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FIG. 3.

read off against a pointer from the scale seen with the left eye. For or on different parts of the same objective, and thus inaccuracy in the night use, means are provided for illuminating the scale. The range recorded range must result. The instruments are expected to give an to lights may be ascertained by the use of the astigmatizer, an optical | accuracy of less than in 191


, device by which a point of light is drawn out into a vertical streak. 2 % at 2000 yds. For

AR Onjective A beam of light from the objective falls on each reflector (fig. 2), ranges over that dis

tance, i.e. for usual



artillery ranges, it is
ERO- desirable to use a s


mall double base (100 yds. artCTO B JECT GLASS CASE

FIG. 2.-Barr and Stroud.

case the range regiss


'1: tered on the drum must !

be doubled. This opera. and passing through the object-glasses, each is received by an arranges

tion, although slight, ment of prisms about the centre of the tube, and reflected through

is a distinct disadvantthe right eye-piece. Two partial images are thus seen. The images

age, since it adds to the could be united by the rotation of one of the reflectors, but owing

time of taking a range Rightangle l'

Reading to the small base used the necessary movement would be so extremely

and is a possible source

Vatrument small that it would be practically impossible to measure it. The

of error. For field

...... Base ....... difficulty has been surmounted by utilizing fixed reflectors and effect


The deflecting ing coincidence by means of a prism of small angle.

however, a

range-finder is only an prism is situated in the line of the beam of light from the reflector

auxiliary adjunct. The true range can be found by a process at the right-hand end of the tube. Its multiplying action is of

of trial and error (see ARTILLERY) in as short a time as the great delicacy. The angle available for subdivision, to measure

mekometer observers take to report it. It must further be ranges between infinity and 250 yds., is only one-third of a degree.

remembered that as shrapnel is the principal projectile of field In a travel of 6 in. the prism renders accurate measurements possible

| artillery, not only the correct elevation but also the true length of within the required limits. To bring images of distant objectives

time fuse has to be found. This the range-finder cannot do. Hence into coincidence, the prism must be moved towards the eye-piece,

J it is that the range-finder for field artillery, although a valuable and for near objectives in the opposite direction. The range scale

auxiliary, is not of the same importance as in purely defensive is attached to the prism. A consequent advantage is that the

positions, such as batteries for harbour defence, and land forts. accuracy of the instrument is not affected by back lash arising from wear, or irregularity in the actuating, mechanism... When once The Marindin range-finder was from 1908 gradually introinstalled, the instrument is always ready for use. Should adjusto duced in the infantry to replace the mekometer. It was the ment be required it is readily and easily applied. It is not within

invention of Captain A. H. Marindin, of the Black Watch the sphere of this article to enter into the detail of the adjusting mechanism. For further particulars the reader is referred to the

(Royal Highlanders). Item Catt Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 30th January The principle of the instrument is that of coincidence, as in the 1896. The working of the range-finder is so simple that its use is Gautier Christie, Le Cyre, Souchier, and Barr and Stroud. But quickly learnt by any man who can read, and with little instruction it differs from the last mentioned in that the right prism is made. and practice he can " take a range" in 8 to 12 seconds. Besides movable, and this movement (necessarily extremely small) is a its principal purpose, in connexion with gunnery, there are minor

function of the recorded range.

E uses in navigation and nautical surveying to which the range-finder The steel tube, forming the base of the instrument, which carries the can be applied.

prisms,is supported inside an aluminium outer tube in sucha

Mariadia With the high speeds of modern war-vessels, guns and their way that no direct shock is communicated to it. The objective approach each other so quickly that unless ranges can appearance of the outside of the instrument, together Range

Fiader. be communicated from the instrument to the guns with rapidity with the names of the various parts, is shown in fig. 4. and accuracy the range-finder is deprived of much of its value. The instrument can be used in two main positions, viz. horizontally, In connexion with the naval range-finder an apparatus is provided, which though not part of the range-finder is sufficiently important to claim passing notice. The apparatus consists of a transmitting and a receiving instrument of clockwork mechanism electrically controlled. In appearance they resemble the ordinary engine-room



Jovic telegraph, on the dials of which ranges take the place of orders. The transmitter can communicate with a number of receiving instruments, disposed as required in different parts of the ship.

Instrument closed.

Sverre ? ! ! !!! ! ! 2. Before the introduction of the Marindin range-finder described below, the British army in the field used the "mekometer.” The instruments used by the cavalry and infantry

nonne watanare smaller and lighter than those of the artillery pattern, but the principle involved is identical.


B., II

! Les situni The mekometer is practically a box sextant. Two instruments


U is are used simultaneously at the ends of a base of fixed length. One w ho

En efeyi 1911 sextant, called the right-angle instrument, is fitted with index and horizon glasses permanently inclined at 45°. It consequently

11. I 2003 loer measures a right angle. In the other sextant, called the reading

..m ore in

th:1123 Song instrument, a graduated drum takes the place of the usual index arm and scale. The drum is graduated spirally with a scale of .". BLITT CRISC Instrument ready for users ranges. Both reading and right-angle instruments are fitted with

301TE VIL FIG. 4.--Marindin Range-Finder. itros a vane of gun metal with a white strip down the centre to facilitate


0 observations. Telescopes of low power can be fitted to the instru for ranging on upright objects, or vertically, for ranging on horizontal ments, and two cords of 50 (or 251) yds. are provided with which targets.

For instance, in the diagram (fig. 5) of a road running uphill, Two observers attach the ends of the cord of fixed length (usually the instrument could be held in any of the three positions indicated, 50 yds.) to their instruments and separate until it is taut. The

observer with the right-angle instrument moves into such Meko.

a position that coincidence of image will be given between weter.

the objective and the vane of the instrument at the other end of the base, i.e. he makes ABC a right angle (fig. 3).

When the right angle is established, the observer at C turns the graduated drum of the reading instrument until the image of the vane of the right angle instrument coincides with the direction of the objective. The range AC is then read on the drum. The ranges on the drum are measures of the angle BAC when the base

b BC is 50 yds.


FIG. S. .

. . The mekometer is open to the objection which is common to all

. . range-finders requiring more than one observer. There is always a and would give good ranges, but probably the best range would danger that observers may cause coincidence on different objectives be obtained if held as at c. If it is required to use the instrument

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ments, and the baseach the ends od separate rument moveen between

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at night, the two caps of the night-glasses should be opened. On dials. The distance and direction thus communicated are the looking through the instrument, any lamp or other light will appear like a fine, bright line, and the range can be taken in the

range and bearing from the guns, not as measured from the ordinary way. tu

range-finder. The correction due to the displacement between This range-finder possesses the superlative advantage of the gun and instrument is automatic. In localities where the one-man instrument, and it is claimed for it that it can range on height does not admit of using the depression system, an horizontal objects, such as the crest of a hill, which has no detail suitable for use with a mekometer, and that it can be adjusted on

alternative arrangement is provided, known as the Horizontal service with no greater difficulty than the setting of a watch.

Position-Finder. It is open to the objections common to

two-man range-finders, and is only employed where necessity 3. For harbour defence, owing to the long range of naval

compels its use. Briefly, there are two observing stations at guns, and the fast targets which war-vessels present, an accurate

either end of a measured and electrically connected base. range-finder is of first importance. This is largely the case

One is known as he transmitting and the other the receiving because "ranging " cannot be resorted to in the same manner

station; the latter contains the principal instrument, which as in the field, where the targets are comparatively motionless

usually is capable of independent use for medium and short and the effective ranges are less. Successful artillery practice

ranges as a depression instrument. therefore depends, in a great measure, upon the range-finder.

The instrument used in harbour forts is known as the depression It will be seen that the difference between the two systems is, range-finder. As its name suggests, it solves a triangle in the that the first described solves the range triangle in the vertical, and vertical plane, of which the base is the height of the instrument the latter in the horizontal plane. There have been various methods above sea-level. Its appearance resembles some forms of theodolite proposed for using the position-finder. The best results are obtained (fig. 6). A framework, capable of rotating in azimuth on a vertical by placing range and bearing dials on the gun-mounting in a position

where they can be easily seen by the men elevating and

training the gun. The gun is kept directed upon the

Il objective and fired as quickly as it can be loaded. A UTILE

position-finder can be used for firing mines in a mine field,

and instruments are issued to the Royal Navy for this TORTAS

Engl purpose. in

In the United States of America the term “positions 20 let s entieri 1:12 THIS

21; finder" is applied to a range-finder which gives direction ist as well as distance. This is substantially correct, but cus

tom, in the British service, confines the use of the expression

p as defined above. giliair, ;,.

4. Various appliances, not strictly range-finders, are sometimes used to assist in estimating distance. The following examples are not without interest :

Acoustic telemeters, depending upon the velocity of sobo

sound, are obviously unsuited to the requirements of modern warfare. The names of Thouvenin, Rédier and

Le Boulengé are connected with such instruments-that of 118,3 .. the last-named is perhaps the most convenient. It con

sists of a graduated glass tube filled with liquid, of suitable density, and containing a small metal traveller. At the flash of discharge of a gun or rifle the instrument is brought

to a vertical position, and the traveller starts from zero; ** FIG. 6.-Depression Range-Finder.

at the detonation, it is turned to a horizontal position

and the traveller stops at the point on the scale indicating pivot, is supported on a plate carried by levelling screws, L, L, L. the range. To the framework are pivoted two arms DC and FE, at Cand E | On this principle is the rough method of ascertaining the distance. respectively. The arm EF is supported at F by a vertical screw H in yards, of a thunderstorm, viz. multiply the number of seconds ending in a drum, upon which, in a spiral scale, the ranges are elapsing between the perception of the lightning and that of the graduated. Motion in altitude is thus given to the telescope. The thunder by the number of days in the year. arm CD is supported by a slider G. This slider is set by a rack and Optical or perspective telemeters determine the distance to any pinion to the height above sea-level (represented on a scale of feet point by observing the size of some object of known dimensions, on EF) at which the instrument may be used. A telescope AB is as seen in a graduated telescope. Porro's telemeter, Elliott's be suitably fitted in jaws at the top of the frame. There are spirit. | telescope and Nordenselt's macrometer illustrate the prin

Telelevels at M and Q for adjusting purposes. The telescope is provided ciple. The chief defect of the system is that the objects

meters. with cross wires which can be illuminated for night use. o An most conveniently observed - men and horses--vary conazimuth circle X and pointer Y enable the direction of any vessel siderably in size, so that the assumption of a constant dimension may to be indicated, the range of which it is desired to know. The be productive of error. instrument rests on a base plate R, to which it is locked by the On the continent of Europe the perspective telemeter for military top-plate 0. The observer directs the cross wires of the telescope purposes has attracted more attention than in England. The upon the water-line of the objective, by means of the drum I and French in their precise terminology call such an instrument "Stadia the azimuth handle P, the top of which just appears in the diagram. militaire," a term which at once distinguishes it from a “ télémètre," The reader watches the arrow on the drum and calls out the ranges and describes its nature. In rapid military sketching, in locating as the figures arrive beneath it. The ranges are communicated positions upon maps, &c., perspective telemeters find a use. The to the officers at the guns by various devices, which differ according telescopes issued to field batteries and to coast forts in France are to local requirements.

provided with a scale in the field of view. By comparing this scale

with known heights, such as the average height of a man on foot, Position-Finder.—The range-finding instrument known in

or the known height of funnels, masts, turrets, &c., of a war-vessel, the British service as the Position-Finder (invented by Colonel | distance can be estimated with fair accuracy." Watkin, C.B., R.A.) is practically a large depression range

The “ jumelle Souchier," which can be used as an ordinary field. finder. It posesses, however, certain additional appliances

glass, is constructed on the stadia principle. By its means ranges which render it capable of automatically recording, upon an

can be estimated within an accuracy of 10%. A stand or rest,

however, is necessary for good results. oriented chart, the position or course of a vessel. And further, General Percin of the French army has shown, in an interesting by electrical means it automatically records to a distant pamphlet, that a piece of wood or card cut to a known fraction of

the distance between the eye and the end of the thumb, when the battery the range and bearing of the desired objective. The

arm is fully extended, can be used to estimate distances. Thus it is position-finder can therefore, from a concealed and safe position,

easy to find a penny in good condition of which the thickness is Coast automatically control the fire of a group of guns, toth part of the arm-length in a man of average height. Provided Defence whose detachments need not necessarily see the with such a coin an observer finds its rim to exactly cover a distant lastru target engaged. As the observer follows the objec

man 6 ft. (or 2 yds. high). The range therefore is 400 X 2 = 800 yds, ments.

Similarly, if the man's height appeared to be but half the thickness tive with the telescope of the instrument the range of the coin the range would be 4 X 400 = 1600 yds With a little and bearing is simultaneously shown in the battery on convenient practice the eye estimates the proportion between che object of

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known height and the stadia used. General Percin gives many | volume of its trade. During the busy season of rice-export, uscíul applications of this simple device.

which lasts from the end of December to the middle of May, the Various range-finders have been produced in countries outside the British Isles which, as they are the outcome of similar necessity

pool forming the port of Rangoon presents almost as crowded and required for identical purposes, naturally resemble, more or a scene as the Hugli at Calcutta. Rangoon has the double less, the instruments already described.

advantage of being situated near the sea and being served by a Field artillery officers of all countries usually claim their gun to

great river navigable for 900 m. behind it. The approach be their best range-finder. This may be another way of saying that a durable, one-man range-finder, capable of instantaneously finding

to the port is not difficult at any season of the year. With modern artillery ranges with accuracy, has yet to be invented. In flat and shelving shores, the shoal-banks off the main mouths France the "télémètre Goutier" for field artillery, a two-man of the delta form the chief danger to shipping, and this is instrument, corresponds with the Watkin mekometer.

guarded against by a good service of lighthouses and lightships. The “ Gautier," used by the Italian field artillery, is a one-man instrument, but requires a measured base-line. The “Aubry "

For a length of seven or eight miles the river is from a mile to a telemeter, used by some of the Russian batteries in Manchuria, is mile and a quarter in breadth, so that there is plenty of accommovery portable, but requires a measured base-line, and a slide rule to ldation for s

tion for shipping. Here is concentrated the whole of the rich find the range. In the French and Russian infantry the ".prisme. I trade of the delta of the Irrawaddy. Great part of the river fronttélémètre," the invention of Colonel Souchier, is used. It is small,

age is occupied with rice-mills, teak wharves and similar build. very light, and can be carried in the same manner as field-glasses. French machine guns are ranged by the “ télémètre instantané," ings. The rice exported from Rangoon in 1904-5 amounted to an instrument of the Barr and Stroud type, with an aluminium base 28 million cwt. with a value of nearly 7 million sterling. I metre in length.

The city is dominated by the great golden pile of the Shwe For work in the field the modern tendency abroad is to follow Barr and Stroud. In Germany, Hahn, Goerz and Zeiss have produced

| Dagôn pagoda, the centre of Burmese religious life. Rising to a handy and fairly light short base range-finders, in outward appear.height of 368 ft., this magnificent building is loftier than St ance more or less similar to Marindin's instrument.

Paul's Cathedral in London, and its size is greatly enhanced by The Zeiss range-finder, however, depends on the stereoscopic

the fact that it stands on an eminence that is itself 168 ft. above principle. It is open to the objection that best results can only be obtained with it by persons who are capable of seeing stereoscopically,

the level of the city. It is covered with pure gold from base and also, in individuals possessing this particular gift (à com. I to summit, and once in every generation this gold is renewed by paratively small proportion of the human race), stereoscopic vision public subscription. Moreover, benefactions to this pagoda are may vary in power from day to day. Nevertheless the Zeiss range- one of the favourite méthods of acquiring religious merit among finder has found favour in many countries, notably as the infantry range-finder in Italy. For naval and harbour defence purposes

the Burmese. The pagoda itself has no interior. It is a solid the Barr and Stroud range-finder is very largely used throughout the stupa of brick, in the form of a cone, raised over a relic chamber; world. In Italy a Barr and Stroud instrument, with the large base and the place of worship is the surrounding platform with a of 5 metres, was in 1908 under trial for coast artillery.

perimeter of nearly 1400 ft. Of the depression range-finder type in France, “le télémètre

Though traditionally a site of great sanctity, Rangoon owes Dévé" is used at all heights of about 70 st. and upwards.

Brazil possesses, in the invention of Captain Mario Netto, an its hrst importance to its rebuilding in 1753 by Alompra, the excellent range-finder. It is supplied to the harbour defences of founder of the Burmese monarchy, who gave it the present name that country. It is accurate, handy, easily transported and re: of Yan Kon, the end of the war." An English factory was erected where required, and is not affected by the concussion of

opened here about 1790. On the outbreak of the first Burmese heavy gun-fire. The German coast range-finder of Hahn closely resembles the earlier Watkin instruments. In Italy the Amici

| War, in 1824, it was taken by the British, but subsequently instrument is being replaced by the Braccialine. The latter inventor restored. It was captured a second time in 1852, and passed has also supplied his country with a horizontal base instrument.

along with the province of Pegu into the hands of the British. After extended competitive trials in the U.S.A. the Lewis de

It was destroyed by fire in 1850, and serious conflagrations pression range-finder has been found superior to others presented to the Range-Finding Committee, and is recommended for adoption.

occurred again in 1853 and 1855. Since the last devastation It is a neat, workmanlike instrument, and gave an average mean Rangoon has undergone considerable improvements. Until error of 24 yds. in the ranges recorded during the trials. The 1874, when the existing municipality was constituted, the maximum range was 12,000 yds. and the height of base 135ft.

administration was in the hands of the local government, The details of position-finders abroad, as in the British service, are confidential, and but little is published of the "télémètre par

which devoted itself to raising the centre of the town above the recoupement" of the French coast batteries, or the " telegonio- river level, providing land fit for building purposes from the metro Sollier" of Italy. In the United States, B. A. Fiske has original swamp, which was flooded at spring-tides, and making ingeniously adapted the principle of the Wheatstone bridge in the roads. bridges. culverts and surface drains. In 1802 was introconstruction of the position-finder which bears his name. See de Marré, Instruments pour la mesure de distances (Paris, 1880);

duced the sewage system, which now includes 6 m. of mains, Abridgments of Specifications, Class 97. Patent Office, London; / 22 m. of gravitating sewers, 41 m. of air mains and 44 Handbooks and Instructions for Range-Finder, published by the Shone's ejectors. The water supply, drawn from the Victoria British War Office: Barr and Stroud, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.,

Lake, s m. distant, has recently been supplemented by an 3oth Jan. 1896; Zeiss pamphlet by Carl Zeiss of Jena, which gives a candid statement of the difficulty attending the stereoscopic

additional reservoir, Io m. farther off. The city proper of principle, &c.

(F. M. L.*) Rangoon with the Kemmendine suburb is laid out on the block

system, each block being 800 by 860 ft., intersected with RANGER, HENRY WARD (1858- ), American artist, was regular streets. In the extensions to the east and west it has born at Syracuse, New York, in January 1858. He became a been decided to have no streets less than 50 ft. wide. The prominent landscape and marine painter, much of his work roads are still lighted by kerosene oil lamps, but electric lighting being done in Holland, and showing the influence of the modern is in comtemplation. Electric tramways run to Pazundaung in Dutch school. He became a National Academician (1906), and one direction and to Alon and Kemmendine in the other, as well a member of the American Water Color Society. Among his as to the foot of the Shwe Dagon Pagoda hill. Latterly the paintings are. “ Top of the Hill," Corcoran Gallery of Art, I erection of masonry buildings, instead of plank houses, has been Washington, D.C.; and “ East River Idyll,” Carnegie Institute, | insisted on in the central portion of the city, with the result that Pittsburg.

fires have decreased in number. There are two large maidans, RANGOON, the capital of Burma, situated on the left bank or commons, which are used as military parade grounds and for of the Hlaing or Rangoon river, 21 m. from the sea, in 16° 47' N. racing, as well as for golf links and other purposes of amusement. and 96° 13' E. In 1880 the city was detached from the main There is a garden round the Phayre Museum, managed by the district, called Hanthawaddy, and formed into a separate Agri-Horticultural Society, and an extremely pretty and welldistrict, with an area of 19 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 234,881, kept garden in the cantonments under the pagoda. Beyond of whom just half were immigrants from India. Rangoon, these lie the Royal Lake and Dalhousie Park, with

bcing a comparatively insignificant place. has within 160 acres of water and 203 acres of well-laidless than half a century risen to be the third seaport in British timbered park land. Dalhousie Park has recently been greatly India. being surpassed only by Calcutta and Bombay in the extended, and the new Victoria Park, declared open on the

extended competitieen found superiormended for adoption. Rangoon has und

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occasion of the visit of the prince of Wales in 1906, is quite the mother, though it is more probable that he merely imprisoned finest in the East. There are two cathedrals, Church of England her to keep her out of his way. At the age of twenty he obtained and Roman Catholic, and a Presbyterian church, besides the from Zaman Shah, the king of Afghanistan, a grant of Lahore, cantonment church buildings for worship. Religious buildings which he seized by force of arms in 1799. Subsequently he and lands, indeed, occupy an area in Rangoon out of all propor- | attacked and annexed Amritsar in 1802, thus becoming master tion to its size. Buddhists, Hindus, Mussulmans, Parsees, of the two Şikh capitals. When Jaswant Rao Holkar took Armenians and Jews all own lands and pagodas, temples, refuge in the Punjab in 1805, Ranjit Singh made a treaty with mosques, churches and synagogues. The Buddhist monasteries, the British, excluding Holkar from his territory. Shortly in particular, occupy wide spaces in very central portions of the afterwards acute difficulties arose between him and the British town and cantonments. Burial-grounds are equally extensive, as to the Cis-Sutlej portion of the Punjab. It was Ranjit and exist in every direction in what were once the outskirts, but Singh's ambition to weld the whole of the Punjab into a single are now fast becoming central parts of the city. The chief | Sikh empire, while the British claimed the territory south of educational institutions are the Government Rangoon college, the Sutlej-by right of conquest from the Mahrattas. The the Baptist college and St John's college (S.P.G.). Besides the difference proceeded almost to the point of war; but at the general hospital, a female hospital in connexion with the Dufferin last moment Ranjit Singh gave way, and for the future faithFund has recently been built, and there are hospitals for con- fully observed his engagements with the British, whose rising tagious diseases and for lepers in the suburbs. The staple power he was wise enough to gauge. In 1808 Charles Metcalle industries are mills for husking rice and for sawing timber, and was sent to settle this question with Ranjit Singh, and a treaty petroleum refineries. Carving in wood and ivory, and embossed was concluded at Amritsar on the 15th of April 1809. At this silverwork are also carried on. There are three municipal and period a band of Sikh fanatics called “akalis," attacked Sir eight private markets, which are being improved and extended. I Charles Metcalfe's escort, and the steadiness with which the Everything, from sacking to jewelry, is sold in them. The disciplined sepoys repulsed them, so impressed the maharaja introduction of pure water and the establishment of compulsory that he decided to change the strength of his army from cavalry vaccination have greatly improved the health of Rangoon. But to infantry. He organized a powerful force, which was trained the death-rate is still high, due partly to the swampy nature of by French and Italian officers such as Generals Ventura, Allard the outskirts of the city proper, and still more to the mortality and Avitabile, and thus forged the formidable fighting instru. among Hindu immigrants from the Madras presidency. The ment of the Khalsa army, which afterwards gave the British total rainfall in 1905 was 104.06 in. Rangoon is the head. their hardest battles in India in the two Sikh wars. In 1810 quarters of a brigade in the Burma command of the Southern he captured Multan after many assaults and a long siege, and army.

(J. G. Sc.) in 1820 had consolidated the whole of the Punjab between the RANGPUR, or RUNGPORE, a town and district of British Sutlej and the Indus under his dominion. In 1823, the city and India, in the Rajshahi division of Eastern Bengal and Assam. province of Peshawar became tributary to him. In 1833 when The town is situated on the little river Ghaghat. Pop. (1901) Shab Shuja, flying from Afghanistan, sought refuge at his 15,960. There are a high school, a normal school and an court, he took from him the Koh-i-nor diamond, which subseindustrial school. The earthquake of the 12th of June 1897 quently came into the possession of the British crown. Though destroyed many of the public buildings and diverted the he disapproved of Lord Auckland's policy of substituting Shah drainage channels.

Shuja for Dost Mahomed, he loyally supported the British in The DISTRICT OF RANGPUR, with an area of 3493 sq. m., is their advance on Afghanistan. Known as “ The Lion of the one vast plain. The greater part of it, particularly towards | Punjab," Ranjit Singh died of paralysis on the 27th of June the east, is inundated during the rains, and the remainder is 1839. traversed by a network of streams which frequently break In his private life Ranjit Singh was selfish, avaricious, drunken through their sandy banks and plough for themselves new and immoral, but he had a genius for command and was the channels over the fields. The river system is constituted by only man the Sikhs ever produced strong enough to bind them the Brahmaputra and its tributaries, chief of which are the together. His military genius showed itself not so much in Tista, Dharla, Sankos and Dudhkumar. The climate is actual generalship as in the organization of bis plans, the generally malarious, owing to the numerous stagnant swamps selection of his generals and his ministers, the tenacity of his and marshes filled with decaying vegetable matter. The annual purpose and the soundness of his judgment. The British rainfall averages 82 in. About three-fourths of the district were the one power in India that was too strong for him, and is under continuous cultivation. Spare land can hardly be as soon as he realized that fact he was unwaveringly loyal to said to exist-even the patches of waste land yield a valuable | his engagements with them. His power was military aristotribute of reeds and cane. The staple crops are rice, oil-seeds, cracy resting on the personal qualities of its founder, and after

tobacco. In 1901 the population was 2,154,181, his death the Sikh confederacy gradually crumbled and fell showing an increase of 4.3% in the decade. Nearly two-thirds to pieces through sheer want of leadership; and the rule of are Mahommedans. The Eastern Bengal railway has two the Sikhs in the Punjab passed away completely as soon as it branches, one of which crosses the district to the Brahmaputra, incurred the hostility of the British. and the other runs north towards Assam.

See Sir Lepel Griffin, Ranjit Singh (Rulers of India Serics), 1892; The tract comprised within the district of Rangpur was sor General Sir John Gordon, The Sikhs, 1904; and S. S. Thorburn, merly the western outpost of the ancient Hindu kingdom of The Punjab in Peace and War, 1904. Kamrup, which appears to have attained its greatest power and prosperity under Raja Nilambar, who was treacherously over | RANK (0.Fr. ranc or renc, mod. rang, generally connected thrown by Ala-uddin Hosain of Bengal at the close of the 15th with the 0.E. and O.H.G. hring, a ring), a row or line, as of century. Rangpur passed to the East India Company in 1765 cabs or carriages, but especially of soldiers drawn up abreast under the firman of the emperor Shah Alam. Since then a great in a line; in “ rank and file" the “ rank " is the horizontal number of changes have taken place in the jurisdiction, in con- line of soldiers, the "file" the vertical. From the sense of sequence of which the district area has been much diminished. orderly arrangement “ rank” is applied to grades or classes

RANJIT SINGH, MAHARAJA (1780-1839), native Indian ruler, in a social or other organization, and particularly to a high was born on the end of November 1780, the son of Sirdar grade, as in such expressions as a “person of rank.” This Mahan Singh, whom he succeeded in 1792 as head of the Sukar- word must be distinguished from the adjective "rank," overchakia branch of the Sikh confederacy. By birth he was only luxuriant, coarse, strong, generally connected with the Low one of many Sikh barons and owed his rapid rise entirely to Ger. rank, thin, tall (cf. Du. rank, upright). The O.E. rint, force of character and will. At the age of seventeen he seized warrior, i.e. full-grown man, may be also connected with the the reins of government. He is said to have poisoned his word; Skeat refers also to “rack,” to pull out suraight.

RANKE, LEOPOLD VON (1795-1886), German historian, | At Rome, as he said, he learned to see events from the inside. was born on the 20th or the 21st of December 1795, in the He wrote nothing but a critical examination of the story of small town of Wiehe, in Thuringia, which then formed part of | Don Carlos, but he returned to Germany a master of his craft. the electorate of Saxony. His father, Gottlob Israel Ranke, For a time Ranke was now engaged in an occupation of a was an advocate, but his ancestors, so far back as the family different nature, for he was appointed editor of a periodical can be traced, had been ministers of religion. Leopold received in which Friedrich Perthes designed to defend the Prussian his education first at Donndorf, a school established in an old government against the democratic press. Ranke, contemptumonastery near his home, and then at the famous school of ous in politics, as in history,' of the men who warped Schulpforta, whence he passed to the university of Halle and facts to support some abstract theory, especially disliked later to that of Berlin. His studies, both at school and the doctrinaire liberalism so fashionable at the time. He university, were classical and theological. The great political hoped, by presenting facts as they were, to win the adhesion events which occurred during his boyhood and youth seem to of all parties. We need not be surprised that he failed; men have had less effect on him than on many of his contemporaries, desired not the scientific treatment of politics, but satire and and he was not carried away either by enthusiastic admiration | invective. Exposed thus to attack, his weakness, if not his for Napoleon or by the patriotic fervour of 1813. Nor was

of 1812. Nor was venality, was long an article of faith among the liberals. He he implicated in the political movements which during the did not satisfy the Prussian conservatives, and after four following years attracted so many students; on the contrary, years the Historische Politische Blätter came to an end. Twohe already displayed that detachment of mind which was to thirds of the matter had been contributed by the editor, and be so characteristic of him. In 1818 he became a master in a the two stout volumes in which the numbers were collected school at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, thereby entering the service contained the best political thought which had for long of the Prussian government. The headmaster of this school appeared in Germany. For Ranke the failure was not to was Ernst Friedrich Poppo (1794-1866), a celebrated Grecian, be regretted; the rest of his life was to be wholly devoted to and Ranke was entrusted with the teaching of history. that in which he excelled. During 1834-36 appeared the

With the scholar's dislike of textbooks, he rapidly acquired three volumes of his Die römischen Päpste, ihre Kirche und a thorough knowledge of the ancient historians, quickly passed ihr Staal im 16 und 17 Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1834-36, and on to medieval times, and here it was that he formed as the many other editions), in form, as in matter, the greatest of ideal of his life the study of universal history, the works of his works, containing the results of his studies in Italy. Hence. God as displayed in the history of the human race. Here, forth his name was known in all European countries; the too, he composed his first work, which deals with the period | English translation by Mrs Austin was the occasion of one of to which most of his life was to be devoted, Geschichte der Macaulay's most brilliant essays. Before it was completed römanischen und germanischen Völker 1494-1514 (Berlin, he had already begun the researches on which was based the 1824). To this was appended a critical dissertation on the second of his masterpieces, his Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitaller historians who had dealt with the period (Zur Kritik neuerer der Reformation (Berlin, 1839-47), a necessary pendant to Geschichtschreiber), which, showing as it did how untrustworthy his book on the popes, and the most popular of his works in was much of traditional history, was to be for modern history his own country. In 1837 he became full professor at Berlin; as epoch-marking as the critical work of Niebuhr had been in in 1841 Frederick William IV., always ready to recognize ancient history. A copy of the book was sent to the Prussian intellectual eminence, appointed him Prussian historiographer. minister of education, Karl Albert Kamptz (1769-1849), the Stimulated by this, he brought out his Neun Bücher preussischer notorious hunter of democrats. Within a week Ranke received Geschichte (1847-48), a work which, chiefly owing to the the promise of a post at Berlin, and in less than three months nature of the subject, makes severe demands on the attention was appointed supernumerary professor in the university of of the reader-he is the “ Dryasdust " of Carlyle's Frederick; that city, a striking instance of the promptitude with which but in it he laid the foundation for the modern appreciation the Prussian government recognized scientific merit when, of the founders of the Prussian state. The nine books were as in Ranke's case, it was free from dangerous political opinions. subsequently expanded to twelve (Leipzig, 1874). He took The connexion thus established in 1825 was to last for fifty no immediate part in the movements of 1848, but in the years. At the Berlin Library Ranke found a collection of following years he drew up several memoranda for the king, MS. records, chiefly Italian, dealing with the period of the whom he encouraged in his efforts to defend the character Reformation; from a study of them he found how different and identity of the Prussian state against the revolutionaries. were the real events as disclosed in contemporary documents | Though never admitted into the inner circle of the king's from the history as recorded by most writers; and the result associates, he found the king the most appreciative of readers

second work, Fürsten und and stimulating of companions, and the queen one of the Völker von Südeuropa im 16 und 17 Jahrhundert (1827). In most faithful of his. friends; in biographical works and on later editions the title of this book was altered to Die Osmanen other occasions he always defended the memory of the unund die spanische Monarchie. It was now his ambition to fortunate monarch. A friend even more sympathetic he continue his exploration of the new world thus opened to him. found in Maximilian II. of Bavaria, whom he advised in his The Prussian government provided the means, and in expansive schemes for the promotion of learning and letters. September 1827 he started for Italy. His first sojourn was in the quicter years that followed he wrote the third of his in Vienna, where the friendship of Gentz and the protection masterpieces, Französische Geschichte, vornehmlich im 16 und of Metternich opened to him the Venetian archives, of which 17 Jahrhundert (Stuttgart, 1852-61), which was followed many were preserved in that city--a virgin field, the value of by his Englische Geschichte, vornehmlich im 16 und 17 Jahrwhich he first discovered, and which is still unexhausted. hundert (1859-68). This, the longest of his works, added He found time, in addition, to write a short book on Die Serbische much to existing knowledge, especially as to the relations Revolution (1829), from material supplied to him by Wuk between England and the continent, but it lacked something Stephanowich, a Servian who had himself been witness of the of the freshness of his earlier books; he was over seventy scenes he related. This was afterwards expanded into Serbien when it was completed, and he was never quitė at home in und die Türkei im 19. Jahrhundert (1879). In 1828 he at last dealing with the parliamentary foundations of English public crossed the Alps, and the next three years were spent in Italy. life. In his later years his small alert figure was one of the The recommendations of Metternich opened to him almost most distinguished in the society of Berlin, and every honour every library except the Vatican; and it was during these open to a man of letters was conferred upon him. He was three years of study in Venice, Ferrara, Rome, Florence and ennobled in 1865, and in 1885 received the title of Excellenz. other cities, that he obtained that acquaintance with European When the weakness of his eyes made it necessary for him to history which was to make him the first historian of his time. I depend almost entirely on the service of readers and secretaries,

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