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Law and Justice contrasted, in West Indian Slavery.


and a zealous servant of the most high God, divine love, and breathed out prophetic Jotham had the advantage of a pious edu- rapture over the glorious anointed One, cation; and thus in his youth was able to whose day they saw and rejoiced in, alhold forth to Israel those truths for which though ages yet unborn separated them his father many times hazarded his life. from his person, conferred honours which But unto us it belongs to behold the full crowns and sceptres possess not; nor can development of this hallowed designation, all the kingdoms of the world compete “ For the Lord Jesus, the same night in therewith. And what cheer can the splen. which he was betrayed, took bread; anadours of royalty afford, in comparison of when he had given thanks, he brake it, that hallowed banquet, where the soul feasts and said, Take, eat; this is my body, upon his love, who loved not his life unto which is broken for you : this do in remem the death, but freely gave himself up for brance of me. After the same manner us all, when partaking the sacred elements also he took the cup, when he had supped, of bread and wine, under the gospel dissaying, This cup is the new testament in pensation? There do we shew forth the my blood : this do ye, as oft ye drink it, in Lord's death until he come, rejoicing in remembrance of me. For as often as ye hope, that then we shall partake of his eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do glory, and sit down upon his throne, as he shew the Lord's death till he come." is set down upon his Father's throne. “He 1 Cor. xi. Immediately afterwards he shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall suffered the agony of expiation upon the be satisfied," was predicted of the MesMount of Olives, and soon also upon the siah"; and in this hallowed feast he beholds cross. Thus did Jesus constitute the vine his sons with complacency and delight, the emblem, the seal, and the testament in joys in their joy, and mingles in their his blood, of the gospel dispensation, not ecstacy, by the Spirit being one with all his only to the seed of Abraham, but to every children. Thus does the vine cheer the nation upon earth.

hearts of men, and with them the great Each of these trees had tempting offers | God-Man, who, for us men, and for our from their fellow trees, to become sovereign salvation, came down from heaven. over them; and each, for its several reasons, But if these “ trees of righteousness, rejected this offer, preferring to serve the planting of the Lord, that he might be Jehovah, rather than reign over their fel- glorified," preferred his service to the lows. The splendours of an earthly usur thrones terrestrial, one is at hand, a thorny pation, in their view, were lighter than va- | shrub, creeping upon the earth, the bram. nity, in comparison with the hallowed disable, which seizes with avidity the splendid tinctions they enjoyed under the reign of offer, and rears instantly his crest, confrontthe Infinite. This will appear from their ing the cedars of Lebanon. several answers. “ Should I forsake my sweetness and my good fruit?" is the lan

(To be concluded in our neat.) guage of the fig-tree. “ Should I leave my fatness, wherewith by me they honour God and man?"". is that of the olive: and 'yet LAW AND JUSTICE CONTRASTED IN REmore exalted is the reply of the vine,

FERENCE TO WEST INDIAN SLAVERY. “ Should I leave my wine, which cheereth West Indian magistracy, threatening inGod and man?” The savour of the pa dependence of the British government, is a triarchal dispensation, as it is depicted in curious pretension! It is big with conthe sacred volume, wherein Jehovah and sequences! The Isles of Man and Wight angels, on messages of fraternity, in peace might follow the example.: ful conference with men, held habitual in • It appears to be high time that the sutercourse, is a good fruit indeed, compared preme legislature of the British empire with the history of nations, which, fraught should teach these magistrates a more subwith crooked policy, waged wars for domi. missive lesson. Is rebellion a less crime nion, until their history is rather the history in the West Indies, than it would be in of blood than of men--the conduct of England, Scotland, or Ireland ? If the fiends, rather than that of humanity. The colonists assume an authority, independent holy unction which formed the mean of of British authority, do they not set an communication between God and man, example to the slaves, of disobedience and hallowing altars, temples, and sacrifices, and insubordination? If it be the duty of the su. consecrating priests to the living God, preme government to protect the colonists throughout the dispensation of the law, (50,000 in number) against foreign or do. whose teachers and prophets, touched with mestic danger; is it not equally its duty to living coals from the altar, flamed with protect the Africans and mulattoes (800,000


Law and Justice contrasted, in West Indian Slavery.


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in number) against colonial injustice and op | lords and commons, to grant a gradual or pression ?

procrastinated manumission to 800,000 It would be impossible to say, whether African human beings, unaccused of crime, white or black approximates nearest the either brought from Africa by force, or complexion of our first parents. It is born in a state of slavery; will not such an most probable, that Adam was brown. It act of the British legislature transmit to is also probable, that the black and brown future generations a memorial of the greatof the human race would exceed the num est injustice ? ber of whites. If Europeans (whose skins | The question respecting the slaves is not, are white) have often warred with each properly speaking, Whether they shall have other, would it be a matter of wonder, if a mitigation of wretchedness, but whether a more bloody war than has ever yet they shall be held as slaves ? The question existed, should take place between the is, Shall slavery be continued, or shall it blacks and whites'; should the contest becease? Has the European a right to the doubtful, the browns will be able to decide African? If the taking by force is unjust, the victory. The subjects of European all the enactments of the West Indies are powers have long continued the practice of ] vitiated and unjust. Man, abstracted from importing the natives of Africa to the colo municipal or civil law, cannot be the pronies possessed by these European govern perty of his fellow-man. Whatever may ments. Upon an average, it is probable be the enactments of the West Indies with that not more than one-half of those captured | regard to the African, (provided slavery be in Africa, become the active slaves of these unjust) they are a mere usurpation. Natural colonists. All besides perish through care | right is equally in favour of the African, as lessness or ill treatment. These captivated ) it is of the European. Were it in the Africans had the means of existence prior power of the African, he would have just to their exportation from Africa. What ] as good a right to coerce the European, as better than murder is such a waste of human the European has to coerce the African. life? Should it be proved, that European Reciprocity is the basis of human society, governments have not only permitted, but and retaliation the result of oppression, even licensed, this traffic-supposing it to Were the Africans to resist, and succeed, be a legitimate merchandise-would not might they not turn the whole artillery of justice, notwithstanding, pronounce it mur- colonial laws against their oppressors; and derous ?—wilfully or obstinately to take away might they not cause the whip, in the hand human life carelessly, is, in the eye of justice, of the African, to be laid on the back of the murder.

European with as much severity as it is now So long have the legislative authorities of upon the back of the African ? If colonial the West Indies been accustomed to self law accounts it just to be thus severe upon complacency and self-sufficiency, that they the African, would it not be equally just seem indignant at any authority superior to | upon the European ? their own; and so long have they been Let this great question be brought fairly accustomed to manufacture laws for the and justly before the sovereign in council, government of slaves, that neither God nor and the two houses of parliament. Let not man must check their enormities! If any thing be exaggerated, (as the slaves and commiseration and compensation would | mulattoes are not allowed to state their own be due to the planters for the loss of the complaints :) let the 'advocates for justice, imprisoned African, what commiseration in behalf of the complainants, have a fair and compensation would be due to the in hearing. If the measures of the British jured slave ? Aggression is altogether on the legislature, which have prohibited slaveside of the planters and magistrates of the holding in England, and also prohibited West Indies. They have taken unjustly, the importation of slaves from Africa to the and they keep with impunity, the impri- West Indies, only tend to alleviate the consoned African

dition of the (now) imprisoned Africans; He who is unjustly imprisoned until he if they are still to remain in the hands of be liberated, is held in unjust imprison the planters as their property; it is to be ment. If gradual manumission be applied feared, that what may be done by way of to West Indian slavery, it may be adjusted mitigation, may in reality only prove by human law, but it never can be con- an additional cause of aggravation. I will sistent with divine justice. That the sove. suppose, that the number of stripes were reign of Great Britain should shew mercy reduced from 39 to 19 lashes, it is possible to an enemy, or a delinquent subject, is not that the executioner might, by 19 strokes of any thing strange; but for the sovereign of the whip, inflict severer punishment, than Great Britain, with the concurrence of the was formerly inflicted by 39 stripes.

122.-VOL. XI.


Strangers' Friend Society.---Toleration.



Neither wealth nor honour can redound | my children shall carry them, and taste the to the British sovereign, or the British rich feast of charity. nation, from colonial possessions, under the If we appeal to scripture, the following present West Indian system. The expen- passages will be sufficient to shew, that the diture in reality far exceeds the returns. We duty of attending to the necessities of the gave them a fish, and they in return give us poor, is imperative on every christian and a scorpion : we have given them protection, feeling heart. and they in return give us insult. We “ If I have withheld the poor from their furnish them with soldiery, and they furnish desire, or have caused the eyes of the wia grave for the dead. They furnish usdow to fail ;-or have eaten my morsel with sugar, and we return bitters for the myself alone, and the fatherless hath not use of the slaves.

eaten thereof;--if I have seen any perish Millions of British subjects have been for want of clothing, or any poor without made to pay for the support of this system covering ;-if his loins have not blessed of colonial slavery. The colonists manu-me, and if he were not warmed with the facture the shackles of slavery, and then fleece of my sheep;—if I have lifted up require the British sovereign to rivet them. | my hand against the fatherless, when I saw The legislators in the West Indies have my help in the gate;—then let mine arm outraged British authority itself. Their fall from my shoulder-blade, and mine arm claims are mandatory and arrogant. They be broken from the bone.” Job xxxi. scruple not to dictate to the British govern 16–22. ment; and complain aloud, at the very “Thou shalt not hide thyself from thine whisper of murmur, not only from the own flesh.” Isa. Iviii. 7. slaves themselves, but from every individual “I was naked, and ye clothed me; I who espouses their cause. Were the whip was sick, and ye visited me; I was in prionly an ensign of authority, it might be un- son, and ye came unto me.” Matt. xxv. 36. objectionable : were the shackles only held “He that hath two coats, let him imup in terrorem, they might be dispensed part to him that hath none; and he that with; but what British subject does not know, hath meat, let him do likewise” Luke iii. that the lash of the whip, or the galling 14. chain, must necessarily inflict pain? Must we go to the West Indies to learn the lesson of sensibility? That the whip is indispen

· TOLERATION. sable in the system of slavery in the West NATHAN Joseph, in his work entitled, Indies, is an acknowledgment of awful im “ Israel Vindicated,” in alluding to Toleraport. From what authority is this right in tion, says, “ This word Toleration ought, in the planter derived, to coerce, by the smart fact, to be expunged from the vocabulary of the whip, the African to labour for his of nations. The right to think belongs to (the planter's) sole benefit? It is an un. I no one exclusively : it is the property of paralleled assumption !

W. all. He that attempts to deprive me of

that right, or to limit its exercise, meditates

a control of my actions. If it is once BENEVOLENT, OR STRANGERS' FRIEND

admitted, that I ought to submit my opiSOCIETY.

nions to the regulations of others, there That season of the year has again arrived, would be only one step farther to a total when heads of families should look over surrender of civil right. He that pretends their wardrobes, and see what cast-off clothes, he has a right to tolerate opinions, must blankets, &c. they can spare for the desti. yield that right to others, or deny the natural

tute poor; thousands of whom, men, wo equality of man. If all should insist that the · men, and children, are bitterly suffering from power belongs to them, peace and concord the want of clothing.

would be banished from the earth, and war Let every reader ask himself the follow ever perpetuated, not to establish an uniing questions, and come to the concluding formity, but an ascendancy of contradictory determination :-Is not clothing the truly and opposing systems. Had Jehovah indeserving poor, a Christian duty ? an ap tended to establish uniformity of opinion, it pointed way of testifying our love to the would have been impossible for mankind Redeemer? and one test by which our cha to differ. In all countries, and in all ages, racters, and eternal destiny, will be deter the ideas of men have been as varied mined? What have I got? An old coat, as their countenances,—an evident proof a hat, a shirt, a blanket, or a few children's that they can never be made to think things : I will send them to the Benevolent alike. He, therefore, that attempts to reguSociety, or bestow them personally; or late, or tolerate, the opinions of others, sets


On the Morality of Science.


himself in opposition to the Deity. A Jew | man, the genuine ties of religion are of no has as good a right to tolerate a Catholic or account. He either disregards them altoProtestant, as either of these sects has to gether, or calculates on availing himself of tolerate a Jew. Both are equal in the eyes their efficacy at some future period of his of God, and both have an equal claim to life. Where then is the advantage, either the protection of the laws. It is only in religious or political, of continuing tests? despotic governments, that these incontro- | The good do not require them, and the vertible principles have not been adopted. wicked easily contrive to evade the purpose None but tyrants have ever yet attempted for which they are introduced.” to withhold from man the free exercise of his thinking faculties. The right of giving, clearly implies the power of withholding. ON THE MORALITY OF SCIENCE. If any man tells me, that he will tolerate

" To form the judgment, and improve the mind; my opinions, this implies that he claims

By the Almighty girer was desigo'd ; the power of restraining them. Hence the Each science still some moral truth unfolds, origin of persecution, which is only the

And in the scale its destin'd station holds :

Thus as we track the scientific road, offspring or child of toleration.”

Its windings lead us to the throne of God." Again, he says, page 98. “In no way is hypocrisy better fostered, than in com- KNOWLEDGE of every kind is valuable, pelling men to submit to religious tests and its acquisition has been approved of before they can be eligible to fill public by our Almighty Creator; an illustrious offices. No one will pretend, that the truly example of which, we have in Solomon, virtuous require the obligation of an oath, who received wisdom as the immediate or religious test, to restrain them from vio boon of heaven; and the reflections he made lating public or private trust.-Such tests on the various branches of science with are only for the wicked, whom, however, which he was acquainted, are still extant they never control. What advantages, then, in his Proverbs, &c. If science in these can morality derive from them, or what remote ages, when it was in its infancy, confidence can be placed in men, to whom could be made subservient to the exalted the administering an oath implies a suspi- | purposes of morality, how much more might cion of their integrity? Are we certain it be conducive to such an end, in its prethat ambitious knaves will relinquish their sent improved, and still improving state? iniquitous prospects, merely because it is yet, though we have a number of scientific required of them to swear, that they believe theologists, with the learned and intelligent the doctrines which they have been taught Derham at their head, who have thus enfrom their infancy to believe? Can power deavoured to lead us through nature up or emolument be obtained on easier terms? to nature's God,” by the paths of physioloIs it possible to conceive a greater induce- gy, botany, and entomology; there are still ment to the upprincipled to become candi-many sciences, which I humbly conceive dates for the highest bonours of the state ? | might be thus treated,' without any violation And what more powerful stimulant to their of propriety, and with great advantage to ambition, than to see the man of talent the morals of mankind. and of character, kept back from being The first of these I shall mention is useful to society, for no other reason, than Geology. Here might be concentrated all that he does not profess to believe what he those ancient and modern discoveries Cannot understand, or, believing it, does not which demonstrate the wisdom and conthink that it would add greater weight to trivance of the Great Architect of the unithe truth, to appeal to that Being, who verse, in forming the solid parts of our already knows the inmost secrets of his globe with such beautiful symmetry and heart, and who, whether he swears truly or order, and embedding the precious metals, Dot, has not enabled man to judge as to his minerals, and gems, deep in the bosom of sincerity? How often do we find the most the mountain masses; yet accumulating a faming professions of religion intimately central nucleus of granite, whose continuous connected with the most depraved hearts ! solidity is unbroken by the ramification of The man who is bent only on promoting | metallic veins, the assimilation of mineral his own selfish views, will not hesitate at particles by chemical affinity, or the slow the means of obtaining his object. Aware crystallization of gems and salts with that of that it is necessary to disguise his senti- | belemnites, quartz, spars, &c. The upper ments, in his intercourse with his fellow strata also are full of evidences of wondercitizens, he will readily conform to their ful contrivance, the gradual subsidence and religious observances, without which, he consolidation of alluvial depositions, and knows he cannot succeed. With such a | the proportionate admixture of the various

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Observations on the Natural History of the Ostrich.


superstrata of clay, gravel, sand, and loam, atmosphere, condense, and produce hail, till the surface is finally composed of rain, snow, &c. Those which sink may be fertile and porous materials, capable of reabsorbed, and,'by various unknown comproducing, and nourishing a wonder- binations, may be the cause of earthquakes, ful system of vegetable life, for the good inflammable exhalations, hot springs, &c. and protection of the animal creation. The above slight and imperfect hints When we add to this, the wonderful vol- will, I trust, stimulate some abler pen to cano, which may be considered as a chim investigate these highly interesting subjects, ney for the discharge of mineral exhalations, and thus add to the fund of general knowwhich, if confined, would explode in the ledge, and raise the mind to the contembowels of the earth, and destroy its con- plation of Him whose wisdom has formed, tinuity—and the tremendous phenomena of and whose goodness sustains, the globe, of earthquakes, which are probably caused by which we are the inhabitants. the chemical action of mineral ingredients

E. G. B. we have ample scope for moral reflection on the wonderful works of God.

If in the same manner we examine OBSERVATIONS ON THE NATURAL HISTORY Chemistry as a natural science, divested

OF THE BLACK OSTRICH. of its artificial and experimental associa This is the largest of all birds, and from tions, by which new, and frequently unna this prerogative, in a great measure, is incatural combinations are produced, what won.

pable of flight. Its weight is sometimes ders shall we not find in the essential cha

from eighty to one hundred pounds; from racters of the several acids, alkalies, salts, | the top of the head to the ground it is earths, waters, and gases ! and the materials from seven to nine feet; and its length, of the animal, vegetable, and mineral king | from the beak to the tip of the tail, eight doms, afford an endless variety of subjects for feet. When walking, it seems as tall as a admiration and praise. Each component man on horseback. The plumage of the part is so wonderfully proportioned, and ostrich, however, as well as its weight, is an combined with the others, as by united insuperable bar against its rising in the air. action to produce precisely the substance | The vanes of the wing-feathers are separate required, and which, by a quality origi- and detached, like hairs, and incapable of nally communicated by the hand of Omni- | making any impression on the atmosphere. potence, is ever unchangeably the same; Those of the tail, and indeed of the whole while the variations we find, however body, are of the same structure. They are inscrutable to our finite understandings, all as soft as down, and utterly unfit not only are governed by immutable laws impressed for Aying, but for defending the body of the on matter at the moment of creation. | animal from external injury. The feathers

Meteorology is another science, that of other birds have their webs broader on admits of the same mode of illustration. the one side than the other, but those of the How wonderful is the composition of the ostrich have the shaft exactly in the middle. atmosphere, consisting, as it does, of no The head, the upper part of the neck, more than three permanently elastic fluids, sides, and thighs, are covered with a clear namely, oxygen, hydrogen, and azote, kind of hair, which, on the head, somewhich are so mixed in certain proportions, what resembles the bristles of a hog. as to be respirable with safety, while either The thighs of this bird, in which its alone, or even in different proportions, great strength seems to lie, are large and would be fatal. This astonishing con- muscular, and its hard and scaly legs, trivance is also effected in the midst of which are supported by two thick toes, have mineral and metallic exhalations from the a considerable similarity to those of the surface of the globe, in a gaseous state, of goat. These toes are of unequal size : the various gravities; and many of them, inner, which is both longer and thicker, though pernicious to animal and vegetable being seven inches in length, including the life, ascend or descend through the atmo claw; the other, which is without a claw, is sphere, without producing any injurious four inches. It is the only bird that poseffect. From those which rise above the sesses eyelids, and these are fringed. surface of the globe, and are of an inflam Though the ostrich be a bird known from mable character, most probably from the the earliest ages, little comparatively is action of chemical affinities producing a related of its history. In the scriptures galvanic action, proceed the awful pheno- we have many comparisons drawn from its mena of thunder and lightning, meteors, manners : as an article of food, it was formeteorolites, and aerolites, while some, by bidden the Jews. It is mentioned by combination, and the temperature of the 1 Aristotle as remarkable for its feeunditý.

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