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Miss Clara Graves, History of the proposa uand 1847), by W. K. Kelly 1813in fifty-four

in his eighty-first year he began to write the Weltgeschichte | has been influenced. His classicism led to his great limitations (9 vols., Leipzig, 1883-88). Drawing on the knowledge ac- as an historian. He did not deal with the history of the people, cumulated during sixty years, he had brought it down to with economic or social problems-the dignity of history was the end of the 15th century before his death in Berlin on the to him a reality. He belonged to the school of Thucydides and 23rd of May 1886.

Gibbon, not to that of Macaulay and Taine; he deals by preRanke's other writings include Zur deutschen Geschichte. ference with the rulers and leaders of the world, and he strictly Vom Religionsfrieden bis zum 30 jährigen Kriege (Leipzig, 1868); } limits his field to the history of the state, or, as we should say, Geschichte Wallensteins (Leipzig, 1869; 5th ed., 1896); Abhand-political history; and in this he is followed by Seeley, one of lungen und Versuche (Leipzig, 1877; a new collection of these the greatest of his adherents. The leader of modern historians, writings was edited by A. Dove and T. Wiedemann, Leipzig, he was in truth a man of the ancien régime. 1888); Aus dem Briefwechsel Friedrich Wilbelms IV. mit! Many of Ranke's works have been translated into English. Among Bunsen (Leipzig, 1873); Die deutschen Mächle und der Fürsten- these are Civil Wars and Monarchy in France, by M. A. Garvey bund. Deutsche Geschichte 1780-90 (1871-72); Historisch- (1852); History of England, principally in the 17th Century (Oxford, biographische Studien (Leipzig, 1878); Ursprung und Beginn der

und Beginn der 1875); History of the Latin and Teutonic Nations, 1494-1514, by

P. A. Ashworth (1887) and again by S. R. Dennis (1909): History Revolutionskriege 1791-92 (Leipzig, 1875); and Zur Geschichte

of the Reformation in Germany, by S. Austin (1845-47): History of von Oesterreich und Preussen swischen den Friedensschlüssen Servia and the Servian Revolution, by Mrs A. Kerr (1847): Fer. zu Aachen und Hubertusberg (Leipzig, 1875). He also wrote dinand I. and Maximilian II. of Austria, State of Germany after biographies of Frederick the Great and Frederick William IV. the Reformation, by Lady Duff Gordon (1853); Memoirs of the House

of Brandenburg and History of Prussia during the 17th and 18th for the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie.

Centuries, by Sir Alexander and Lady Duff Gordon (1849); and Ranke married, at Windermere, in 1843, Miss Clara Graves, History of the Popes during the 16th and 17th Centuries, by S. Austin daughter of an Irish barrister. She died in 1870, leaving two sons and one daughter.

Foster (1847-53). A collected edition of Ranke's works in fifty-four

volumes was issued at Leipzig (1868-90) but this does not contain At the time of his death Ranke was, not in his own country

the Weltgeschichte. alone, generally regarded as the first of modern historians. For details of Ranke's life and work see his own Zur cigenen It is no disparagement to point out that the recognition he Lebens

Lebensgeschichte, edited by A. Dove (Leipzig, 1890); and the article obtained was due not only to his published work, but also to by Dove in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. Also Winckler. his success as a teacher.

Leopold von Ranke. Lichtstrahlen aus seinen Werken (Berlin, 1885); His public lectures, indeed, were | w. von Giesebrecht, Gedächtnisrede auf Leopold von Ranke (Munich, never largely attended, but in his more, private classes, where

1887); Guglia, Leopold von Rankes Leben und Werke (Leipzig, 1893); he dealt with the technical work of a historian, he trained M. Ritter, Leopold von Ranke (Stuttgart, 1895): Nalbandian, generations of scholars. No one since Heyne has had so great Leopold von Rankes Bildungsjahre und Geschichtsauffassung an influence on German academical life, and for a whole genera

(Leipzig, 1901); and Helmolt, Leopold Ranke (Leipzig, 1907). tion the Berlin school had no rival. He took paternal pride RANKINE, WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN (1820-1872), in the achievements of his pupils, and delighted to see, through Scottish engineer and physicist, was born at Edinburgh on the them, his influence spreading in every university. While his 5th of July 1820, and completed his education in its university. own work lay chiefly in more modern times, he trained in his He was trained as an engineer under Sir J. B. Macneill, working classes a school of writers on German medieval history. As chiefly on surveys, harbours and railroads, and was appoinied must always happen, it is only a part of his characteristics in 1855 to the chair of civil engineering in Glasgow, vacant by which they learnt from him, for his greatest qualities were the resignation of Lewis Gordon, whose work he had undertaken incommunicable. The critical method which has since become during the previous session. He was a voluminous writer on

ng at scientific certainty, was subjects directly connected with his chair, and, besides conwith him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired tributing almost weekly to the technical journals, such as the from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credi-Engineer, brought out a series of standard textbooks on Civil bility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but Engineering, The Steam-Engine and other Prime Mosers, he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write Machinery and Millwork, and Applied Mechanics, which have modern history except on the“ narratives of eye-witnesses and passed through many editions, and have contributed greatly the most genuine immediate documents” preserved in the to the advancement of the subjects with which they deal. To archives. From the beginning he was determined never to these must be added his elaborate treatise on Shipbuilding, allow himself to be misled, in his search for truth, by those Theoretical and Practical. These writings, however, corretheories and prejudices by which nearly every othe: historian sponded to but one phase of Rankine's immense energy and was influenced-Hegelianism, Liberalism, Romanticism, re-many-sided character. He was an enthusiastic and most useiul ligious and patriotic prejudice; but his superiority to the leader of the volunteer movement from its beginning, and a ordinary passions of the historian could only be attained by writer, composer and singer of humorous and patriotic songs, those who shared his elevation of character. “My object is some of which, as “ The Three Foot Rule" and " They never simply to find out how the things actually occurred.” “I shall have Gibraltar," became well known far beyond the am first a historian, then a Christian," he himself said. In circle of his acquaintance. Rankine was the earliest of the another way no historian is less objective, for in his greatest three founders of the modern science of Thermodynamics works the whole narrative is coloured by the quality of his (9.0.) on the bases laid by Sadi Carnot and J. P. Joule respect. ‘mind expressed in his style. An enemy to all controversy and ively, and the author of the first formal treatise on the subject. all violence, whether in act or thought, he had a serenity of His contributions to the theories of Elasticity and of Waves character comparable only to that of Sophocles or Goethe. rank high among modern developments of mathematical Apt to minimize difficulties, to search for the common ground physics, although they are mere units among the 150 scientific

e turned aside, with a disdain which papers attached to his name in the Royal Society's Catalogue. superficial critics often mistook for indifference, from the base, The more important of these were collected and reprinted in a the violent and the common. As in a Greek tragedy, we hear handsome volume (Rankine's Scientific papers, London, 1881), in his works the echo of great events and terrible catastrophes; which contains a memoir of the author by Prof. P. G. Tait. we do not see them. He also made it a principle not to relate | Rankine died at Glasgow on the 24th of December 1872. that which was already well known, a maxim which necessarily RANNOCH, a district of north-west Perthshire, Scotland, prevented his works attaining a popularity with the unlearned partly extending into Argyllshire. It measures 32 m. E. and equal to their reputation among historians. But no writer has W. and from 10 to 12 m. N. and S. and is surrounded by the surpassed him in the clearness and brevity with which he could | districts of Badenoch, Atholl, Breadalbane, Lorne and Lochsum up the characteristics of an epoch in the history of the aber. Much of it is wild, bleak and boggy, and, saving on the world, or present and define the great forces by which the world | E., it is shut in by rugged mountains. The chief rivers are the Tummel and the Ericht, and the principal lakes Loch 1 Instances in which towns paid to avoid being plundered are Rannoch and Loch Lydoch, or Laidon (about 6 m. long, 1 m. innumerable. So late as the war in the Peninsula, 1808-14, it wide and 924 ft. above the sea). Loch Rannoch lies E. and was the belief of the English soldiers that a town taken by storm W., measures 91 m: long by fully i m, broad, is 668 st. above was liable to sack for three days, and they acted on their conthe sea, covers an area of nearly 75 sq. m., and has a greatest viction at Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz and San Sebastian. It was depth of 440 ft. It receives the Ericht and many other a question whether ransoms paid by merchant ships to escape streams, and discharges by the Tummel, draining a total area were or were not among the commercia belli. In the early 18th of 243} sq. m. At the head of the lake is Rannoch Barracks, so century the custom was that the captain of a captured vessel named because it was originally built to accommodate a detach- gave a bond or “ransom bill," leaving one of his crew as a ment of troops, under ensign (afterwards Sir) Hector Munro, hostage or “ransomer" in the hands of the captor. Frequent stationed here to maintain order after the Jacobite rising of 1745. mention is made of the taking of French privateers which had Two miles east is Carie, which was the residence of Alexander in them ten or a dozen ransomers. The owner could be sued on Robertson, 13th baron of Struan (1670-1749), the Jacobite his bond. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War ransoming and poet, who was “ qut" with Dundee (1689), Mar (1715) was forbidden by act of parliament. But it was afterwards at and Prince Charles Edward (1745), and yet managed to escape least partially recognized by Great Britain, and was generally all punishment beyond self-imposed exile to France after the allowed by other nations. In recent times—for instance in the first two rebellions. Kinloch Rannoch, at the foot of the loch, Russo-Japanese War-no mention was made of ransom, and with is the principal place in the district, and is in communication the disappearance of privateering, which was conducted wholly by coach with Struan station (13 m. distant) on the Highland, for gain, it has ceased to have any place in war at sea, but the and Rannoch station (6 m.) on the West Highland railway. contributions levied by invading armies might still be accurately Dugald Buchanan (1716–1768), the Gaelic poet, was school. | described by the name. master of the village for thirteen years, and a granite obelisk RANTERS, an antinomian and spiritualistic English sect in has been crected to his memory.

the time of the Commonwealth, who may be described as the dregs RANSOM (from Lat. redemplio, through Fr. rançon), the price of the Seeker movement. Their central idea was pantheistic, that for which a captive in war redeemed his life or his freedom, a God is essentially in every creature, but though many of them town secured immunity from sack, and a ship was repurchased were sincere and honest in their attempt to express the doctrine from her captors. The practice of taking ransom arose in the of the Divine immanence, they were in the main unable to hold middle ages, and had perhaps a connexion with the common the balance. They denied Church, Scripture, the current Teutonic custom of commuting for crimes by money payments. ministry and services, calling on men to hearken to Christ within

no such historic descent. The desire to them. Many of them seem to have rejected a belief in immormake profit out of the risks of battle, even when they were tality and in a personal God, and in many ways they resemble notably diminished by the use of armour, would account for it the Brethren of the Free Spirit in the 14th century. Their sufficiently. The right to ransom was recognized by law. One vague pantheism landed them in moral confusion, and many of of the obligations of a feudal tenant was to contribute towards them were marked by fierce fanaticism. How far the accusation paying the ransom of his lord. England was taxed for the of lewdness brought against them is just is hard to say, but they ransom of Richard the Lion Hearted, France for King John seem to have been a really serious peril to the nation. They taken at Poitiers, and Scotland for King David when he was were largely recruited from the common people, and there is captured at Durham. The prospect of gaining the ransom of plenty of evidence to show that the movement was widespread. a prisoner must have tended to diminish the ferocity of medieval The Ranters came into contact and even rivalry with the early war, even when it did not reduce the fighting between the Quakers, who were often unjustly associated with them. The knights to a form of athletic sport in which the loser paid a truth is that the positive message of the Friends helped to save forseit. Readers of Froissart will find frequent mention of this England from being overrun with Ranterism. Samuel Fisher, a decidedly commercial aspect of the chivalrous wars of the time. Friend, writing in 1653, gives a calm and instructive account of He often records- how victors and vanquished arranged their the Ranters, which with other relevant information, including “ financing." The mercenary views of the military adventurers Richard Baxter's rather hysterical attack, may be read in were not disguised. Froissart repeats the story that the English Rufus M. Jones's Studies in Mystical Religion (1909), xix. In free companions” or mercenaries, who sold their services to the middle of the 19th century the name was often applied to the the king of Portugal, grumbled at the battle of Aljubarrota in Primitive Methodists, with reference to their crude and often 1385, because he ordered their prisoners to be killed, and would noisy preaching. not pursue the defeated French and Spaniards, whereby they RANUNCULACEAE, in botany, a natural order of Dicotylost lucrative captures. The ransom of a king belonged to the ledons belonging to the subclass Polypetalae, and containing king of the enemy by whom he was taken. The actual captor 27 genera with about 500 species, which

ded at the pleasure of his lord. King Edward III. are distributed through temperate and paid over instalments of the ransom of the king of France to the cold regions but occur more especially Black Prince, to pay the expenses of his expedition into Spain | beyond the tropics in the northern hemiin 1367. Occasionally, as in the notable case of Bertrand du sphere. It is well represented in Britain, Guesclin, the ransom of a valuable knight or leader would be where ii genera are native. The plants paid by his own sovereign. To trade in ransoms became a formare mostly herbs, rarely shrubby, as in of financial speculation. Sir John Fastols in the time of King Clematis, which climbs by means of the Henry V. is said to have made a large fortune by buying leaf-stalks, with alternate leaves, opposite prisoners, and then screwing heavy ransoms out of them by in Clemalis, generally without stipules, ill-usage. The humane influence of ransom was of course con- and flowers which show considerable - From "ines, Students

Text Book of Botany, by fined to the knights who could pay. The common men, who variation in the number and development permission of Swan, Son.

nenschein & Co. were too poor, were massacred. Thus Lord Grey, Queen Eliza- of parts but are characterized by free beth's lord deputy in Ireland, spared the officers of the Spaniards hypogynous sepals and petals, numerous

Fig. 1.-Gynoecium

of Ranunculus: x, and Italians he took at Smerwick, but slaughtered the common free stamens, usually many free ode-celled receptacle with the men. Among the professional soldiers of Italy in the 15th carpels (fig. 2) and small seeds containing points of insertion century the hope of gaining ransom tended to reduce war to a a minute straight embryo embedded in a of the stamens,

which have been (arce. They would not lose their profits by killing their opponents. copious endorsperm. The parts of the removed.

removed... The disuse of the practice was no doubt largely due to the flower are generally arranged spirally on discovery that men who were serving for this form of gain could a convex receptacle. The fruit is one-seeded, an achene (fig. 3), pot be trusted to figbt seriously.

| orą many-seeded follicle (fig. 4), rarely, as in Actaea, a berry a

The order falls into several well-defined tribes which are the posterior sepal being distinguished from the remaining four by distinguished by characters of the flower and fruit; all are

its helmet-shape (Aconitum) or spur (Delphinium). In Caltha there are no petals, but in the other genera there are honey-secreting and storing structures varying in number and in form in the different genera. In Trollius they are long and narrow with a honey-secreting pit at the base, in Nigella and Helleborus (fig. 7) they form short

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123

From Strasburger's Lehr-
buch der Bolasik, by per-
mission of Gustav Fischer.
Fig. 2.-Ranunculus FIG. 3.- Single FIG. 4.-Fruit of Col.

arvensis. Carpel in follicle show umbine (Aquilegia)
longitudinal section. ing dehiscence formed of five fol-
(Aster Baillon, en by the ventral licles.
larged.)

suture.
represented among British native or commonly grown garden
plants.

Tribe I. Paeonieae, peony group, are mostly herbs with deeply cut leaves and large solitary showy flowers in which the parts are spirally arranged, the sepals, generally five in number, passing gradually into the large coloured petals. The indefinite stamens are succeeded by 2-5 free carpels which bear a double row of ovules along the ventral suture. Honey is secreted by a ring-like swelling. round the base of the carpels, which become fleshy or leathery in the fruit and dehisce along the ventral suture. There are only three genera, the largest of which, Paeonid, occurs in Europe, temperate Asia and western North America. P. officinalis is the common peony.

Tribe Il. Helleboreae are almost exclusively north temperate or subarctic; there are 15 genera, several of which are represented in the British flora. The plants are herbs, either annual, e.g. Nigella (love-in-a-mist), or perennial by means of a rhizome, as in Aconitum or Eranthis (winter aconite). The leaves are simple, as in Caltha, but more often palmately divided as in hellebore (fig. 6), aconite (fig. 5) and larkspur. The flowers are solitary (Eranthis) or in

Fig. 7.-Aelleborus niger. 1, vertical section of flower;

2, nectary, side and front view (nat. size). stalked pitchers, in Aquilegia they are large and coloured with a showy petal-like upper portion and a long basal spur in the tip of which is the nectary. In Delphinium they are also spurred, and in Aconitum form a spur-like sac on a long stalk (fig. 8). The parts

of the flower are gene rally arranged in a spiral (acyclic), but are sometimes hemicyclic, the perianth forming a whorl as in winter aconite; rarely is the flower cyclic, as in Aquilegia (fig. 9) where

[graphic]

F16. 8.- Part of the flower of Aconite FIG.9.-Floral dia.

(Aconitum Napellus), showing two gram of Columbine irregular horn-like petals P, supported (Aquilegia) showing on grooved stalks o. These serve as regular cyclicar

nectaries. S, the whorl of stamens rangement. FIG. 5.-Five-partite leaf FIG. 6.-Pedate leaf of Stinking Helle. inserted on the thalamus, and surroundof Aconite. bore (Helleborus foetidus). It is a

ing the pistil. palmately-partite leaf, in which the the parts throughout are arranged in alternating whorls. In Caliha, lateral lobes are deeply divided. where there are no petals, honey is secreted by two shallow de When the leaf hangs down it re pressions on the side of each carpel. sembles the foot of a bird, and hence Tribe III. Anemoneae, with 8 genera, are chiefly north temperate, the name.

arctic and alpine plants, but also pass beyond the tropics to the

southern hemisphere. They differ from the two preceding tribes cymes or racemes, and are generally regular as in Collha (king-cup, in the numerous carpels, each with only one ovule, forming a fruit of marsh marigold). Trollius (globe-flower), Helleborus, Aquilegia numerous achenes. They are annual or perennial herbs, erect as in (columbine): sometimes medianly zygomorphic as in Aconitum Anemone, Thalictrum (meadow-rue) and many buttercups, or creeping (monkshood, aconite) and Delphinium (larkspur). The carpels, as in Ranunculus re pens; the section Batrachium of the genus generally 3 to 5 in number, form in the fruit a many-seeded follicle, Ranunculus (9.0.) contains aquatic plants with submerged or floating except in Actaea (baneberry), where the single carpel develops to stems and leaves. The flowers are solitary, as in Anemone Pulse. form a many-seeded berry, and in Nigella, where the five carpels lilla (Pasque flower) and the wood anemone, or cymose as in species unite to form a five-chambered ovary. There is considerable

of Ranunculus, or in racemes or panicles as in Thalictrum. The variety in the form of the floral envelopes and the arrangement of

parts are spirally arranged throughout as in Myosutus (mouse-tail). the parts. The outer series, or sepals, generally five in number, is

where the very numerous carpels are borne on a much elongated generally white or bright-coloured, serving as an attraction for receptacle, or Adonis (pheasant's eye), or the perianth is whorled insects, especially bees, as well as a protection for the rest of the as in Anemone and Ranunculus. In Anemone there is a whorl of flower. Thus in Caltha and Trollius the sepals form a brilliant foliage leaves below the flower, as in Eranthis. In Anemone and golden-yellow cup or globe, and in Eranthis a pale yellow star which Thalictrum there is only one series of perianth leaves, which are contrasts with the green involucre of bracts immediately below it; petaloid and attractive in Anemone where honey is secreted by in Nigella they are blue or yellow, and also coloured in Aquilegio. modified stamens, as in A. Pulsalilla, or, as in A. nemorosa (wood In Hellebore the greenish sepals persist till the fruit is ripe. Aconitum anemone), there is no honey and the flower is visited by insects lor and Delphinium differ in the irregular development of the sepals, I the sake of the pollen; in Thalictrum the perianth is greenish of

lehere are ssifolius, 6 inor the taller is it. high

valli, knowned high,

alightly coloured and the flower is wind-pollinated (T. minus) or perfectly free from fresh dung. The tubers are planted in rows 5 of visited for its pollen. In Ranunculus and Adonis a calyx of green6 in. apart, and 3 or 4 in. apart in the rows, the turban sorts in October, protective sepals is succeeded by a corolla of showy petals; in the more choice varieties in February. They should be so close Ranunculus (fig. 10) there is a basal honey-secreting gland which that the foliage may cover the surface of the bed. The autumn

is absent in Adonis. In Anemone the achenes planted roots must be sheltered from severe frost. The plants when bear the persistent naked or bearded style in flower should be screened from hot sunshine with an awning: which aids in, dissemination; the same pur when the leaves wither, the roots are to be taken up, dried, and pose is served by the prickles on the achenes stored. The ranunculus is readily propagated from seed obtained of Ranunculus arvensis.

from semi-double sorts, which are often of themselves very beautiful Tribe IV. Clematideae comprise the genus flowers. It is generally sown in boxes in autumn or spring. The

Clematis (9.0.), characterized by its shrubby, | young plants thus raised flower often in the second, and always in FIG. 10.- Petal of

often climbing habit, opposite leaves and the the third year. Crowfoot(Ranun.

valvate, not imbricate as in the other tribes, The turban varieties, which are very showy for the borders, are culus), bearing at

aestivation of the sepals. The usually four of a few positive colours, as scarlet, yellow, brown, carmine, and the base a honey

sepals are whorled and petaloid, the numerous white. The florists' varieties have been bred from the Persian gland protected

stamens and carpels are spirally arranged; the type, which is more delicate. by a scale, s.

flowers are visited by insects for the sake of the Other species knownin gardens are R. aconitifolius (white bachelor's

abundant pollen. The fruit consists of numer buttons), with leaves recalling aconite, and white flowers; the ous achenes which are generally prolonged into the long feathery style, double-flowered form is known in gardens as fair maids of France whence the popular name of the British species, old man's beard or fair maids of Kent. A double-flowered form of R. acris is grown (Clematis vitalba). The genus, which contains about 170 species, under the name yellow bachelor's buttons. R. bulbosus also has has a wide distribution, but is rarer in the tropics than in temperate | a pretty double-flowered variety. Or dwarfer interesting plants regions.

there are R. alpestris, 4 in., white; R. gramineus, 6 to 10 in., yellow; Special articles will be found on the more important genera of R. parnassifolius, 6 in., white; and R. rulaefolius, 4 to 6 in., white Ranunculaceae, e.g. Aconitum, Adonis, Anemone, Baneberry (Actaea), with orange centre of the taller kinds mention may be made of Clemalis, Columbine, Hellebore, Ranunculus.

R. cortusae folius, a fine buttercup, 3-5 ft. high, from Teneriffe, and

hardy in the mildest parts of Britain; and R. hyalli, known as the RANUNCULUS, familiarly known as “buttercup," or crow New Zealand water lily. It is a handsome species, 2 to 4 ft. high, foot, a characteristic type of the botanical order Ranunculaceae. with large peltate leaves often a foot in diameter, and with waxy The Lat. name, which means a little frog or tadpole (dim. of

white flowers about 4 in. across. It is not quite hardy, and even rana, frog), was also given to a medicinal plant, which has

under the best conditions is a difficult plant to grow well. . been identified by some with the crowfoot. The Ranunculi

RAO, SIR DINKAR (1819-1896), Indian statesman, was are more or less acrid herbs, sometimes with fleshy root-fibres, or with the base of the stem dilated into a kind of tuber (R.

born in Ratnagiri district, Bombay, on the 20th of December bulbosus). They have tufted or alternate leaves, dilated into

1819, being a Chitpavan Brahmin. At fifteen he entered the

service of the Gwalior state, in which his ancestors had served. a sheath at the base, and very generally, but not universally,

Rapidly promoted to the responsible charge of a division, he deeply divided above. The flowers are solitary, or in loose

displayed unusual talents in reorganizing the police and revenue cymes, and are remarkable for the number and distinctness

| departments, and in reducing chaos to order. In 1851 Dinkar (freedom from union) of their parts. Thus there are five

Rao became dewan. The events which led to the British sepals, as many petals, and numerous spirally arranged stamens

victories of Maharajpur and Panniar in 1844 had filled the and carpels. The petals have a little pit or honey-gland at

state with mutinous soldiery, ruined the finances, and weakened the base, which is interesting as foreshadowing the more fully

authority. With a strong hand the dewan suppressed disorder, developed tubular petals of the nearly allied genera Aconitum

abolished ruinous imposts, executed public 'works, and by a and Helleborus. The fruit is a head of “ achenes ”-dry, one

reduction of salaries, including his own, turned a deficit into a seeded fruits. The genus contains a large number of species

surplus. When the contingent mutinied in 1857, he never (about 250) and occurs in most temperate countries in the

wavered in loyalty; and although the state troops also mutinied northern and southern hemispheres, extending into arctic

in June 1858 on the approach of Tantia Topi, he adhered to and antarctic regions, and appearing on the higher mountains

the British cause, retiring with Maharaja Sindhia to the Agra in the tropics. About twenty species are natives of Great

fort. After the restoration of order he remained minister Britain. R. acris, R. repens, R. bulbosus, are the common buttercups. R. arvensis, found in cornfields, has smaller pale

until December 1859. In 1873 he was appointed guardian to

the minor Rana of Dholpur, but soon afterwards he resigned, yellow flowers and the achenes covered with stout spines.

I owing to ill-health. In 1875 the viceroy selected him as a R. Lingua, spearwort, and R. Flammula, lesser spearwort,

commissioner, with the Maharajas Sindhia and Jaipur, and grow in marshes, ditches and wet places. R. Ficaria is the

three British colleagues, to try the Gaekwar of Baroda on a pilewort or lesser celandine, an early spring flower in pastures and waste places, characterized by having heart-shaped entire

charge of attempting to poison the British resident. He also leaves and clusters of club-shaped roots. The section

served in the legislative council of India, and was frequently

consulted by viceroys on difficult questions. An estate was Batrachium comprises the water-buttercups, denizens of pools d streams, which vary greatly in the character of the foliage

conferred upon him, with the hereditary title of Raja, for his

eminent services, and the decoration of K.C.S.I. He died on according as it is submersed, floating or aerial, and when

the oth of January 1896. No Indian statesman of the 19th submersed varying in accordance with the depth and strength

century gained a higher reputation, yet he only commenced of the current. The ranunculus of the dorist is a cultivated

the study of English at the age of forty, and was never able to form of R. asialicus, a native of the Levant, remarkable for

converse fluently in it; his orthodoxy resented social reforms; the range of colour of the flowers (yellow to purplish black)

he kept aloof from the Indian Congress, and he had received no and for the regularity with which the stamens and pistils are

training in British administration. replaced by petals forming double flowers. R. asiaticus is one

RAO, SIR T. MADHAVA (1828–1891), Indian statesman, was of the older florists' flowers, which has sported into numberless

born at Combaconum in Madras in 1828. Madhava Rao created a varieties, but was formerly held in much greater esteem than

new type of minister adapted to the modern requirements of a it is at the present time. According to the canons of the florists,

progressive native state, and he grafted it upon the old stock. the flowers, to be perfect, should be of the form of two-thirds

He linked the past with the present, using the advantages of of a ball, the outline forming a perfect circle, with the centre

heredity, tradition and conservatism to effect reforms in the close, the petals smooth-edged, the colour dense, and the

public administration and in Indian society. Sprung from a marking uniform.

Mahratta Brahmin stock long settled at Tanjore, the son of a The ranunculus requires a strong and moist soil, with a fourth of dewan of Travancore, he was educated in the strictest tenets of rotten dung. The soil should be from 18 in. to 2 st. deep, and at

his sacred caste. But he readily imbibed the new spirit of the about 5 in. below the surface there should be placed a stratum 6 or 8 in. thick of two-year-old rotten cow-dung, mixed with earth, age. To mathematics, science and astronomy he added a study the earth above this stratum, where the roots are to be placed, being of English philosophy and international law and a taste for art

and pictures. Although a devout student of the Shastras, he archaeology at the Bibliothèque (from 1826), a result of which advocated female education and social reform. Refusing to may be seen in his Cours d'archéologie (1828). In 1829 appeared cross the sea and so break caste by appearing before a parlia- his Monuments inédits, a work of great value at the time. Still mentary commission, he yet preached religious toleration. A valuable are his Peintures inédites (1836) and his Peintures de patron of the Indian Congress, he borrowed from the armoury | Pompéi (1844). He contributed to the Annali of the Roman of British administration every reform which he introduced Institute, the Journal des saoan's and the Académie des ininto the native states. He was respected alike by Europeans scriptions. At his death on the 3rd of July 1854 Raoul Rochette and natives, and received titles and honours from the British was perpetual secretary of the Academy of Fine Arts and a government. As tutor of the maharaja of Travancore, and corresponding member of most of the learned societies in then as revenue officer in that state, he showed firmness and

Europe. ability, and became diwan or prime minister in 1857. He | RAOULT, FRANÇOIS MARIE (1830-1901), French chemist, found the finances disorganized, and trade cramped by mono- was born at Fournes, in the Département du Nord, on the roth polies and oppressive duties. He co-operated with the Madras of May 1830. He became aspirant répétiteur at the lycée of government in carrying out reforms, and when his measures Rheims in 1853, and after holding several intermediate positions led to misunderstandings with the maharaja, he preferred was appointed in 1862 to the professorship of chemistry in Sens honourable resignation to retention of a lucrative office in which lycée, where he prepared the thesis on electromotive force he was powerless for good. In 1872 he was engaged at Indore which gained him his doctor's degree at Paris in the following in laying down a plan of reform and of public works which he year. In 1867 he was put in charge of the chemistry classes bequeathed to his successor, when a grave crisis at Baroda at Grenoble, and three years later he succeeded to the chair demanded his talents there. The Gaek war had been deposed of chemistry, which he held until his death on the ist of April for scandalous misrule, and an entire reorganization was needed. 1901. Raoult's earliest researches were physical in character, Aided by Sir Philip Melvill, Madhava Rao swept away the being largely concerned with the phenomena of the voltaic corrupt officials, privileged sirdars and grasping contractors cell, and later there was a period when more purely chemical who had long ruined Baroda. He wrote able minutes defending questions engaged his attention. But his name is best known the rights and privileges of the Gaekwar from fancied encroach- in connexion with the work on solutions, to which he devoted ment, and justifying the internal reforms which he introduced the last two decades of his life. His first paper on the depression He resigned office in 1882, and in his retirement devoted his of the freezing-points of liquids by the presence of substances leisure to reading and writing upon political and social questions. dissolved in them was published in 1878; and continued investiHe died on the 4th of April 1891.

gation and experiment with various solvents, such as benzene RAOUL DE CAMBRAI, the name of a French chanson de and acetic acid, in addition to water, led him to believe in a geste. The existing romance is a 13th-century recension of a simple relation between the molecular weights of the substances poem by a trouvère of Laon called Bertholais, who professed and the freezing-point of the solvent, which he expressed as the to have witnessed the events he described. It presents, like " loi générale de la congélation," that if one molecule of a the other provincial gesle of Garin le Loherain, a picture of the substance be dissolved in 100 molecules of any given solvent, devastation caused by the private wars of the feudal chiefs. the temperature of solidification of the latter will be lowered A parallel narrative, obviously inspired by popular poetry, is by 0.63° C. (See, however, the article SOLUTION.) Another

I in the chronicle of Waulsort (ed. Achery, Spicilegium, relation at which he worked was that the diminution in the ii.p. 100 seq.), and probably corresponds with the earlier recension. vapour-pressure of a solvent, caused by dissolving a substance Raoul de Cambrai, the posthumous son of Raoul Taillefer, in it, is proportional to the molecular weight of the substance count of Cambrai, by his wife Alais, sister of King Louis i dissolved-at least when the solution is dilute. These two (d'Outre-Mer), whose father's lands had been given to another, generalizations not only afforded a new method of determining demanded the fief of Vermandois, which was the natural in the molecular weights of substances, but have also been utilized heritance of the four sons of Herbert, lord of Vermandois. On by J.. H. van't Hoff and W. Ostwald, among other chemists, King Louis's refusal, he proceeded to war. The chief hero on in support of the hypothesis of electrolytic dissociation in the Vermandois side was Bernier, a grandson of Count Herbert, solutions. An account of Raoult's life and work was given by who had been the squire and firm adherent of Raoul, until he. Professor van't Hoff in a memorial lecture delivered before the was driven into opposition by the fate of his mother, burned | London Chemical Society on the 26th of March 1902. with the nuns in the church of Origny. Bernier eventually | RAOUX, JEAN (1677-1734), French painter, was born at Montslew the terrible Raoul in single fight, but in his turn was slain, pellier in 1677. After the usual course of training he became

arent reconciliation, and the blood-feud descended a member of the Academy in 1717 as an historical painter. His to his sons. The date of these events is exactly ascertainable. reputation had been previously established by the credit of Flodoard (Annales, Anno 943) states that Count Herbert died decorations executed during his three years in Italy on the in that year, and was buried by his sons at St Quentin, that palace of Giustiniani Sclini at Venice, and by some easel paintwhen they learnt that Raoul, son of Raoul de Gouy, was about ings, the Four Ages of Man (National Gallery), commissioned to invade their father's territory, they attacked him and put by the grand prior of Vendôme. To this latter class of subject him to death. The identity of other of the personages of the Raoux devoted himself, nor did he even paint portraits except

en fixed from historical sources. The second in character. The list of his works is a long series of sets of t part of the poem, of which Bernier is the hero, is of later date, Seasons, of the Hours, of the Elements, or of those scenes of and bears the character of a roman d'aventures.

amusement and gallantry in the representation of which he was See Li Romans de Raoul de Cambrai et de Bernier, ed. E. le Glay immeasurably surpassed by his younger rival Watteau. After (Paris, 1840); Raoul de Cambrai, ed. P. Meyer and A. Longnon his stay in England (1720) he lived much in the Temple, where (Soc. des anc. textes fr., Paris, 1882): J. M. Ludlow, Popular Epics

he decorated several rooms. He died in Paris in 1734. His of the Middle Ages (London and Cambridge, 1865): H. Grõber,

best pupils were Chevalier and Montdidier. His works, of Grundriss d. roman. Phil. (ii. pp. 567 seq.).

which there is a poor specimen in the Louvre, were mucb RAOUL ROCHETTE, DÉSIRÉ (1790-1854), French archaeo- engraved by Poilly, Moyreau, Dupuis, &c. logist, was born on the oth of March 1790 at St Amand in the RAPALLO, a seaport and winter resort of Liguria, Italy, department of Cher, and received his education at Bourges in the province of Genoa. Pop. (1901) 5839 (town); 10,343 He was made professor of history in the Collége de Louis-le- (commune). It occupies a beautiful and well-sheltered situaGrand at Paris (1813) and in the Sorbonne (1817). His His- tion on the east side of the Gulf of Rapallo, 18} m. E. by S. loire critique de l'élablissement des colonies grecques (4 vols., from Genoa by rail. It has a fine church, a medieval castle 1815) is now out of date. He was superintendent of anti- (now used as a prison) and a Roman Bridge, known as “ Hanni. quities in the Bibliothèque at Paris (1810-48), and professor of I bal's Bridge." On the hills above the town is situated the

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