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and pray'd for the Peace of it with as much Zeal and Fervency as any in the Kingdom, as they made manifest in their Lives, and in their Sufferings with it and for it. He had from his Entrance into the World, without any Disguise or Diffimulation, declar'd his own Opinion of that Claslis of Men : And as soon as it was in his Power, he did all he could to hinder the Growth and Increase of that Fa&ion, and to restrain those who were inclin'd to it, from doing the Mischief they desir'd to do. But his Power at Court could not enough qualify him to go through with that difficult Reformation, whilst he had a Superior in the Church, who having the Reins in his band, could flacken them according to his own Humour and Indiscretion, and was thought to be the more remiss, to irritate his cholerick Disposition. But when he had now the Primacy in his own Hand, the King being inspir'd with the same Zeal, he thought he should be to blame, and have much to answer for, if he did not make haste to apply Remedies to those Diseases which he saw would grow apace.

In the End of September 1633, he was invested in the Title, Power, and Jurisdiction of Arch-, bishop of Canterbury, and entirely in Possession of the Revenue thereof, without a Rival in Church or State ; that is, no Man profess’d to oppose his Greatness; and he had never interpos'd or appear'd in Matters of State to this time. His first Care was, that the Place he was remov'd from might be supplied with a Man who would be vigilant to pull up those Weeds which the London Soil was too apt to nourish, and so drew his old Friend and Companion Dr. Juxon as near to him as he could : They had been Fellows together in one College in Oxford ; and when he was first made Bishop of St. David's, he made him President of that College : When he could no longer keep the

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Deanery of the Chappel-Royal, he made him his Successor in that near Attendance upon the King : And now he was rais'd to be Archbishop, he easily prevail'd with the King to make the other Bishop of London : The Archbishop's Heart was fet upon the Advancement of the Church, in which he well knew he had the King's full Concurrence, which he thought would be too powerful for any Opposition, and that he should need no other AlGstance ; but tho the Nation was at this time generally well affe&ed to the Church, yet some doctrinal Points in Controversy had been of late Years agitated in the Pulpits with unusual Warmth, the most popular Preachers, who had not look'd into the ancient Learning, took Calvin's Word for what they advanc'd, and did all they could to propagate his Opinion in those Points : They who had Itudied more, and were better vers’d in the Antiquities of the Church, the Fathers, the Councils, and Ecclesiastical Histories, with the same Heat and Passion, in preaching and writing, defended the contrary.

And because in the late Dispute in the Dutch Churches, the Opinions of the latter had been supported by Jacobus Arminins, the Divinity-Professor in the University of Leyden, they were call'd Arminians : Either Party profess'd to adhere to the Doctrine of the Catholick Church, (which had been ever wiser than to determine the Controversy.) And yet that Party here, which could leaft support themselves with Reason, were very follicitous, according to the Ingenuity they always practise to advance any of their Pretences, to have the People believe that they who'held with Arminius did intend to introduce Popery ; and truly the other Side were no less willing to have it thought, that all who adher'd to Calvin in those Controversies, did in their Hearts likewise adhere to him with reference to the Discipline, and des fir'd to change the Government of the Church, deftroy the Bishops, and to set up the Discipline he had establish'd at Geneva ; whereas, in Truth, none of the one Side were at all inclin’d to Popery, and very many of the other were most affectionate to the Peace and Prosperity of the Church, and very pious, learned Men. I

The Archbishop had all his Life eminently ope' pos'd Calvin's Doctrine in those Controversies, before the Name of Arminius was taken notice of, or his Opinions heard of; and thereupon, for want of another Name, they had call’d him a Papist, which no body believ'd him to be, and he had more manifested the contrary in his Disputations and Writings than most Men had done ; and it may be the other found the more severe and rigorous Usage from him, for their propagating that Calumny against him : He was a Man of great Courage and Resolution, and being molt assur'd within himself that he propos’d no End in all his Actions and Designs but what was pious and just, he new ver studied the easiest way to those Erds ; he thought, it may be, that any Art or Industry that Way would discredit, at least make the Integrity of the End suspected, let the Cause be what it will. He did court Persons too little, nor cared to make his Designs and Purposes appear as candid as they were, by Mewing them in any other Dress than their own natural Beauty, tho' perhaps in too rough a Manner; and did not confider enough what Men said, or were like to say of him. If the Faults and Vices were fit to be look'd into and discover'd, let the Persons be who they would that were guilty of them, they were sure to find no Connivance or Favour from him. He intended the Discipline of the Church should be felt as well as spoken of, and that it Gould be apă

plied to the greatest and most splendid Transgressors, as well as to the Punishment of smaller Offences, and meaner Offenders, and thereupon callid for, or cherish'd the Discovery of those who were not careful to cover their own Iniquities, thinking they were out of the Reach of Justice : Persons of Honour and great Quality were every Day cited into the High Commission-Court, upon the Fame of their Incontinence, or other Scandal in their Lives, and were there prosecuted to their Shame and Punishment : And as the Shame (which they call’d an insolent Triumph upon their Degreeand Quality, and levying them with the common People) was never forgotten, but watch'd for Revenge ; so the Fines impos'd there were the more question'd and repin'd against, because they were, affign'd to the rebuilding and repairing St. Paul's Church; and thought therefore to be the more feverely impos'd, and the less compassionately reduc'd and excus'd : Which likewise made the Jurisdiction and Rigour of the Star-chamber more felt, and murmur'd against ; and sharpen'd many Men's Humours against the Bishops, before they had any ill Intention towards the Church.

The Archbishop never abated any thing of his Severity and Rigour towards Men of all Conditions, or in the Sharpness of his Language and Expressions, which was so 'natural to him, that he could not debate any thing without some Commotion, when the Argument was not of Moment, nor bear Contradiction in Debate, even in the Council, where all Men are equally free, with that Patience and Temper, which was necessary; of which they who wih'd him not well took many Advantages, and would therefore contradict him, that he might be transported with some incident Paffion ; which, upon a short Recollection, he was always forry for, and most readily

and

all Men are ears, even in the

that Patience

and heartily would make Acknowledgment. No Man so willingly made unkind Use of all those Occasions as the Lord Cottington, who being a Master of Temper, and of the most profound Diffimulation, knew too well how to lead him into a Mistake, and then drive him into Choler, and then expose him upon the Matter and the Manner to the Judgment of the Company; and he chose to do this most, when the King was present, and then he would dine with him the next Day. Clar. 99.

Whatsoever was the Cause of it, this excellent Man, who stood not upon the Advantage-ground before, from the time of his Promotion to the Archbishoprick, or rather from that of his being Commissioner of the Treasury, exceedingly provok'd or underwent the Envy, and Reproach and Malice of Men of all Qualities and Conditions, who agreed in nothing else : All which, tho' well known to him, were not enough consider'd-by him, who believ'd, as most Men did, the Government so firmly settled, that it could neither be Thaken from within or without ; and that less than a general Confusion of Law and Gospel could not hurt him, which was true too ; but he did not foresee how easily that Confusion might be brought to pass. Pag. 102.

He defended himself at his Tryal with great and undaunted Courage, and less Passion than was expected from his Constitution : He answer'd all their Objections with Clearness and irresistible Reason, and convinc'd all impartial Men of his Integrity, and his Detestation of all treasonable Intentions. So that tho` few excellent Men have ever had fewer Friends to their persons, yet all reasonable Men absolv'd him from any foul Crime that the Law could take notice of and punish ; however, when they had said all against him they could, and he all for himself that need to be said,

and

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