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house, room, or apartment. See Howison's Malay Dictionary.
English, odour; Latin, odor; French, odeur; Italian, odore; Spanish, bum olor; Persian, atar or otlur, as ottar gul, or odour of roses, a costly and particularly odoriferous oil, which is procured by distillization, From the petals of a peculiar species of roses. It is said, that if two drachms of this oil can be procured from one hundred weight of rose flower leaves,, the season is accounted singularly favourable. The fair sex are indebted to an Indian lady for the discovery of this elegant perfume. See Pennant's View of Hindostan, and the first volume of Asiatic Researches.
KapjA»7i), Greek; pannus camelinus, Latin; camelot, French; cambellotto, Italian; camelot, German; camelote, Spanish; /camlet, Arab; camlet, English.
The camlets made in the eastern countries, are a mixture of silk and the hair of camels. The English camlets (which are chiefly manufactured at Norwich, and in its vicinity), are made entirely of worsted, of which large quantities are annually exported to Sardinia, Sicily, the Levant, and other countries in the south of Europe.
^OJ, Hebrew*; KafujAoj, Greek; camelus, Latin; camello, Spanish; chameau, French; camello, Italian; cameel, German; jemal, Arabic; camelie, Syriac or Assyrian f.
Cucu, Persian; Kojcxuj;, Greek; cuculus, Latin; coucou, French; cuculo, Italian; cucu, Portuguese; cuclillo, Spanish; cuach, Irish; kuckuch, Teutonic; kochkock, Dutch.
The surprising similarity of the Chinese word keuen, a dog, with the Greek xutov, and the Latin cams, will not escape the reader's notice. Some of the European languages follow the Greek : others the Saxon. French, chien; Italian, cane; Irish, kene; Welsh, chena; Saxon, ftoc; Belgic, dogge; Teutonic, dock; English, dog.
* The name of the third letter in the Hebrew alphabet. The names of most of the Hebrew letters are significant words. See the Hebrew word ]vi in these remarks.
t According to Scaliger, See his Vet. Gracorum, &c.
Several Greek words may be traced to the Chinese. For much curious information, respecting the ancient communication of China with Greece, see Dr. Hagar's Pantheon Chinois.
From the Hebrew word I'D, a hole or pit, we have the English words, bury, burial, burrow, &c.
1~ip, Hebrew; xifaj, Greek; come, French (hence our English word cornet, an octave trumpet) cuerno, Spanish; corno, Italian; /corn, Welsh; koorn, Arabic; hopn, Saxon (whence our English word); cornu, Latin.
Benignum cornu. Hor.
The casual coincidence of the French verb manger, and the Italian mangiare, with the Pelew word munga, to eat, is worthy of observation. Our English word munch is probably from the French. See Keate's Account of the Pelew Islands.
Rubinus. Latin; rubis or ruby, French; rubin, German; rubino, Italian; robyn, Dutch; rubi, Spanish; rubitn, Portuguese; rubin, Danish; rubin, Polish; rubin, Swedish; ruby, English; hence also, rubric, expressing the contents of a law book, or some direction or rule; the first letter (and not unfrequently the first wjjrd^f which is generally written, or illuminated, with red ink, or paint.
Abad, Persian, a habitation, residence; bod, Welsh, a mansion; English, abode. From the Persian word comes the Egyptian and Macedonian, abydos.
The word neil, in the Telinga, signifies water, (as 1 am informed by a person who understands something of that language); the Irish word neeal signifies a cloud; and the Welsh niule, a mist or fog. •
Jn Latin, dens is a tooth; Italian, dente; French, dent; Portuguese, denies; Spanish, diente; Greek, tioyta,; Dutch, tant; Welsh, dant; Swedish, land; Hebrew, |u; *; Persian, dendan, as mar dendan, a serpent's tooth, an expression found in the writings of the oriental poets. Our bard of Avon also has it,
* Also the name of the Hebrew letter w, or sh. See Bochart's Canaan illustrated.
How, sharper than a serpent's tooth it is;
Clemens Alexandrinus says, that the Assyrian and Egyptian hieroglyphics, represent a child who has been ungrateful and cruel to its parents, by the figure of a small snake or viper. See Dr. Jenning's Jewish Antiquities.
Koosen, Belgic; to sooth with insidious words; to wheedle; hence our English words, cozen, to cheat; cozenage, &c.
Strange cozenage! none would live past years again,
DRYDEN, AORENGZEBE, ACT 4.
In the French language, chemise signifies a shirt; and cammicia is Italian for the same article of habiliment. In the Madagascar tongue, chameser expresses the same thing. I believe there are other words in that language, which have affinity with some of the European as well as Asiatic languages. J.H.N.
Near Leeds, Dec. 6,181). ( To be continued.)
TO THE EDITORS OF THE ENQUIRER.
The following extracts contain so many just and useful observations on the most common methods whereby men are led to reason falsely, and at once display, and are so calculated to produce, accuracy of thinking, that I am induced to send you this specimen for insertion in your useful Miscellany, should it meet your approbation.
They are taken from " The Art of Thinking," a treatise on logic, written originally in French, by Messrs. Du Port Royal, afterwards translated into English, and the fourth edition, from which I copy, was printed at London, in the year 1702. The style is concise and clear, but the language is so distant from modern precision as to need several corrections; which, where the sense, the rales of grammar, or an obvious improve
VOL. II. o
meat with a little alteration, gave occasion for it, I have attempted to make. I am, respectfully
SEVERAL SORTS OF VICIOUS ARGUMENTS, CALLED SOPHISMS.
Although when we understand the rules of arguing rightly, it be no difficult thing to distinguish those that are false; nevertheless, as examples to be avoided make a deeper impression on our minds, than examples that are worthy imitation, it may not be amiss to lay open the sources of bad arguments, which are called sophisms, or paralogisms, whereby they may the more easily be avoided.
I shall reduce them only to seven or eight heads, there being some so notoriously absurd that they are not worthy remembrance.
To prove another thing than that which is in question.
This sophism is called by Aristotle, Ignorantion Elenchi: the ignorance of that, which is to be proved against the opponent. For in dispute we grow hot, when many times we do not understand one another. This is a common vice in the disputes among men. Through passion or falsehood we attribute that to the opponent, which is remote from his thoughts, to combat him with more advantage; or we tax him with consequences which we think we can draw from his doctrine, which he disavows and denies. All this may be referred to the first sort of sophism, which a man of worth and sincerity ought to avoid above all things.
It were to be wished that Aristotle, who is careful to admonish us of this defect, had been also as careful to avoid it. For it cannot be denied that he has encountered several of the ancient philosophers by citing their opinions, not with that sincerity which he ought to have done. He refutes Parmenides and Melissus, for admitting but one sole principle of all things; as if they
had meant by that, the principle of which they are composed; whereas they meant the sole and only Principle from whence all things draw their original, God himself.
He accuses all the ancients for not acknowledging privation to be one of the principles of natural things; and, for that, he inveighs against them as dull and rustic. But who is so blind as not to see, that what he represents to us as a grand mystery, not known till he discovered it, could never be concealed from any man ; since every man must apprehend, that the matter of which a table is made, must have the privation of the form of a table, that is, can be no table before it is shaped into a table. It is true, the ancients never thought of this use of privation to explain the principles of things natural, because indeed there is nothing less serviceable to that purpose. It being obvious that we do not, therefore, the better know how a clock is made, because we know not that the matter of which a clock was made, was not a clock before.
Therefore it is a piece of injustice in Aristotle to reproach those ancient philosophers for having been ignorant of a thing which it was impossible for them not to know; and to accuse them for not making use of a principle for the explanation of nature that explains nothing at all: nay, he is guilty of delusion and sophism, while he obtrudes upon us the principle of privation for a rare secret, when this was not that which they sought by inquiring into the principles of nature. For it is plain,, that nothing can be, before it is. But we are desirous to know of what principles it consists, and what is the cause that produced it.
Thus, for example, there was never any statuary, who, to teach another to make a statue, gave his scholar that lesson for his first instruction, wherewith Aristotle would have us begin the explanation of the works of nature. Friend, the first thing you are to know is this, that for the making of a statue, you must choose a piece of marble, which is not yet that statue which you design to make.