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To reduce chains and links, to feet and decimal parts of a


If they be two-pole chains, reduce them to fourpole ones : (by prob. 1.) these being multiplied by the feet in a four-pole chain, will give the feet and decimals of a foot. Thus,

Ch. L.
In 17. 21 of two-pole chains, how many feet?

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To reduce

feet and inches to chains and links.

Reduce the inches to the decimal of a foot, and annex that to the feet; that divided by the feet in a four-pole chain, will give the four-pole chains and

links in the quotient: these may be reduced to two pole chains and links, if required, by prob. 2. Thus,

Feet. Inches.
In 217.

9 how many two-pole chains ?
12)9.00.(75 the decimal of 9 inches.


66)217.75(3. 29 of four-pole chains, or



Ch. L.. 655 6. 29


How to take a Survey by the CHAIN only.


To survey a piece of ground, by going round it; and the me

thod of taking the angles of the field, by the chain only.

PL. 6. fig. 6.

Let ABCDEFG be a piece of ground to be surveyed : begioning at the point A, let one chain be laid in a direct line from A, towards G, where let a peg be left, as at c; and again, the like distance from 4 in a direct line towards B, where another peg

is also to be left, as at d: let the distance from d to c be measured, and placed in the field-book, in



the second column under the denomination of angles, in a line with station No. 1; and in the same line, under the title of distances, in the third column, let the measure of the line AB in chains and links be inserted. Being now arrived at B, let one chain be laid in a direct line from B towards 4, where let a peg be left, as at f, and again, the like distance from Bin a direct line towards C, where let also another


be left, as at e; the distance from e to f is to be inserted in the field-book in the second column, under angles, in a line with station No. 2; and in the same line, under the title of distances in the third column, let the measure of the line BC, in chains and links, he inserted : after the same manner we may proceed from C to D, and thence to E ; but because the angle at E, viz FED, is an external angle, after having laid one chain from E to h, and to g, the distance from g to his measured, and inserted in the column of angles, in a line with station No. 5. and on the side of the field-book against that station, we make an asterisk, thus *, or any other mark, to signify that to be an

s external angle, or one measured out of the ground. Proceed we then as before, from E to F, to G, and thence to A, measuring the angles and distances, and placing them as before, in the field-book, opposite to their respective stations ; so will the fieldbook be completed in manner following.

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N. B. After this manner the angles for inac-. cessible distances may be taken, and the metbod of constructing or laying them down, as well as the constiuction of the map, from the following field-notes, must be obvious from the method of taking them.

The form of the field-book, with the title.

A field-book of part of the land of Grange, in the

parish of Portmarnock, barony of Coolock, and county of Dublin; being part of the estate of L. P. Esq. let to-C. D. farmer. Surveyed January, 30, 1782.

Taken by a four pole chain.


No./ Ingles Distan.

Sta.|Gh, L.Ch. L. Mr. J. D's part of Grange 11.80 17.65

2 11.79 18.50 Mr. L.P's partof Portmarnock 3 1.76 28.00

strand 4 1.41 20.00 *

14.83 Widow J. G’s part of Grange 6 1.14 19.41

7.11.89 24.53 Close at the first station.

5 1.871

Explanation of the remarks.

Mr. J. D’s part of Grange bounds, or is adjacent to the surveyed land from the first to the third station; Mr. L. P's part of Portmarnock bounds it from the third to the fourth station ; the strand then is the boundary from thence to the sixth, and from the sixth to the first station, the widow J. G's part of Grange is the boundary.

It is absolutely necessary to insert the persons' names, and town-lands, strands, rivers, bogs, rivulet's, &c. which bound or circumscribe the land which is surveyed, for these must be expressed in


the map


In a survey of a town-land, or estate, it is sufficient to mention only the circumjacent town-lands,

without the occupiers' names: but when a part only of a town-land is surveyed, then it is necessary to insert the person or persons' names, who hold any particular parcel or parcels, of such townland, as bound the parts surveyed.

When an angle is very obtuse, as most in our present figure, are, viz. the angles at A, B, C, E, and G: it will be best to lay a chain from the angular point as at A, on each of the containing sides to c and to d; and any where nearly in the middle of the angle as at e ; measuring the distances ce and ed ; and these may be placed for the angle in

; the field book. Thus.

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For when an angle is very obtuse, the chord line, as ed, will be nearly equal to the radii Ac and Ad : so if the arc ced be swept, and the chord line ed be laid on it, it will be difficult to determine exactly that point in the are where ed cuts it; but if the angle be taken in two parts, as ce the arc, and the angle thence may be truly determined and constructed.

After the same manner any piece of ground may be surveyed by a two-pole chain.

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