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FOGG ART MUSEUM
HARVARD UNIVERSITY

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RFA 50.23 (22)

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,

by The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE . I

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. D.

A. do W.F.

A. E. G.*

the longer Zone Predestination.

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"AUGUSTE BOUDINHON, D.D., D.C.L.

Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of{ Pope.

Paris. Editor of the Canoniste Contemporain.

ALBERT CHARLES Lewis GOTTHILF GUENTHER, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.

Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist,

:{Ray (in part).

Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes. Batrachia,

Salientia and Fishes in the Brilish Museum ; &c.

REV ARTHUR CUSHMAN MCGIFFERT, M.A., Ph.D., DD

Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of

History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historia Ecclesia

Prophet (in parl).

of Eusebius.

AUSTIN DOBSON, LL.D., D C.L.
See the biographical article: DOBSON, HENRY AUSTIN.

Prior, Matthew.
ARTHUR DE WINT FOOTE.

S Power Transmission:
Superintendent of North Star Mining Company, California.

Pneumatic.

REV. ALFRED ERNEST GARVIE, M.A, D.D.

Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and

the Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the Inner Life

of Jesus; &c.

A. E. HOUGHTON,

Formerly Correspondent of the Slandard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the Quesada y Matheus.

Bourbons in Spain.

ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. Priapuloidea.

Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.
MAJOR ARTHUR GEORGE FREDERICK GRIFFITHS (d. 1908).

H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgale; Prison.

Secrets of the Prison House; &c.
ADOLF HARNACK, PA.D.
See the biographical article: HARNACK, ADOLF.

Prophet (in parl). " .

REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D.

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent | Preaching,

College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of Primitive Methodist Church,

Mysore Educational Service.

| Priscillian.

ANDREW LANG.

s Poltergeist; Prometheus; ::

See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW.

Psychical Research.

ALEXANDER MCAULAY, M.A.

Professor of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania. Author of Ulility Quaternions (in part). 1

of Quaternions in Physics; &c.

AGNES MURIEL CLAY (Mrs Edward Wilde).

Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources Publicani.
of Roman History, 133-70 B.C.

Pratincole; Quail; Quezal;

ALFRED NEWTON. F.R.S.

Rail (in part);

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED

Raven; Razorbill;
Redshank; Redstart:

Redwing.
"A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

A. Ha.
A. J. G.

A. SI.

A. S. P.-P.

A. S. Wo.

A. T. A. A. Wi.*

A. W. PO.

ARTHUR SHADWELL, M.A., M.D., LL.D.
Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water-

Prostitution
Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation.
ANDREW SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy.

Pythagoras (in part).
Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.
ARTHUR SMITH WOODWARD, LL.D., F.R.S.

Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of Pterodactyles.

the Geological Society of London.
ARTHUR TWINING HADLEY, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Hadley, ARTHUR TWINING.

Railways: Economics.
ANEURIN WILLIAMS, M.A.

Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. Chairman of Executive, International
Co-operative Alliance. M.P. for Plymouth, 1910. Author of Twenty-eight Years Prout-sharing..

of Co-partnership at Guise; &c.
ALFRED William POLLARD, M.A.

Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College,
London. Hon. Secretary, Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books Polyglott.
and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of the Library Chief Editor of the “Globe".

Chaucer.
ALEXANDER Wood RENTON, M.A., LL.B

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Proclamation.

Laws of England.
BRAMAN BLANCHARD ADAMS.
Associate Editor of the Railway Age Gazelle, New York.

{Railways: Accident Statistics. CHARLES BÉMONT, D.Litt.

{Quicherat.
See the biographical article: BEMONT, C.
C. E. Webber, C.B., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.E.E. (1838-1905)

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Served in Indian Mutiny, 1857-1860; Egyptian J Railways: 'Light Railways (in
Expedition, 1882; &c. Founder (with late Sir Francis Bolton) and Past President

| part).
of the Institute of Electrical Engineers.
CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON.

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal { Ravenna: Battle of 1512.

Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
CHARLES GEORGE CRUMP, M.A.

Balliol College, Oxford. Clerk in H.M. Public Record Office, London. Editor of Record.
Landor's Works; &c.

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{Poster.

C. H. Ha.

C. H. T.

CHARLES HIATT.

Poster.
Author of Picture Posters; &c.
CARLTON HUNTLEY Hayes, A.M., PA.D.

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member Purgatory.

of the American Historical Association.
CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, A.M., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Tox, CRAWFORD HOWELL.

Proverbs, Book of.
CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT., F.R.G.S., FR.HIST.S.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow Polo, Marco (in part),
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography {Ptolemy (in part):
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of
Henry the Navigator; Tke Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.

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C. R. B.

.C.T. J.

D. B. Ma.

D. C. B.

CHARLES T. JACOBI.

Printing.
Managing Partner of the Chiswick Press, London. Author of Printing; &c.
Duncan BLACK MACDONALD, M.A., D.D.

...4
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn.
Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional

ned Constitutional Ramadan.
Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c.
DEMETRIUS CHARLES BOULGER.

Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon; Raffles, Sir Thomas..

India in the 19th Century; History of Belgium; &c.
Rev. DANIEL DULANY ADDISON, D.D.
Rector of All Saints' Church, Brookline, Mass. Examining Chaplain to Bishop of

Protestant Episcopal Church.
Massachusetts. Secretary, Cathedral Chapter of Diocese of Massachusetts. Author

of The Episcopalians; &c.
DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classicat Concerlo, The Programme Music.
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.

D. A.

D. F. T.

D. G. L.

EVID George HOGARTH, M.A.

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. | Priene:

ollow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905: Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899

0.8.

D. .. S.

DAVID HANNAY.

Quiberon, Battle of;
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal
Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.

Raleigh, Sir Walter.
DUKINFIELD HENRY SCOTT, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.

President of the Linnean Society. Professor of Botany, Royal College of Science, { Pringsheim, Nathanael

London, 1885-1892. Author of Structural Bolany; Studies in Fossil Bolany; &c.
D'ARCY WENTWORTH THOMPSON, C.B., M.A.

Professor of Natural History, University College, Dundee. British Delegate, Ray, John.
Bering Sea Fisheries and other Conferences. Author of A Glossary of Greek Birds;

D. W.T.

&c.

E. A. J.

E. A. M.

E. ALFRED JONES.

Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plole of the Isle of Man; Old Silver
Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England; Illustrated Catalogue Qualch.
of Leopold de Rothschild's Collection of Old Plate: A Private Catalogue of the Royal

Plate at Windsor Castle ; &c.
EDWARD ALFRED MINCHIN, M.A., F.Z.S.

| Polyp;
Professor of Protozoology in the University of London. Formerly Fellow of

Protoplasm;
Merton College, Oxford, and Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy,

Protozoa.
University College, London.
EDWIN BALE, R.I.

Art Director, Cassell & Company, Ltd. Member of the Royal Institute of Painters Process.
in Water Colours Hon. Sec., Artists' Copyright Committee.

E. Ba.

E. Br.

ERNEST BARKER, M.A.

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.

Raymund of Antioch;
Raymund of Toulouse:
Raymund of Tripoli;
Raynald of Châtillon

E. B. E.

EDWARD B. ELLINGTON.

Founder and Chief Engineer of the General Hydraulic Power Co., Ltd. Author of ) Power Transmission:
Contributions to Proceedings of Institutions of Civil Engineers and of Mechanical Hydraulic.

Engineers.
Richt Rev. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, M.A., O.S.B., LITT.D.
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of "The Lausiac History of Palladius".

Premonstratensians;
in Cambridge Texts and Studies.

Rance, Armand de.

E. C. B..

E. Ga.

EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D., D.C.L.

Prologue; Proso.
See the biographical article: GossE, EDMUND.
EMILE GARCKE, M.INST.E.E.

Managing Director of British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. Author of Manual of ) Railways: Light Railways (in
Electrical Undertakings; &c.

parl).

E. Gr.

{Propylaea.

E. G. C.

E. H. B.

E. J. J.

E. O'N.

ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER, M.A.

See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY.
ERNEST GEORGE COKER, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.(Edin.), M.Sc., M.I.MECH.E.
· Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the City and Guilds of London Technical
College. Author of various papers in Transactions of the Royal Societies of London, Pus

Pulley.
Edinburgh and Canada; &c.
SIR EDWARD HERBERT BUNBURY, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).

Pompeli (in part);
M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847–1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geograpky: {Ptolemy (in part);
&c.

| Pytheas (in pari).
EDMUND JANES JAMES, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D.

President of the University of Illinois; President of American Economic Associa: Protection.
tion. Author of History of American Tarif Legislation, and Essays and Mono-

graphs on Economic, Financial, Political and Educational subjects.
ELIZABETH O'NEILL, M.A. (Mrs H. O. O'Neill).

Prebendary: Prelate;
Formerly University Fellow and Jones Fellow of the University of Manchester. Prior; Procurator.
EDGAR PRESTAGE.

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester.
Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c.
Commendador, Portuguese Order of S Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon

Portugal: Literature,
Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society; &c. Editor of Letters of

a Portuguese Nun; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea; &c.
ERNEST RUTHERFORD, F.R.S., D.Sc., LL.D., PH.D.

Langworthy Professor of Physics, University of Manchester. Nobel Prize for {Radio-activity.

Chemistry, 1908. Author of Radio-activity; Radio-active Transformations; &c.
EDWYN ROBERT BEVAN, M.A.

New College, Oxford. Author of The House of Seleucus: Jerusalem under the High Ptolemies.

Priests.
FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.TA.
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford.

Purification
Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and
Murals: &c.

E. PT.

E, RO

BRB

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FERDINAND CANNING Scott SCHILLER, M.A., D.Sc.

Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Author of Riddles of the Pragmatism.

Sphinx; Studies in Humanism; &c.
FRANCIS M. D. DRUMMOND.

Precedenco (in pori). .
FRANK Dawson Adams, Ph.D., D.Sc., F.G.S., F.R.S.

Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and Logan Professor of Geology. McGill
University, Montreal; President of Canadian Mining Institute. Author of Papers
dealing with problems of Metamorphism, &c., also Researches on Experimental Queen Charlotto Islands.

Geology; &c.
REV. FREDERICK EDWARD WARREN, MA., F.S.A.

Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds, and Honorary Canon of Ely. Fellow of
St John's College, Oxford, 1865-1882. Author of The Old Catholic Ritual done into Prayer, Book of Common.
English and compared with the Corresponding Offices in the Roman and Old German

Manuals; The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church; &c.
FRANK GEORCE POPE.
Lecturer on Chemistry, East London College (University of London).

Purin.
FRANK Haich Dixon, Ph.D., A.M.
Prosessor of Economics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. Member of the

Railways: American Railway

Rauw
National Waterways Commission. Author of State Railroad Control.

Legislation.
Hon. FREDERICK JAMES HAMILTON MERRILL, PH.D., F.G.S.(America), M.
AMERICAN INST.M.E., &c.

Consulting Geologist and Mining Engineer. State Geologist of New York, Quarrying.
1899-1904. Author of Reports of New Jersey and New York Geological Surveys; |

F. G. P.*

F. H. D.*

F. J. H. M.

&c.

F. K.*

F. LI. G.

F. M. L.*

F. P.

F. R. C.

F. Wa.

F. W. R.*

F. Y. E.

FERNAND KANOPFF.
See the biographical article: KunoPFF, F. E. J. M.

Portaels, J. F.
FRANCIS LLEWELLYN GRIFFITH, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Psammetichus;
Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial / Rameses (in parl).
German Archaeological Institute. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis;

&c.
FRANCIS MANLEY LOWE,

Major R.A. (retired). Member of the Staff of Sir W. G. Armstrong. Whitworth
& Co., Ltd., Elswick Works. Assistant Superintendent of Experiments, Shoebury- Range-inder.
ness, 1898-1903. Author of articles in the Proceedings of the Royal Artillery

Institution; &c.
FRANK PODMORE, M.A. (d. 1910).

Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Studies in Psychical Research; Modern Premonition.

Spiritualism; &c.
FRANK R. CANA.

s Portuguese East Africa; Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.

| Rabah Zobeir.
FRANCIS Watt, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law's Lumber Room.

Pound (in port)
FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902.

s Pyrites;
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889.

Pyropo.
FRANCIS YSIDRO EDGEWORTH, M.A., D.C.L.

Professor of Political Economy in the University of Oxford. Fellow of All Souls'
College, Oxford, and of King's College, London. Editor of the Economic Journal.
Author of Mathematical Psychics, and numerous papers on the Calculus of Proba-

Probability.
bilities in the Philosophical Magazine; &c.
GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.LITT.

Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898-
1002. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal

ū Prakrit,
Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages Rajasthani.

of India; &c.
GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON, LITT.D.

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings: &c. Editor of New Edition Prieur, Pietre.

of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
ROBERT GEOFFREY ELLIS.

Peterhouse, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Joint-editor of English Privy Council.

Reports. Author of Peerage Law and History.
GEORGE GREGORY SMITH, M.A.

Professor of English Literature, Queen's University, Belfast.** Author of The Ramsay, Allan.

Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scols; &c. l
GEORGE JOHNSTON ALLMAN, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., D.Sc. (1824-1905). .

Ptolemy (in pari),
Professor of Mathematics in Queen's College, Galway, and in Queen's University of

Ireland, 1853–1893. Author of Greek Geometry from Thales 60 Euclid; &c. Pythagoras: creomery, en
GEORGE JAMES TURNER.

Provision;
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden
Society.

Rape.

Probability.

G. A. Gr.

G. C. W.

G. E.*

G. G. S.

G. J. A.

G. J. T.

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