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132 ....................vedur......... ........crerur ..wario... grillos on his feet; he was not even per- | ship had not sustained any serious injury. mitted to receive the sacraments.
He remarked with surprise, that the accuThe prisoners of state are often subjected mulated icebergs, which had on the preto still more inhuman treatment by the ceding evening formed an impenetrable commandants of the barracks, who hope barrier, had been separated and disarranged by so doing to please their chief.
by the wind, and that in one place a canal When we quitted Paraguay, the entire of open sea wound its course among them number of persons in confinement might as far as the eye could discern. amount to about 500, one tenth of whom, It was two miles beyond the entrance of at least, are state prisoners. Besides these this canal that a ship made its appearance punishments, there is also that of confis. about noon. The sun shone brightly at cation of property, but which can be in the time, and a gentle breeze blew from Aicted only by the Dictator himself. In the north. At first some intervening icegeneral, all those who have been declared bergs prevented Captain Warrens from traitores a la patria, or traitors to the distinctly seeing any thing but her masts; country, are visited with it; it is sometimes but he was struck with the strange manner incurred for very trifling causes. A young in which her sails were disposed, and with merchant, who, having been unjustly im the dismantled aspect of her yards and prisoned for having had a dispute with an rigging. She continued to go before the officer of the customs, offered to pay to the wind for a few furlongs, and then grounding state 3000 piastres for his liberty, but all upon the low icebergs, remained motionless. his property was confiscated.
Captain Warrens' curiosity was so much excited, that he immediately leaped into
his boat, with several seamen, and rowed AFFECTING INCIDENT.
towards her. On approaching, he observed (From the New York Gazette of December 8.) that her hull was miserably weather-beaten, ONE serene evening, in the middle of and not a soul appeared on the deck, which August, 1775, Captain Warrens, the was covered with snow to a considerable master of a Greenland whale-ship, found depth. He hailed her crew several times, himself becalmed among an immense but no answer was returned. Previous to number of icebergs, in about 77 degrees stepping on board, an open port-hole near north latitude. On one side, and within a the main-chains caught his eye, and on mile of his vessel, these were of immense looking into it, he perceived a man reclinheight, and closely wedged together, and a ing back in a chair, with writing materials succession of snow-covered peaks appeared on a small table before him, but the feeblebehind each other as far as the eye couldness of the light inade everything very reach, shewing that the ocean was com indistinct. The party, therefore, went upon pletely blocked up in that quarter, and the deck, and having removed the hatchway, That it had probably been so for a long which they found closed, they descended to period of time. Capt. Warrens did not the cabin. They first came to the apartfeel altogether satisfied with his situation ; ment which Capt. Warrens viewed through but there being no wind, he could not the port-hole. A tremor seized him as he move either one way or another, and he entered it. Its inmate retained his former therefore kept a strict watch, knowing that position, and seemed to be insensible to he would be safe as long as the surround strangers. He was found to be a corpse, ing icebergs continued in their respective and a green damp mould had covered his places.
| cheeks and forehead, and veiled his open About midnight, the wind rose to a gale, eye-balls. He held a pen in his hand, and accompanied by thick showers of snow, a log-book lay before him, the last sentence while a succession of tremendous thunder- | in whose unfinished page ran thus :ing, grinding, and crashing noises, gave “ 11th November, 1762. We have now fearful evidence that the ice was in motion. been enclosed in the ice seventeen days. The vessel received violent shocks every | The fire went out yesterday, and our master moment; for the haziness of the atmos- has been trying ever since to kindle it again, phere prevented those on board from without success. His wife died this morndiscovering in what direction the opening. There is no relief water lay, or if there actually was any at Captain Warrens and his seamen hurried all on either side of them. The night was from the spot without uttering a word. On spent in tacking as often as any cause of entering the principal cabin, the first object danger happened to present itself, and in that attracted their attention was the dead the morning the storm abated, and Capt. | body of a female reclining on a bed in an Warrens found, to his great joy, that his attitude of deep interest and attention.
Osseous System-Essay V.
Her countenance retained the freshness of acetabulum, or cup of the pelvis, for the life, and a contraction of the limbs alone reception of the head of the thigh-bone, is shewed that her form was inanimate. deep, and encircled by an elevated ridge, Seated on the floor was the corpse of an which forms its margin. This conforma. apparently young man holding a steel in tion gives an evident security to the joint, one hand and a flint in the other, as if which is increased by a strong ligamentous in the act of striking fire upon some tinder cord, arising from the bottom of the sockwhich lay beside him.
et, and inserted into the ball so as to retain In the fore-part of the vessel several it closely in its place, without any impedi. sailors were found dead in the births, and ment to its motion. Although this is the the body of a dog was crouched at the | example of a ball-and-socket joint, and bottom of the gangway stairs. Neither consequently endowed with great liberty of provisions nor fuel could be discovered motion, yet being a joint destined to bear any where; but Captain Warrens was great muscular stress, and sustain the prevented, by the superstitious prejudices weight of the trunk, it is not so free as that of his seamen, from examining the vessel of the shoulder, which, from the laxness of as minutely as he wished to have done. its construction, is in this respect pre-emiHe therefore carried away the log-book nent. On the contrary, the hip-joint is already mentioned, and returned to his own braced tightly (if we may so express it) by ship, and immediately steered to the south powerful ligaments, and the head of the ward, deeply impressed with the awful thigh-bone, or femur, is implanted deeply example which he had just witnessed, of into its socket, while at the same time, to its the danger of navigating the polar seas, in restriction, the mechanism of that part of high northern latitudes.
the femur (or thigh-bone) immediately below On returning to England, he made the articulation, contributes also. The various inquiries respecting vessels that had head of the femur is not a simple rounddisappeared in an unknown way, and, by ing of one of its extremities, as we see in the comparing the results of these with the humerus, or shoulder-bone, in which a information which was afforded by the straight line passes through its head and written documents in his possession, he whole length; but a ball united by a disascertained the name and history of the tinct neck to the bone, and making a conimprisoned ship, and of her unfortunate siderable angle with it. This neck arises master, and found that she had been frozen from a rough protuberance, termed troup thirteen years previous to the time of chanter major, and on it, when we stand his discovering her among the ice.
erect, the stress of the body bears; hence it is liable to fracture, especially in aged per
sons, in whom this is frequently occasioned ESSAYS ON THE STRUCTURE AND ME by making a false step, so as to bring unCHANISM OF THE USSEOUS SYSTEM. awares the weight of the body suddenly (Continued from col. 57.)
upon it. In consequence of the relative
angle which the head of the femur thus Essay V.
forms with the body of the bone, it must HAVING in our previous essay given a be evident that its freedom of motion must general sketch of the plan upon which the suffer restraint, the line of angle itself conmoveable articulations of the skeleton are stituting the barrier. constructed, we cannot pass from this part Let us now turn to the knee :-We have of our subject, without bringing before the | an example of a simple hinge-like joint ; reader a few examples which tend to illus- the thigh-bone, we observe, terminated by trate the observations we have made. For two condyles, and these are received into this purpose, we shall attend to the very the articulating surfaces of the tibia, (or important articulations of the extremities ; large bone of the leg,) which are but and of these, that we may not seem tedious, slightly depressed. The surfaces of these select four, as exhibiting striking specimens condyles of the femur are extensive, and so of variety of motion, as well as of con fashioned, that however great a flexure of formation, beautifully adapted to answer the knee be made, these bony eminences the end to be attained.
are still in contact with the articulating de. First, then, let us turn to the hip-joint, pressions of the tibia. The knee-joint is a joint in which is exemplified that species secured by numerous strong ligaments of articulation, termed by anatomists, enar but not by ligaments alonewe behold, as throsis, consisting of a large spherical if placed before the joint for its protection, head fitted into a deep cavity, or socket, a bone somewhat heart-shaped, but having known by the name acetabulum. The | its posterior surface egularly concave, the
Osseous System-Essay V.
external being convex; this is the patella, of leaning upon that articulation. The or knee-pan. It is secured to the tibia olecranon not only serves for the general by a very strong ligament, attached to its strength and security of the joint, and the apex or lower portion, while into its upper attachment of muscles, but, as the patella part are inserted the tendons of the rectus in the knee, prevents, by its resistance, the femoris, the vastus internus, and partially possibility of the articulation being bent of the vastus externus and cruraus | backwards, contrary to its natural direction. muscles for extending the leg, and to which When the arm is extended, the olecranon it serves the part of a pulley. But the more does not present a pointed appearance, nor immediate use of the patella, is to prevent is it so distinctly felt, as it then is received the leg from being bent forwards, in exten | into a depression at the back of the humesion, or the upright position, and so giving rus, to which it is precisely adapted. way beneath the weight of the body, while, Let us now pass on, in this slight and disas the knee, from its situation, is liable to cursive review, to the notice of an articulaexternal injuries, it serves also as a shield tion, which, in the perfection of its mefor its safeguard. To look at the patella, wechanism, is peculiar only to the human should fancy it impossible to fracture it; race, viz. that of the shoulder. The humeyet such is the power of the exterior rus we behold loosely connected to the muscles of the leg, the strength of their articulating depression, or, as it is termed, tendons, and of the ligament by which it is | glenoid cavity of the scapula. From the secured to the tibia, that it gives way before scapula arise two large processes, which them all, and is frequently fractured by overhang and protect the joint. To one of muscular exertion only.
these processes the collar-bone, or clavicle, The knee-joint enjoys but one species of is attached, one end of it uniting also to motion—the simple hinge-like and from the breast-bone, or sternum, so that it its mechanism it is impossible that any serves to keep the scapula sufficiently firm, other can be effected. --But let us now and at proper distance from the sternum, examine the elbow, a joint enjoying a two. as well as constitutes a point d'appui, fold motion: the hinge-like, as the knee; for the humerus, (or os brachii,) every imand also a movement partially rotatory. pulse of which it receives. Indeed, its aid · Three bones enter into the construction is absolutely necessary; for from its posi. of the elbow-joint, viz. the humerus, or tion and connexion, are derived the flexibishoulder-bone, the radius, and the ulna, lity and power which the arm so fully en(the two bones of the fore-arm,) and it is joys; consequently the presence, relative by their arrangement and mechanism that perfection, or absence, of the clavicle in the the power of the twofold motion is pro lower animals, determines at once the arduced.
| rangement of the limb, the structure of its The ulna is united to the humerus, con- termination, (as paw, or hoof,) and so bears joining with it to form a simple hinge-like an evident relation to the habits and manarticulation, endowed with a corresponding | ners of the individual. motion. To the humerus the radius is also The shoulder-joint may be termed that united, but it forms in its mode of union of enarthrosis, or a ball-and-socket articuan articulation, from which to a certain lation. The head of the humerus or os degree results the power of revolving on its brachii, however, is not separated by a disown axis. For instance, when we raise tinct neck from the body of the bone, but the hand to the shoulder, or, in other words, is rather its termination enlarged and bend the elbow, the articulations both of the rounded ; nor does it fit into a deep cup, ulna and radius are brought into employ- as in the instance of the hip-joint, for the ment, for the radius being bound to the depression of the glenoid cavity is very ulna by ligaments, unites the hinge-like trifling, and although the cartilage with motion to that peculiarly its own; but which it is naturally lined, (as are all when we turn around the hand without articulating surfaces,) increases in thickness moving the elbow, the radius to which the round its edge, thereby in some degree hand is immediately attached, rotates, deepening the concavity, still at best it is while the ulna remains perfectly stationary. but shallow, presenting rather a free space, Although the elbow is not provided, as the adapted for the rotation of the head of the knee, with a moveable patella, yet it is not humerus, than constituting a socket for left destitute of what, to a great degree, strength or security in the union. This answers the same end, namely, the olecra laxity of construction is essential to the non, a process of ulna, plainly distinguish- freedom with which it is necessary the arm able when we bend the elbow, and consti- should be endowed-which to man is so tuting the point of pressure in the attitude highly important, and which alone is suffi
wo rronourrurer.......recorrer... cient to give him an advantage over all whenever the bones on which any part of that rank below him in the scale of our body is sustained, decline from a creation.
straight line, the force required in the The ape-tribe in this, as in other anato- muscles, to counteract the gravity of that mịcal respects, approach the nearest to | part, is greater than, under different circumman:-we find here a perfect clavicle, an stances, would be needed; but, on the arm free and flexible, and a hand with other hand, we find provision made acfingers capable of retaining and examining. cordingly, by their number or strength. So To the ape-tribe succeed the squirrel, and long, therefore, as we remain in the same others of the order rodentia ;-to these the posture, a considerable number of muscles cat and animals of the order feræ ;-—but must be in a state of contraction, which, as here the clavicle is imperfect, or cartilagi- we know both from reason and experience, nous; the arm bas but a limited freedom; soon creates an uneasy sensation of fatigue and this is terminated by a paw, not elabo- or weariness. This is equally the case rately constructed for examining objects in the erect position, and although in the around, and so ascertaining their qualities, erect position it would not have been expebut, at most, capable only of retaining, rienced, had the bearing of the bones to seizing, or lacerating.
each other been perpendicular, yet more To these succeed the whole race of quad. than compensation is made by advantages rupeds; and it may be stated as a rule, of the utmost importance to the wellthat among these the articulation of the being of the animal; for not to man only, shoulder is barely analogous in its structure but to all furnished with an articulated and design to that of man, In the first skeleton, does the rule apply. place, strength, and not freedom, is the As this framework of the body consists principal end to be attained-hence, the of numerous distinct portions, we may motion is hinge-like; and in the next very easily conceive, that a slight difference place, the scapula is not united by a clari- in their number, dimensions, or relative cle to the sternum; for, with the arrange- position, would, according to circumstances, ment of the skeleton, and the design of the alter the general figure and outline of the whole, the clavicle here would not harmo- whole. Thus, for example, the external nize; therefore it is entirely absent. forms of various animals may be very
If, however, we pass from the lower dissimilar; and yet, it will be found that mammalia, to the feathered tribes possessing the portions composing their skeletons, much vigour and freedom of wing, we again every where coincide with one general and find the clavicle answering the same pur- fundamental plan; for in all do we find the pose, and as needful, as in man. . essential parts of the skeleton, and the arti
Having advanced thus far in our task, culations exhibit but little variety; and let us next proceed to take a general survey however one quadruped, one bird, or one of the skeleton, as a whole. On a first fish, may be unlike that of another species, glance at the curious framework of our and however these classes may differ from bodies, we cannot but be struck with its each other, in each and all will the skeleton mechanism, and the fitness and arrange-exhibit the same grand and essential chament of its parts; but if we examine it racteristics. more attentively, we shall find that the
Hammersmith. W. Martin. bones composing it are so arranged with respect to one another, that, when in their
(To be continued.) natural situation, scarcely one, if indeed one, is placed in a perpendicular bearing to ASTRONOMICAL OCCURRENCES FOR another, although the fabric is so artfully
FEBRUARY, 1829. constructed, that, in an erect position, “a The admirer of the celestial orbs will notice line from their common centre of gravity on the evening of the 1st, the planet Mars falls in the middle of their common base.” a little to the west of the spot which he The result of this wise and beautiful ar- occupied at the commencement of the rangement is, an increase in the freedom year, but considerably removed from his and flexibility of the fabric, so that we position at that period with respect to the have much greater quickness, ease, and fixed stars; he is situated nearly between strength, in the general movements we ε and e Piscium, and will pass them preexecute; while at the same time we vious to his next appearance. The planet can support ourselves with as much firm- Saturn embellishes the eastern hemisphere; ness as if the axis of all the bones he is still observed receding from y and had been a straight line perpendicular Cancri. At 27 minutes past 10, Mars de to the borizon. It is true, indeed, that scends below the horizon, and Saturn is
Astronomical Occurrences for January 1829.
the only planet above, until 26 minutes of the 14th, the first satellite of Jupiter dispast 3 in the morning of the 2d, when the appears in his shadow, the planet having noble planet Jupiter becomes apparent to removed about two degrees to the eastward these parts of the terraqueous globe, in the of his position on the 1st. On the evening constellation Scorpio ; he is situated be of the 15th, at sun-set, the Moon is noticed tween Antares and n Ophiuchus, nearest to the south of the planet Saturn, and is the former star. At 45 minutes past 4, observed gradually to approach him during the Moon and Venus are in conjunction, the night, and until 40 minutes past 4 on the Moon being considerably to the north : | the following morning, when the conjuncthey are both risen at 15 minutes past 6, tion between these bodies takes place. At and are noticed in the constellation of the 1 hour twenty minutes later, the planet Archer. At 26 minutes past 7, the god of Venus passes the Georgium Sidus. day arises on our horizon, and sheds his invigo- At 15 minutes past 7 in the evening of rating beams over our portion of the world. the 18th, the Earth is situated between the
At 31 minutes past 2 in the morning of Sun and Moon, the latter body appearing the 4th, the Moon arrives at the 14th de- in the same part of the heavens as seen gree of Aquarius, being that part of her from the Sun and Earth, which is nearly orbit which is between the Earth and Sun. the 30th degree of Leo; it is therefore She would in this case deprive the Earth evident that the inhabitants of our globe of the light of the glorious luminary of the will behold its fair' attendant with a full solar system, had she been situated in the orb, but the smallest that has been noticed plane of the Earth's orbit; but she is now for some time past, as she is at her greatest between two and three degrees northward distance from the Earth. The time that of it, consequently her shadow will not has elapsed since the change is 14 days, fall on any part of the Earth's surface. The 16 hours, and 44 minutes; from her first time that has elapsed since she was in a quarter, 7 days, 23 hours, and 52 minutes; similar situation, is 29 days, 22 hours, and and since she was similarly situated, 29 39 minutes. She is in perigee on this days, 18 hours, and 58 minutes. At 24 day, and in conjunction with Mercury at minutes past 8 on the same evening, the 30 minutes past 4. On the evening of Earth enters the sign Virgo, where the sun the 5th, her wirelike crescent is noticed in appears to enter the opposite sign Pisces; the extreme west, and on the following his declination at this time is 11 degrees evening, at a greater altitude at sun-set, 28 minutes south, his semidiameter 16 gradually approaching the planet Mars, minutes and 12 seconds, which is 1 minute, which is now noticed to the east of p Pis 6 seconds, and 2 tenths, passing the mericium. Venus crosses the ecliptic in her dian; and his motion through space during descending node on this day. On the 7th, the period of one hour is 2 minutes, 31 the Moon crosses the ecliptic in her de seconds, and 1 tenth. Venus is visible scending node, and in the evening is seen for a short time before sun-rise on the folto the west of Mars. On the 8th, she is lowing morning, her apparent diameter observed to the east of this planet; Mer- being 11 seconds, with 11 digits illumicury on the same day crosses the ecliptic nated on her eastern circle. Mercury is in his ascending node. On the 10th, at stationary on this day, and Mars is ob23 minutes past 7 in the evening, the lunar served considerably to have approached orb has described a quarter of her revolu- the constellation Aries, being noticed in a tion ; 6 days, 16 hours, and 52 minutes line with B and y Arietis; he sets at 28 having elapsed since she was new, and 29 minutes past 10 in the evening. days, 12 hours, and 5 minutes, since she was On the 26th, at 20 minutes past 8 in the in a similar part of her orbit; her situation in evening, the Moon enters her last quarter, the zodiac is in the 21st degree of Taurus. in the 7th degree of Sagittarius. The time She is noticed nightly to increase in splen- elapsed from the change is 22 days, 17 dour, and to direct her course through the hours, and 49 minutes; from the first quarconstellations Taurus and Gemini, towards ter, 16 days and 57 minutes ; from the the planet Saturn.
full, 8 days, 1 hour, and 5 minutes; and The planet Mercury is in a favourable from a similar position, 29 days, 14 hours, situation for observation on the evening of and 59 minutes. From comparing the the 12th, as he arrives at his greatest east- above data, we find the longest synodic ern elongation on this day, when his dis period is from change to change, and the tance from the Sun is 18 degrees; he is shortest between the first quarters; the difin perihelio, or at his nearest distance from ference being 10 hours and 34 minutes, the Sun, on the following day: At 27 On the following morning, she is observed minutes 15 seconds past 4 in the morning considerably to the north of the noble