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erroneously treated as a personification? What is the difference of the figure from the apostrophe !

In the quotation on Contentment, there are two hypocatastases, and three nouns and one adjective are used metaphorically. Which are they!


Let the scholar cite an example of the figure from the Scriptures.

Let one be cited from the poets.



The Allegory is the use of intelligences acting in one sphere or relation, to exemplify and illustrate their own or the agencies of others in another; or the use of unintelligent agents or objects in a natural or supposititious relation, to exemplify the conduct of men. They are sometimes employed together.

There is a beautiful example of the figure in Isaiah (chap. v. 1-7):

“Let me sing now a song of my beloved ;
A song of my beloved, concerning his vineyard :
My beloved had a vineyard,
On a high and fruitful hill;
And he fenced it round, and he cleared it from the
And he planted it with the vine of Sorek;
And he built a tower in the midst of it,
And he hewed also a wine-vat therein ;


And he waited for it that it should bring forth grapes :
But it produced wild grapes.

“And now, 0 inhabitant of Jerusalem, and man of Judah,
Judge, I pray you, between me and my vineyard :
What could have been done more to my vineyard
That I have not done unto it?
Why, when I waited for it that it should bring forth grapes,
Brought it forth wild grapes ?

“ But come now, and I will make known unto you

What I purpose to do to my vineyard :
Remove its hedge, and it shall be devoured ;
Destroy its fence, and it shall be trodden down;
And I will make it a desolation :
It shall not be pruned, neither shall it be digged;
And there shall come up thorns and briers in it;
And I will command the clouds,
That they rain no rain upon it.

“For the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house of

And the men of Judah his pleasant plant;
And he looked for judgment, and behold bloodshed ;
And for righteousness, and behold a cry."

It is seen, from the explanation with which the allegory closes, that the vineyard is used to represent the people of Judea ; the labor of the husbandman in cultivating it, to denote God's using the proper means as their lawgiver and teacher, to lead them to yield the fruits of holiness; its bearing wild grapes, to represent their disobedience; and its devastation, to indicate the evils of war and captivity to which they were to be subjected in punishment of their rebellion. All the particulars of the description are in accordance with the subject. The measures taken by the husbandman to secure good grapes were such as were usual with cultivators of the vine; and his disappointment by the growth of bad clusters, such as is in fact sometimes experienced ; and at the close, the people are indicated whom it is employed to represent.

It is a peculiarity of this allegory, that another figure is interposed betwixt its descriptive or historical and its predictive parts. The allegory is comprised in verses 1, 2, 5-7. The intervening verses, 3, 4, are an apostrophe to the Israelites, asking them what more could have been done to the vineyard to cause it to yield good grapes; and signifying that God had, in like manner, used all the means that were proper to excite them to yield him obedience. The agent in the allegoric sphere represents the agent in the sphere which the allegory represents; the object of the agency, or labor and care in the one, represents the object of the labor and care in the other; the fruits or results in the one sphere stand for the results in the other; and the destructive measures that followed in the one represent the retributive measures in the other.

In the lxxxth Psalm a vine is used as the representative of the Israelites, and God's agency toward it is employed to exemplify his dealings with them:

“ Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt,

Thou hast cast out the heathen, and planted it;
Thou preparedst room before it,
And didst cause it to take deep root:
And it filled the land.
The hills were covered with the shadow of it,
And the boughs thereof were like the goodly cedars.
She sent out her boughs unto the sea,
And her branches unto the river.

" Why hast thou then broken down her hedges,

So that all they which pass by the way do pluck her
The boar out of the wood doth waste it,
And the wild beast of the field doth devour it.

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Return, we beseech thee, O God of hosts;
Look down from heaven, and behold and visit this vine,
And the vineyard which thy right hand hath planted,
And the branch that thou madest strong for thyself.
It is burnt with fire, it is cut down ;
They perish at the rebuke of thy countenance.

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