy plaintive tale,
When the moon is soaring high,
On her journey thro' the sky;
Lovely songstress of the grove,
Trill again that lay of love.
With thy breast against the thorn,
Warbling till the break of morn,
Pouring forth thy descant sweet,
From thy wooded wild retreat ;
Til the moon enamour'd bow'd,
Her head beneath a fleecy cloud.
Ab! thou lov'st to sing alone,
When the night is all thine own,
And each note from hawthorn spray,
H2 in silence died away :
Then, oh! then how sweet the tone,
As thou pour'st thy plaint alone.

I. S. H.

[graphic]

i

"PGrove Lane, Ipswich, Dec. 19, 1828. 9

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