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· The Seasons.

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important in the moral treatment of insan- | corded on the weather of the past season, ity, to treat the patients as much as possi- during a perambulation of the Welsh mounble as rational and feeling beings ; indeed, tains, the Lancashire, Cheshire, Shropshire, they are all rational at some times or upon | and Malvern hills, through the medium of some subjects, except in the paroxysms | your valuable work, in col. 1015, I hope which always intermit: and the difficulty of the indulgence will be conceded to me, of proper treatment does not arise from the continuing the subject, or one nearly allied total absence of the reasoning powers, or thereto, from observations made during a any loss of memory or knowledge, but from subsequent tour amidst the Lincolnshire the intensity of erroneous thoughts and feel- wolds, and the Yorkshire, Durham, and ings, which suspend the action of reason Northumberland hills. at some times, or upon some subjects, or, I found, notwithstanding the unusually not unfrequently, upon only one train of turbulent storms with which this island had the ideas. It is therefore obvious, that to been visited during the months of July, divert the hallucinations by strong and August, and September, that the equinoctial rational impressions, and calling as much gales arrived in regular order, with their as possible the reasoning powers into action, | accustomed fury, and exacted from the is the path of recovery, as far as moral treat already exhausted mariner, the last mite ment goes, and if this is practised upon an of his tribute to their annual tyranny, withamended constitution, perfect recovery is out the least abatement; although nothing most generally attainable. But it is folly can be charged upon these more than the to expect recovery from a bad or sinking usual routine of the season to which they constitution, or if the feelings and sensibili. naturally belong. The month of October, ties are outraged by unnecessary coercion, and November also, as far as it has already or scenes of gloom and horror. County proceeded, viz. to the fourteenth day, have Asylums are a system of coercion and not been marked by a departure, on the horror, yet even this would be of less con- / part of the elements which surround our sequence, if the poor pauper lunatic were sphere, from the regular course of nature. admitted during the first paroxysm of | Fierce, therefore, as was the elemental strife the disease, but the law most preposte- which the accustomed months of serenity rously throws obstacles in the way of a re- experienced, the order of creation is not bemoval while the disease is quite recent.-- come thereby distorted, much less subIndeed, all the laws respecting lunatics verted; for the season in its due course and poor or rich, have a strong tendency to in the usual way, following in the order of prevent their recovery, by presenting obsta- nature, indicates the same stability and cles to the early application of the best vigour which past and passing ages have means of recovery. It is true, the good experienced from the operation of the laws sense of a noble lord did interpose a modi- | of creation. We have, therefore, the ground fication of the old law; still it is very of hope firm beneath us, as to any cataobjectionable, and the only improvement strophe which may await our sphere for of the County Asylum law is, the providing some time to come. for a disclosure of their defects, which “While the earth remaineth, seed-time may open a way for a better system.

and harvest, and cold and heat, and sumI have indulged a hope that I should mer and winter, and day and night, shall live to see an institution, equal to any not cease.” This is the decree of Jehovah, thing that may be seen in other countries, made when the world which we inhabit for the purpose of curing insanity gratis, emerged from the waters of the general upon the best possible principles for the deluge, in which the old world perished; cure, leaving the care of pauper incurable made, once for all, as a law to every sublunatics, criminal lunatics, idiots, paraly sequent age of this sphere. The operations tics, and epileptics, to the County Asy- | of these seasons may therefore occupy, lums and other local authorities.

with every propriety, the notice of men who May the Almighty send the spirit of feel that they are themselves, as well as this benevolence into the hearts of those who are sphere and all the elements of which it is rich, and particularly interested upon the composed, subjects of that Divine Prosubject of Insanity. Thomas BAKEWELL. vidence which subsists and superintends Spring Vale, near Stone, 7th Oct. 1829.

every thing which the transcendent energies

of the Creator have called into existence. · THE SEASONS.

Although one seed-time may exceedingly MR. EDITOR,

embarrass the husbandman from the excess SIR, -Having already communicated to or deficiency of rains, and another may

public the observations which I re- 1 yield him every facility for scattering his

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The Seasons.

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grain amidst the furrows, and one harvest Creator, capable of scanning, to an indescribmay be ungenial and another genial, yet to able extent, the works of God; and having the industrious, patient, and experienced scanned these works, he enjoys capabilities cultivator, the season always affords an of perpetuating his experience. The notes opportunity in its progress, if not of a of a long life may therefore be read in a few lucrative, yet of a subsisting character, for days; and thus may an individual of inthe husbandman to commit to and receive dustrious habits, by study imbibe the wisdom from his well-tilled field the timely fruits of of ages, and, fraught with this wisdom, the earth. The cold of winter, too, and the ransack creation; and having thereby addheat of summer, notwithstanding the differ- ed to his store, transmit the whole to afterence in degree between the severity of one ages, and thus become the mean of imwinter and another, or between the heat of provement to posterity, as his progenitors the summer, while it passes over us, com- were the means of improving him. Wide pared with the preceding one, are observed as are the works of the Infinite, and long by all mankind, and the regular succession as is their duration, if the individual, who of the one to the other cannot escape the quickly passes away, cannot scan them to most cursory observer; indeed, summer and perfection, the aggregate of mankind may winter, with their attendants, heat and cold, approach this perfection more and more have passed over us so regularly froin our until the end of time. youth up, that we account them collaterals During the present year I have peramof, or with, our existence, in the sphere we bulated many thousands of miles upon the inhabit. Day also, and night, although, earth's surface, and penetrated the earth's during a portion of the year, the one be- crust, by numerous openings in various comes comparatively long, and the other and distant places, amidst strata of almost short, and vice versà, are as evident to every description which this sphere conevery one of us, as the seasons themselves : tains; and during every revolution of the yea, even when the exalted moon exerts her last forty years which have passed over me, utmost rivalry, and from aloft beams out to I have habituated myself to ransack poran hemisphere of the earth, midnight gran- tions of creation in a similar way, but no deurs, excelled only by the meridian glories symptoms of dotage have any where preof that transcendent sphere which crowns sented themselves to my view, in the laws our system, and gives forth light to all the of creation; they yet retain their pristine worlds of which it is composed. These vigour. phenomena, in toto, are involved in the Every where, and at all times, I have position of our earth in respect of the sun, perceived the tone and precision of these the revolutions of the earth round its axis, 1 laws in uniform and energetic action and the peculiar orbit allotted thereto, in its throughout the elementary, the mineral, the annual progression around the luminary of vegetable, the animal, and the planetary day. The decree of Jehovah established worlds. these, and they stand fast ; therefore, the Indications of endurance abound at this earth retains its relative position in respect moment, as strong in every 'health-fraught of that luminary in, its appointed, orbit, feature, as they appeared the first moment and, seed-time and harvest, and cold and my eyes were directed to these objects; and heat, and summer and winter, and day and every part of the matter of this sphere night," continue in regular succession to the appears to be as completely subject to the presenthour, it's

government of the general laws of matter, Years, yea ages, with the Infinite are as | as it was when the Creator subjected it to yesterday, no point of time, no period in these laws nearly six thousand years ago. It it, nor, even time itself in all its amplitude, is true, the individual soon disappears : this is of relatiyerimportance in the perpetuation mutation is in perpetual operation. Indiof His purposes: whatever with Him is vidual atoms concrete or crystallize, and willed, is executed, and it stands firm. The form substances, and these again are resolvexperience of an individual is limited to ed into their component atoms ; individual whạt may with propriety be called a point seeds vegetate, become plants, bear seeds, in space, and a point in time, for what are and the original seed becoming decomposed the few thousand miles which a human be- ) is no more ; animals are generated, arrive ing can perambulate upon the surface of the | at maturity, and generate other animals, and sphere to whtch he is confined, and what the progenitors of these return to their original are the forty years of adult age, wherein he dust; but while the individual passes away, can observe the mutations of time?

the incessant succession perpetuates the · But limited as mortality is, there is a species; and thus, even amidst perpetual spirit in man, implanted by the Beneficent deaths and dissolutions, creation lives, and 132.-VOL. XI.

4 A

1091.
Carne's Letters from the East.

1092 S e cr..................................................... lives with a vigour equally pristine through- ever-rolling stream, into the gulf of eterout the ages of tiines. Whatever portion of nity; and who can say, I shall not pass matter is intended by the Creator to sub- with these? Is there not an appointed serve a temporary purpose, in association time for man upon earth ? Are not his with other portions of matter, the laws days like the days of an hireling?" He who which govern that association unite these knoweth all things, knows the moment apin determinate proportions, and give them pointed for the dissolution of the individual, certain forms, and cause them thus united but the individual knoweth it not; it is to subserve the purposes intended; but no wisely hidden from his view. In the holy sooner is the intention of the Creator com- keeping of that exalted Providence in whose pletely answered, than these portions of hands are the individuals of every name associated matter disunite, and, resolved which now exists on this sphere, as well as into their component parts, they become the sphere itself, I hold myself, whether it matter for fresh associations of similar or be for life or for death, safe-for in His dissimilar kinds, according to the new rela- hands alone are peace and safety : may le tions into which they enter. Thus, a grain prepare me for all future events, and His of wheat may be resolved into the flesh of will be done and with myself I also pray a bird, a man, or any other animal, by for like blessings upon the whole family of digestion or it may again vegetate, and man.-May Jehovah convert the nations, reproduce grains of wheat a hundred.fold. bless with eternal blessings all mankind, Whatever portions of matter are intended and save the whole human race! to subserve permanent purposes, aloof from But whatever of the individuals of the these mutations, beneath the laws of affinity sphere may pass away with the passing they brave the rush of ages unconsumed; 1 year, I feel satisfied, under the contemand when visited during the transient inter- plation of an indefinite mass of unfulfilled vals of forty years, invariably present the prophecy, that the earth will continue to same features to the keenest observers; brave the assaults of time, and many, many yea, on comparing these with the note-books years maintain its rank amidst creation. of men of ancient times, it is plain these fea- 1 King Square, London. W. COLDWELLtures were the same through preceding ages; and it is fair in us to conclude, that so long as the laws of creation continue the

MOTIVES FOR CONVERSION. . same, these will remain the same through | “ We found an acquaintance Mr. J. the out the ages of time.

English merchant, from Smyrna, in great It is not predicted of this sphere that it trouble. His servant, a Greek, and quite a will cease to be from sheer exhaustion of

youth, was a good-looking fellow, and had its powers or its parts; the Infinite has ap- l grown a great favourite with some of the pointed to it another mode of dissolution. I single, and some of the married women of

In the sacred volume we are told, “The the place; and to support his expenses, he earth which now is, is kept in store, reserv- | plundered his master during his absence in ed unto fire." It is kept; the laws of crea

Damascus, and dashed away to his heart's tion keep or preserve it until the purposes content. Not long after, he was arrested of the Creator are completely answered : 1 and lodged in prison. One or two Mosthen, at that moment, the laws of creation lems persuaded him to change his religion: being dissolved, the rush of elements will he forthwith assumed the turban, and with resolve into their component atoms the it his liberty; and in his new dress was various portions of this sphere, and it will seen walking about the streets, free from all instantly cease to be. This preservation of inquisition for his knavery, and his pros. the earth we now witness, on surveying all pects brighter than ever.-Carne's Letters its parts, and contemplating its successivel from the East. Vol. i. p. 112. forms: the tone and vigour of all these evince at this moment a strength equal to

EUSEBIUS, BISHOP OF MOUNT LEBANON. the endurance of ages to come, and tell us, whatever mutations individual portions of “ This was a premature and unsuccesful its matter may undergo, that the word of attempt: but too much caution cannot be God is truth, and that this sphere will live, used in the efforts, now so general and “ until the day of judgment, and perdition admired, to reclaim the people of the East of ungodly men !"

from their errors and superstitions. The The passing year, like all its predeces- cunning and knavery of the Syrians will sors, will soon disappear, to return no more often prove an overmatch for the simplicity for ever : millions born within it, and mil. of the missionary. Father I., in Jerusalem, lions born before it, will also pass, like the is one proof of this; and there were two

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The Vicar of Woodhorn.

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brothers of Mount Lebanon, clever and seat, a few feet high, and scrubbed without designing fellows both of them, who agreed mercy all over, by a Turkish operator, who to be baptized, and became useful agents, next cracks every joint in your limbs, the on the promise of some hundred pounds, to sound of which may be heard through the be paid them by a wealthy and zealous apartment. You then put on a light dress, supporter of the cause. The noted Euse and proceed to the outer room, where you bius, bishop of Mount Lebanon, came to recline on carpets and cushions, and have England about six years ago, to set forth the pipes, coffee, and sherbet brought you. A dark and distressed state of the Syrian soft and luxurious feeling then spreads it-, Christians : he was chaperoned through self over your body. Every limb and joint many of the colleges at Oxford, by one of is light and free as air, and after all this pomthe masters; and was made much of by melling and perspiring, you feel more enjoysome ministers, though mistrusted by others. ment than you ever felt before.-Carne's His short stature, his red hair and beard, Letters from the East. vol. i. p. 196. were any thing but preposessing; but he interested the feelings and hopes of numbers, by his affecting details of the desola.

ARAB SUPERSTITION.- BOOK OF MIGHT. tion of his country, and finally set off with The other sheiks now parted from Hassan, a capital printing-press for printing copies and went to their homes. In the evening of the Testament, and about eight hundred we sat round the fire at the door of our tent, pounds in money. When we were at Sidon drank coffee, and smoked a pipe to pass the we found that this eastern dignitary was time; and the Arabs sometimes joined us. living in a style of excessive comfort, and The hatred these people bear to the monks to his heart's content, at a few hours' disc is excessive; they made use of every oath tance. With this money, which was a for- | in their language when abusing them, and tune in the East, he has purchased a good a chief took a piece of brown bread from house and garden; not one farthing had his vest, and held it up.—“Is this good," said ever gone to renovate the condition of the he," for us to eat, while in the convent they Christians of the East, and the printing have it so white?” The sons of devils and press, or some fragments of it, were known of perdition, they declared, should not be to have found their way to Alexandria." - feasting within their walls in that manner. Ibid. p. 115.

Another cause of their hatred was the Book of Might, which they protested and believed

the priests kept in the convent, and buried RED SEA.

it the greater part of the year in the earth. In three days, travelling slowly, we reached They said this book had power, whenever the shores of the Red Sea : it is here a fine it was opened and exposed to the air, to sheet of water, about ten miles broad. This bring rain upon the earth, so that their hearts is the place where the Israelites are sup were made glad, and their deserts refreshed. posed to have crossed. Directly opposite But the priests, out of the malice they bore on the other side, the mountains, which to the Arabs, kept it in general buried deep; above and below form a continued range, in consequence they were seldom blessed are divided; and, sloping gently down, with any rain-Carne's Letters from the leave a space or valley of about six miles East. vol. i. p. 242. broad, through which the Israelites passed on their way from Pihahiroth. Near the spot where we were, are the hot springs;

THE VICAR OF WOODHORN. they are several in number, and are warm

" They are not there! by the dear hearth enough to boil an egg in a few minutes.

That once beheld their harmless mirth. Ibid. p. 253.

Where is the glow it used to wear ?

'Tis felt no more-they are not there!"

The village of Woodhorn stands near the BATHING AT CAIRO.

sea-shore, on the coast of Northumberland. There are various warm baths at Cairo, The vicarage of this parish, half a century and the Orientals, both men and women, ago, was the residence of the Rev. Mr. are passionately fond of the use of them. | LATIN and his family. My mother was This bath is at first a fearful ordeal for a | then a young girl, the daughter of respectEuropean to go through. Having stripped, able parents; but the youngest of a numeyou first enter the vapour bath, where you rous family, and not above holding the remain till the perspiration streams out at situation of child's-maid in a clergyman's the pores. You then enter the warm bath, house. and afterwards are laid at length on a long On being married, she lived to preside

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The Vicar of Woodhorn.

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long as a help-mate to her pious husband, I circumstances by misfortune, than changed at the head of their own numerous house in person by the lapse of time. Her letters hold,-was placed over many servants are now before me, in some of which she and after having set an example to hand feelingly alludes to the period of juvenile maids, she became also a model for mis and innocent pleasure, spent under the roof tresses. Having tended some of the vicar's of indulgent parents, and amid the endearchildren in their infancy, and been the com- ments of an affectionate family. panion of their elder sisters; and being “There,” she says, “how often, on a fine kindly regarded by them and their parents evening, have I enjoyed from the vicarage in return, she felt ever after much interested windows, the soothing prospect of a tranquil in their history, and retained a fond recol- sea, with a fleet of merchant-ships sleeping lection of the spot which had been the on its breast ;-or the orb of night rising scene of many an innocent gambol in the from her oozy bed, and shedding her mild season of juvenile hilarity. I also have lustre on the glowing main; and at other felt an interest in their history, for that times, sauntering on the beach, have marked mother's sake; and have visited Woodhorn the flowing or receding tide, and have been upon no other errand than to see the par- pleased with the rippling of the murmuring sonage-house, where she was once an in- waters.” And when at other seasons, as mate, and peep into the window of the would frequently be the case, the watery church where Mr. L. used to preach, and element, roused by storms, put on a frowntry to identify the pew in which his family ing aspect; and the yawning deep ensat, well knowing that my mother had been gulfed the hapless mariner, or the resistless there. I have ranged amongst the tomb- billows dashed his little bark upon the stones,-read the epitaphs she used so often rugged shore; — when the neighbouring to read,-and noticed some of a later date beach presented to the agonized view of than 1777, which are now looking old and humanity the appalling prospect of wrecked green, though they had not been erected at vessels and dead carcases ;—these disasters the period to which I refer.

afforded an occasion for the exercise of hosThe reader will excuse this apostrophe pitality towards survivors, and sympathy for to the memory of an excellent parent; and suffering fellow-creatures : thus whilst the in resuming the thread of our story, in father was endeared to his family by acts of reference to the clergyman of Woodhorn, beneficence, home was rendered more than and his rural congregation of fifty years usually comfortable, by contrasting with an ago, our charitable feelings might lead us exposure to the boisterous elements, the to adopt the glowing language of a female snug enjoyments of the parsonage-house. writer (Mary Anne Browne, author of The vicar was descended from an ancient “ Mont Blanc,” &c.) of much pathos and and honourable family : his ancestors were fluency, who has already furnished us with amongst that band of warriors who assisted a motto:

in placing William of Normandy on the " Where are they then ?-Oh! past away,

throne of England ; and in the church of Like blossoms, withered in a day!

in Surry, where most of them have Or, as the waves go swiftly by,

been interred, a number of their monu. Or, as the lightning leave the sky, But still there is a land of rest;

ments may still be seen. His father, about Still hath it room for many a guest,

the year 1752, was ambassador from this Still is it free from strife and care ;And 'tis our hope that they are there !"

country to Algiers; a bishop stood sponsor

at his own baptism; and the living he How short and uncertain is the tenure | afterwards enjoyed was in consequence of a upon which human life is held! What a promise made at his christening! train of important changes takes place within Though vicar of Woodhorn, and minister the period we have named ! How small of St. Michael's Felton, Mr. L.'s situation, the remnant who now survive of the cheer- considering the rank of his family, might ful population of Woodhorn half a century be deemed humble enough; and his not ago! The young of that day, who may yet enjoying more of the afluence in which he be living, how altered ! whilst of the old it had been brought up, was owing to his may be asserted, that, without exception, having forfeited his father's good-will by they have gone down to the grave, or have marrying without his consent, and in conbeen engulfed in the ocean. Some of the sequence losing his fellowship at college, vicar's family are amongst the survivors, and ruining his prospects of dignity in though long since removed from the scene the church. of their youthful enjoyments. I have been A minister in the established church is gratified by a correspondence with one of a highly influential character. What his daughters, though scarcely less altered in comes from the accredited clergy of the

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