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the poets and orators. Thus Milton's apostrophe to light is eminently beautiful :
Hail, holy light! offspring of heaven, first-born,
PARADISE Lost, b. iii.
Young apostrophizes night:
“O majestic night!
Byron apostrophizes the ocean thus:
“Thou glorious mirror, where the Almighty's form
Glasses itself in tempests ! In all time,
Thomson addresses the shades and thickets by the figure :
“Welcome, ye shades ! ye bowery thickets, hail !
As to the hunted hart the sallying spring,
Young's address to the lilies is a fine example of the figure :
“Queen lilies ! and ye painted populace
for man you smile;
The figure differs from the metaphor. 1. In that it is an address to the person or object which is its subject. The metaphor is not an address to its subject, but affirms something respecting it. 2. That which the apostrophe declares of its subject is in harmony with its nature, and literally true of it; that which the metaphor ascribes to its subject is not literally true, but only resembles that which is literally true of it.
The figure thus admits of a bold and full portraiture of the persons or objects addressed, in a highly poetic form, employing the metaphor, comparison, metonymy, hyperbole, and hypocatastasis as its auxiliaries, as freely as though the discourse were a description or narrative.
What is an apostrophe! Does it admit a description of the person or object addressed! Are the properties and acts it ascribes to its subjects such as accord with their nature? How does it differ from the metaphor ? What is its influence on a composition
Where does the pause fall in the lines from Milton, “Hail, holy light, offspring of heaven first-born"? Which of the lines commence with a trochee? Where does the cæsura fall in Young's lines, “Queen lilies, and ye painted populace”!
There are in the first twelve lines of Milton's apostrophe to light, eight metaphors, and one comparison. Which are they?
There are in the other lines several metaphors. Which are they!
There are in Young's apostrophe to night, fourteen metaphors, counting such expressions as elder-born, starry-crown, and ravenbrow as one. Point them out.
Let the scholar give an example of the figure from the Scriptures. Let one be given from a poet.
THE Prosopopeia, or Personification, is an ascription of intelligence to an impersonal thing, material or mental, by addressing it as though it had the organs of hearing, sight, or motion; or ascribing to it the passions and actions of men. Thus Moses, in his prophetic song to the congregation of Israel (Deut. xxxii. 1-43), summoned the heavens and the earth to listen to his words :
6 Give ear,
O ye heavens, and I will speak ;
grass ; Because I will publish the name of the Lord, Ascribe ye greatness unto our God.”