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When Priam was terrified at the appearance of Mercury, it is said, "the hair on his bended limbs stood erect;"—
ILL Ml. XXIV. 1. 359.
The lost soul in Shakspeare says,—
"I could a tale unfold, whose lightest word
Mr. J. Barnes says, " It is well known that all parti of the human body have some kind of circulation carried on in them, and when this circulation is stopped the parts become stiff, and consequently erect. Now if fear causes a stoppage of this circulation in the hair, it will of course cause it to stand erect. But whether it does or no, I am not prepared to decide."
Observations on this query were also received from Mr. J. Bamford, of Hothead, near Huddersfield, and Mr. W. Dunn, of Broughton.
The sweet fluid called honey-dew does not fall from the air, as some persons have conjectured, and as its name implies; but is excerned by insects of the aphis genus, which adhere to the under sides of the leaves, and emit this liquor upon the surface of other leaves below them. The insect exists by sucking the juices' from the numerous vessels which are in the leaves; and it is remarkable that it rejects the saccharine part, or " honey dew," which drops from its body, in small, and sometimes perceptible globules, and so affords nourishment to myriads of ants, and other nainute insects. What a striking instance of the wisdom, power, and goodness of God in the creation!
Mr. J. Noivell says, " It appears to me very natural to suppose, that the substance called honey-dew was
originally a part of the sap of the plant; from ana■ logy we can hardly doubt that nature has provided proper vessels in plants, as well as in animals, for carrying off superabundant quantities of the circulating fluids as occasion requires. Reasoning in this manner, we see how it is that at particular seasons of the year this substance appears: for a super-quantity of sap may exist which being given out by the vessels appropriated for that purpose, on to the surface of the leaves, where, absorbing one of the principles of the atmosphere, probably the oxygen, it becomes a new substance, namely, sugar, and perhaps mucilage. So exceedingly prone are vegetable substances to decomposition.
Some people are ready to suppose that it is the product of a particular insect, the vine fretter; others that it falls from the heavens. But many anomalies might be brought forward which would utterly confound such vague opinions.
Mr. M. Harrison, of Crosland, near Huddersfield, says, "I have never observed what is called honeydew on the dead, but only on the living leaves of trees; whereas if it fell from the sky, as some suppose, it would fall on all substances in its way, which never happens, but on the full-grown leaves of living trees and grasses.
"A vegetable is a collection of tubes or vessels, endowed with life, able to imbibe particular fluids, and to alter their nature; like unto animals who secrete milk and fat from their food, so vegetables secrete gum, sugar, and various resinous substances from their food, which is water and air holding heterogeneous matter in solution; which being absorbed by their roots become sap, and is carried up into the leaves by vessels called by Mr. Knight central vessels, where it undergoes a chemical change, and becomes a new substance in its return down the bark. In the summer months when the trees are full of foliage, the sap circulates much quicker than at other seasons of the year; when trees are overcharged with sap, they have appropriate vessels to throw off the excess, and what exudes and remains upon the leaves of several frees and grasses, becomes sweet and glutinous-: when, by the action of the sun and air, the watery particles are evaporated, it forms what is called honeydew."
Of this opinion is Mr. Joshua Bamford.
Answered by Miss E. Green, Caged 12J Spalding.
It is now allowed to be ascertained, after various experiments, that the glutinous substance termed honey-dew, which is found on the leaves of trees, falls from the air like dew. In some countries it is found on different sorts of vegetables, and during one night the leaves of a whole row of trees will be completely covered with it, although there was none on before. Probably this dew is formed from vapours rising from the blossom of trees, &c. and if it fall in one place more plentifully than in another it is owing to the direction of the wind. It is observed that the leaves on which this dew falls blacken and decay, and very possibly this substance may be the cause of it.
Mr. John Baines says, "The Abbe Boissier de Sauvages, in a memoir read before the Society of Sciences at Montpellier, has given a very clear and circumstantial account of the origin of the honey-dew. He has seen it in its primitive state on the leaves of an holm oak, before the drops.had run together;.in such a,form as to leave no doubt but that it had issued from the leaves. Heat he supposes to have been the cause of its emission; for, though common heat only promotes the transpiration of the more volatile and fluid juices, yet a sultry heat, especially if reflected by clouds, may so far dilate the vessels as to produce a more viscous-juice, such as the honey-dew. But there is another kind of honey-dew found on the leaves of-plants and trees,.which is ejected from the vine-fretter, (a species of aphis) and forms a part of the most delicious honey known in nature."
Query 36. Mr. D. Copsey says, Mr. Brand in his appendix to "Bourne's Antiq. Vulg." observes, "that the origin of this sport is said to be derived from the Athenians en the following occasion :—When Themistocles was marching his army against the Persians, he by the way espying two cocks fighting, caused his army to behold them, and made the following speech to them: * Behold! these do not fight for their household gods, for the monuments of their ancestors, nor for glory, nor for liberty, nor for the safety of their children, but only because one will not give way to the other.' This so encouraged the Grecians, that they fought strenuously, and obtained the victory over the Persians; upon which cock-fighting was, by a particular law, ordained to be annually practised by the Athenians*.
"It appears that the Romans, who borrowed this with many other things from Greece, used quails as well as cocks for fighting. The first cause of contention between the two brothers, Bassianus and Geta, sons of the Emperor Septimius Severus, happened, according to Herodianf, in their youth about fighting their quails and cocks. It is probable that cock-fighting was first introduced into this island by the Romans. The bird itself was here before Cssar's arrival. William PitzStephen, who wrote the life of Becket in the reign of Henry II. is the first of our writers that mentions cockfighting, describing it as the sport of school-boys on Shrove-Tuesday. 'The Theatre (Cockpit) it seems was the school, and the master was the comptroller and director of the sport.' In a word, cock-fighting is a heathenish mode of diversion from the first, and at this day ought certainly to be confined to barbarous nations. Yet it may be added to aggravate the matter, and increase our shame, that our butchers have contrived a method unknown to the ancients, of arming the heels of the bird with steel, a devise considered as a most noble improvement in the art, and indeed an invention highly worthy of men that delight in blood."
Similar answers were given by Mr. J. Bamford, Mr. W. Dunn, J. H. N. Mr. M. Harrison, Philario, and Mr. M, Phoston. See also the extract from " Strut's Sports" iuserted in this number.
* Thus far Mr. Bailey; however, I do not find his authority for this among the ancients. It is not taken notice of by Plutarch; neither does Corn. Nepos mention any such incident in his Memoirs of Themistocles.
t Herodian 3. Sect. 33.
The following observations are submitted in answer to the sixth Query in the fifth number of the Enquirer; under a hope that they may in some measure remove an idea which appears to be fixed on the mind of the querist, that there is an apparent inconsistency in the evangelical writers as to the case of the woman whosje daughter was grievously vexed with a devil, or an unclean spirit.
He states as follows: "The woman was a native of Canaan, Matt. xv. 22. In St. Mark's Gospel it is said she was a Syrophenician, Mark vii. 20;" aud asks, "how is this seeming contradiction to be reconciled i"!!
I first desire to observe, that the country possessed by the Canaanites, previous to the. invasion of it by the Children of Israel under Joshua, comprehended the whole coast forming the east border of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from 31 and a half to 37 degrees of north latitude, a distance little less than five hundred miles.
Secondly; that as the southern districts of Canaan were esteemed the richest parts of the country, the invaders satisfied themselves therein, confining their conquests, and subsequent divisions of the land, between Beersheba on the south, and Dan on the north, a distance of about two hundred and fifty miles; leaving the north moiety of Canaan unmolested.
Thirdly; that this northern district of Canaan was called Phenicia; that it was a part of Syria; that it contained the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, which adjoined that part of the coast of Canaan which had been conquered by Joshua.
Fourthly; we read that Jesus "departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, and behold a woman came out of the same coasts, and cried, &c. (Matt. xv. 22, 23.) St. Mark writes, "the woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation I" (chap vii. ver. 26'.)"