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his early education at a school at Hammersmith, but when only I highly polished people, considerably advanced in science, fourteen he obtained temporary work in the secretary's office highly inquisitive and full of penetration.” It is interesting of the East India Company. In 1800 he was appointed junior to note that when another great Englishman, Rajah Brooke, clerk on the establishment. In 1805 the East India Company began his career in Sarawak in 1838, he announced: “I go to decided to make Penang a regular presidency, and sent out carry Sir Stamford Raffles's views in Java over the whole a governor with a large staff, including Stamford Raffles, who | Archipelago." was appointed assistant-secretary. On the eve of his departure The policy of Raffles was based on the assumption that Java he married Mrs Fancourt (Olivia Mariamne Devenish), widow would be retained, but for reasons of European policy it was of a surgeon on the Madras Establishment; she proved herself decided that it must be restored to Holland. After his return a helpful wife and counsellor to her husband in his rapid rise to to England in 1816 he endeavoured to obtain a reconsideration fortune during the following nine years, dying prematurely in of the question, but the decision taken was embodied in a treaty Java in November 1814. On his way out to Penang, Raffles and beyond all possibility of modification. During his stay began the study of the Malay language, and had mastered its | in England Raffles was knighted by the prince regent, published grammar before his arrival. He continued his studies, finding his History of Java (1817) and discussed with Sir Joseph Banks a congenial fellow-worker and kindred spirit in John Leyden, a project for the foundation in London of a zoological museum who was invalided to Penang. In August 1806 Raffles was and garden on the model of the Jardin des Plantes at Paris. appointed acting secretary during the illness of that official, He also married his second wife, Sophia, daughter of T. W.

1807 he received the full appointment. In the mean-Hull of Co. Down; he had many children by both marriages, time he had acted as Malay interpreter, which entailed heavy but the only one to live beyond childhood was a daughter, and unappreciated work in addition to his regular duties. In who died fifteen years after her father's death, and before she 1808 his health gave way, and he was ordered for a change was twenty. He left, therefore, no direct descendants. to Malacca. This proved a turning point in his career. The In November 1817 Sir Stamford quitted England on his East India Company had decided to abandon Malacca, and return to the East, where the lieutenant-governorship of Fort orders had been issued to dismantle it. Raflles perfected his Marlborough (Sumatra) had been kept in reserve for him. His study of Malay during his stay at this place, and learning from administration of Sumatra, which lasted from March 1818 till the Malays, with whom he mixed freely, that the abandonment | December 1823, was characterized by the same breadth of view, of so important a position would be a grave fault, he drew up consistency of purpose and energy in action that had made a report explaining the great importance of Malacca, and urging his government of Java remarkable. He had not, however, in the strongest manner its retention. This report was sent done with the Dutch, who, on their recovery of Java, endeavoured by the Penang authorities not only to London, but to the to establish a complete control over the Eastern archipelago, governor-general, the earl of Minto. The latter was so im- and to oust British trade. This design Sir Stamford set himseli pressed by the report that he at once gave orders for suspending

ending to battle, and although he was more frequently censured than the evacuation of Malacca, and in 1809 the company decided praised by his superiors for his efforts, he had already met with to reverse its own decision. When the whole question was no inconsiderable success in minor matters when, by a stroke calmly considered in the light of subsequent events, many years of genius and unrivalled statecraft, he stopped for all time the later, the verdict was that Raffles had "prevented the alienation Dutch project of a mare clausum by the acquisition and founding of Malacca from the British Crown." A direct correspondence of Singapore on the 29th of January 1819. with Lord Minto was established by the mediation of Leyden, In 1824 Sir Stamford returned to England, but unfortunately te to Raffles that the governor-general would be gratified the differences between him and the East India Comp

ween him and the East India Company had in receiving communications direct from him. In June 1810 resulted in an accumulation of disputes which placed a severe Rafiles, of his own accord, proceeded to Calcutta, where Lord strain on his enfeebled constitution. The memorials and stateMinto gave him the kindest reception. Raffles remained four ments that he had to compile for his own vindication would fill months in Calcutta, and gained the complete confidence of the a large volume, but at last the court passed (12th of April 1820) governor-general. He brought Lord Minto round to his opinion a formal decision in his favour. It did not omit, however, to that the conquest of the island of Java, then in the hands of censure him for “ his precipitate and unauthorized emancipation the French, was an imperative necessity. To prepare the of the Company's slaves,” or after his death to make his widow way for the expedition, Raffles was sent to Malacca as “ agent pay £10,000 for various items, which included the expense of to the Governor-General with the Malay States." He did his mission to found Singapore! Harassed as he was by these his work well and thoroughly-even to the extent of discovering personal affairs, he still found time to carry out his original that the short and direct route to Batavia by the Caramata scheme with regard to a zoological society in London. Ile passage would be safe for the fleet. In August 1811 the expedi took the largest part in the creation of the existing society, tion, accompanied by Lord Minto, and with Sir Samuel Auchmuty and his fine Sumatra collection formed its endowment. He in command of the troops (11,000 in number, half English and was unanimously elected its president at the first meeting, and half Indian), occupied Batavia without fighting. On the 25th by a remarkable unanimity of opinion on the part of those who of the same month a battle was fought at Cornelis, a few miles helped in the work, he has been recognized as "the Founder south of Batavia, and resulted in a complete English victory. of the Zoological Society." He was contemplating entering On the 18th of September the French commander, General parliamentary life when his sudden death on his birthday, Janssens, formally capitulated at Samarang, and the conquest 1826, ended his brilliant career at the early age of forty-five. of the island was completed. Lord Minto's first act was to Sir Frederick Weld, lieutenant-governor at Singapore, when appoint Raffles lieutenant-governo

September | unveiling the statue of his predecessor at that place in 1887, 1811 until his departure for England in March 1816, Raffles crystallized the thoughts of his countrymen and anticipated ruled this large island with conspicuous success and the most the verdict of history in a single sentence:" In Raffles, England gratisying results. To give only one fact in support of this had one of her greatest sons." statement, he increased the revenue eightfold at the same time! See Lady Raffles, Memoir of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (1830): that he abolished transit dues, reduced port dues to one-third | D. C. Boulger, Life of Sir Stamford Rafles (1897); Hugh Egerton, and removed the fetters imposed on trade and intercourse with Sir Stamford Raffles (1899); J. Buckley, Records of Singapore the Javanese by Dutch ofñcialdom. In his own words, his (1903).

(D. C. B.) administration aimed at being “not only without fear, but RAFN, KARL CHRISTIAN (1795-1864), Danish archaeowithout reproach.” He had a still greater ambition, which was, logist, was born in Brahesborg, Fünen, on the 16th of January in his own words, "to make Java the centre of an Eastern 1795, and died at Copenhagen on the 20th of October 1864. insular Empire," and to establish the closest relations of friend. He is chiefly known in connexion with the controversy as to ship and alliance with the Japanese, whom he described as “a | the question of the discovery of America by the Norsemen, his

views being contained in his chief work, Antiquitales Americanae stead in dealing with the generals and admirals, British, French (Copenhagen, 1837). See Leif Ericsson.

and Turkish, who were associated with him. But the trying RAFTER, a beam in a sloping roof to which is attached the winter campaign in the Crimea also brought into prominence framework for the slating, tiling or other external covering defects perhaps traceable to his long connexion with the for(see RooFs). The 0.Eng. raefter is cognate with Icel. rastr, malities and uniform regulations of military offices in peace Dan. and Swed. rafte or rast, a beam, which, in the special time. For the hardships and sufferings of the English soldiers sense of a floating collection of timbers, gives the English in the terrible Crimean winter before Sevastopol, owing to “rast." The ultimate base of these words is the root raf-, to failure in the commissariat, both as regards food and clothing, cover, seen in Gr. opodos, roof.

Lord Raglan and his staff were at the time severely censured RAGATZ, a famous watering-place in the Swiss canton of by the press and the government; but, while Lord Raglan St Gall, situated on the left bank of the Rhine, and by rail was possibly to blame in representing matters in a too sanguine 131 m. N. of Coire or 61} m. S.E. of Zürich. It stands at a light, it afterwards appeared that the chief neglect rested with height of 1696 ft., at the entrance to the magnificent gorge the home authorities. But this hopefulness was a shining of the Tamina, about 3 m. up which by carriage road are the military quality in the midst of the despondency that settled extraordinarily placed Baths of Präfers (2247 ft.). Since 1840 upon the allied generals after their first failures, and at Balaklava the hot mineral waters of Pläfers are conducted in pipes to and Inkermann he displayed the promptness and resolution of Ragatz, which is in a more pleasant position. Consequently his youth. He was made a field marshal after Inkermann. Ragatz has much increased in importance since that date. In During the trying winter of 1854-55, the suffering he was com1900 its native population was 1866, mainly German-speaking, pelled to witness, the censures, in great part unjust, which he while there were 1472 Romanists to 392 Protestants. The had to endure and all the manifold anxieties of the siege annual number of visitors is reckoned at 30,000. In the church- seriously undermined his health, and although he found a friend yard is the grave of the philosopher Schelling (d. here in 1854). and ardent supporter in his new French colleague, General

t 2 m. by road above Ragatz are the 17th-century build- | Pelissier (q.v.), disappointment at the failure of the a ings (now the cantonal lunatic asylum) of the great Benedictine the 18th of June 1855 finally broke his spirit, and very shortly abbey of Psäfers (720-1838), to which all this region belonged afterwards, on the 28th of June 1855, he died of dysentery. till 1798; while midway between them and Ragatz are the His body was brought home and interred at Badminton. ruins of the 14th-century castle of Wartenstein, now accessible His elder son having been killed at the battle of Ferozesbah from Ragatz by means of a funicular railway. (W. A. B. C.) (1845), the title descended to his younger son Richard Henry

RAGLAN, FITZROY JAMES HENRY SOMERSET, ist BARON Fitzroy Somerset, and Baron Raglan (1817-1884); and subse(1788-1855), British field marshal, was the eighth and youngest quently to the latter's son, George Fitzroy Henry Somerset, son of Henry, sth duke of Beaufort, by Elizabeth, daughter 3rd baron (b. 1857), under-secretary for war 1900-2, lieutenantof Admiral the Hon. Edward Boscawen, and was born on the governor of the Isle of Man (1902) and a prominent militia 30th of September 1788. His elder brother, General Lord officer. (Robert) Edward (Henry) Somerset (1776-1842), distinguished RAGMAN ROLLS, the name given to the collection of instruhimself as the leader of the Household Cavalry brigade at ments by which the nobility and gentry of Scotland were comWaterloo. Lord Fitzroy Somerset was educated at West- pelled to subscribe allegiance to Edward I. of England between minster school, and entered the army in 1804. In 1807 he was the conference of Norham in May 1291 and the final award in attached to the Hon. Sir Arthur Paget's embassy to Turkey, favour of Baliol in November 1292, and again in 1296. Of the and the same year he was selected to serve on the staff of Sir former of these records two copies were preserved in the chapterArthur Wellesley in the expedition to Copenhagen. In the house at Westminster (now in the Record Office, London), and following year he accompanied the same general in a like it has been printed by Rymer (Foedera, ii. 542). Another copy, capacity to Portugal, and during the whole of the Peninsular preserved originally in the Tower of London, is now also in the War was at his right hand, first as aide-de-camp and then as Record Office. The latter record, containing the various acts military secretary. He was wounded at Busaco, became of homage and fealty extorted by Edward from Baliol and others brevet-major after Fuentes de Oñoro, accompanied the stormers in the course of his progress through Scotland in the summer of the 52nd light infantry as a volunteer at Ciudad Rodrigo of 1296 and in August at the parliament of Berwick, was and specially distinguished himself at the storming of Badajoz, published by Prynne from the copy in the Tower and now in being the first to mount the breach, and afterwards showing the Record Office. Both records were printed by the Bannagreat resolution and promptitude in securing one of the gates tyne Club in 1834. The derivation of the word “ragman " has before the French could organize a fresh defence. During the never been satisfactorily explained, but various guesses as to short period of the Bourbon rule in 1814 and 1815 he was its meaning and a list of examples of its use for legal instruments secretary to the English embassy at Paris. On the renewal | both in England and Scotland will be found in the preface

ilitary secretary to the Bannatyne Club's volume, and in Jamieson's Scollish to the duke of Wellington. About this time he married Emily Dictionary, s.o. " Ragman." The name “ragman roll " survives Harriet, daughter of the 3rd earl of Mornington, and Welling- / in the colloquial “rigmarole," a rambling, incoherent stateton's niece. At Waterloo he was wounded in the right arm ment. and had to undergo amputation, but he quickly learned to the name of " Ragman " has been sometimes confined to the 'write with his left hand, and on the conclusion of the war record of 1296, of which an account is given in Calendar of Docuresumed his duties as secretary to the embassy at Paris, From ments relaling to Scotland preserved in the Public Record Office, London 1818 to 1820, and again in 1826–29, he sat in the House of

(1884), vol. ii., Introd., p. xxiv; and as to the seals see p. lii and

appendix. Commons as member for Truro. In 1819 he was appointed secretary to the duke of Wellington as master-general of the RAG-STONE (probably equivalent to "ragged " stone), a ordnance, and from 1827 till the death of the duke in 1852 was name given by some architectural writers to work done with military secretary to him as commander-in-chief. He was then stones which are quarried in thin pieces, such as the Horsham appointed master-general of the ordnance, and was created sandstone, Yorkshire stone, the slate stones, &c.; but this is Baron Raglan. In 1854 he was promoted general and appointed more properly flag or slab work. By rag-stone, near London, to the command of the English troops sent to the Crimea (see is meant an excellent material from the neighbourhood of CRIMEAN War) in co-operation with a strong French army Maidstone. It is a very hard limestone of bluish-grey colour, under Marshal St Arnaud and afterwards, up to May 1855, and peculiarly suited for medieval work. It is often laid as under Marshal Canrobert. Here the advantage of his training uncoursed work, or random work (see RANDOM), sometimes as under the duke of Wellington was seen in the soundness of his random coursed work and sometimes as regular ashlar. The generalship, and his diplomatic experience stood him in good l first method, however, is the more picturesque. (See MASONRY.) RAGUSA (Serbo-Croatian Dubrovnik), an episcopal city, is derived from the Slavonic dubrava, “woody." The city and the centre of an administrative district in Dalmatia, Austria. first became prominent during the 7th century. In 639 Pop. (1900) of town and commune, 13,174, including a garrison and 656 the flourishing Latin communities of Salona and of 1122. Its situation and its undisturbed atmosphere of Epidaurum were destroyed by the Avars, and the island rock antiquity combine to make Ragusa by far the most picturesque of Ragusa was colonized by the survivors. Tradition identifies city on the Dalmatian coast. It occupies a ridge or promontory, Epidaurum, whence the majority came, with the neighbouring which juts out into the Adriatic Sea, under the bare limestone village of Ragusa vecchia; but some historians, including Gelcich, mass of Monte Sergio. Its seaward fortifications rise directly place it on the shores of the Bocche di Cattaro. Both sites from the water's edge, one fort, on the north mole, standing show signs of Roman occupation. A colony of Slavs soon boldly on a tall rock almost isolated by a little inlet of the joined the Latin settlers at Ragusa, and thus, from an early Adriatic. On the landward side a massive round tower domi- date, the city formed a link between two great civilizations nates the city from a still higher eminence. Beyond the walls (see VLACHS). In the 9th century it is said to have repulsed and the deep moat, especially on the northward side towards the Saracens; in the roth it defended itself against the Narenthe port of Gravosa, are many pleasant villas, surrounded by tine pirates, and Simeon, tsar of the Bulgarians. Some writers gardens in which the aloe, palm and cypress are conspicuous consider that it submitted to Venice in 998, with the rest of among a number of flowering trees and shrubs. The island of Dalmatia; but this is generally denied by the native historians. Lacroma lies less than half a mile to the south. Between the During the 17th century an enforced alliance with the Normans

mountain, the Stradone, or main street, drew the republic into war with Venice and Byzantium; and runs along a narrow valley which, until the 13th century, in the 12th century it was attacked by the Bosnians and Serbs. was a marshy channel, dividing the Latin island of Ragusa From 1205 to 1358 it acknowledged Venetian suzerainty; its from the Slavonic settlement of Dubrovnik, on the lower slopes chief magistrate was the Venetian count; and its archbishops, of Monte Sergio. Parallel to the Stradone, on the north, is the who wielded much political influence, were often Venetian Prijeki, a long, very narrow street, flanked by tall houses with nominees. The constitution took shape during this period, overhanging balconies, and greatly resembling a Venetian and the first statute-book was published in 1272. Only alley. Despite the havoc wrought by earthquake in 1667, the patricians could hold office in the senate, grand council and whole city is rich in antiquarian interest. It possesses one lesser council, three bodies which shared the work of governchurch, of the Byzantine period, which is mentioned in 13th-ment with the count, or, after 1358, the rector. The ancient century documents as even then of great age. Two stately popular assembly was almost obsolete before the 14th century, convents of the 14th century stand at the ends of the city; | Ragusan policy was usually peaceful, and disputes with other for the Franciscans were set to guard the western gate, or Porta | nations were frequently arranged by a system of arbitration Pile, against the hostile Slavs, while the Dominicans kept the called stanicum. To refugees of all nations, even to those who eastern gate, or Porta Ploce. The Franciscan cloister is a fine had been its own bitter foes, the city afforded asylum; and specimen of late Romanesque; that of the Dominicans is

is by means of treaty and tribute it worked its way to a position ferior, though of later date. The Dominican church of mercantile power which Europe could hardly parallel. It is approached by a sloping flagged lane, having on one was conveniently situated at the sea ward end of a great trade side a beautifully ornamented balustrade of the 18th century. route, which bifurcated at Plevlje to Byzantium and the Another 14th-century building is the Sponza, or custom-house, Danube. A compact with the Turks, made in 1370 and renewed from which the state derived its principal revenue. A fountain in the next century, saved Ragusa from the fate of its more and a curious clock-tower in the Piazza, which terminates the powerful neighbours, Servia and Byzantium, besides enabling Stradone towards the east, were erected by Onofrio, the archi-the Ragusan caravans to penetrate into Hungary, Croatia, tect and engineer whose aqueduct, built about 1440; supplied Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria and Rumania. From 1358 to 1526 Ragusa with water from the ncighbouring hills. The Rector's the republic was a vassal state of Hungary, and no longer Palace, another noteworthy example of late Romanesque, controlled by its greatest commercial rival. It acquired, combined with Venetian Gothic, is one of the masterpieces of among other territories, the important ship-building and saltDalmatian architecture. It has a fine façade of six arches, producing centre Stagno Grande (Ston V diki), on the promon. and the capitals of the supporting pillars are very curiously tory of Sabbioncello; and from 1413 to 1416 it held the islands carved. Especially interesting is the figure of Aesculapius, of Curzola, Brazza and Lesina by lease from Hungary. Meanwhose traditional birthplace was Epidaurum or Epidaurus, while, Ragusan vessels were known not only in Italy, Sicily, the parent city of Ragusa. The cathedral dates from the Spain, Greece, the Levant and Egypt, but in the more northern 18th century; and to the same period belongs another church, parts of Europe. The English language retains in the word rebuilt after a fire, but originally erected as a votive offering “argosy” a reminiscence of the carracks of Ragusa, long after the pestilence of 1348, and dedicated to San Biagio (St known to Englishmen as Argouse, Argusa or Aragosa. In the Blaize), the patron of Ragusa, whose name and effigy con- | 16th century the Ragusan merchants went even to India and tinually appear on coins and buildings. Among many fine pieces | America, but they were unable to compete with their rivals of jewellers' work preserved in the ecclesiastical treasuries may from western Europe. Many of their seamen took service be mentioned the silver statuette of San Biagio, and the reli- with Spain; and twelve of their finest ships were lost with the quary which contains his skull-a 17th-century casket in filigree Invincible Armada in 1588. After 1526 the downfall of Hunand enamels with Byzantine medallions of the uith or 12th gary left Ragusa free; and about this time a great developcentury.

ment of art and literature, begun in the 15th century and conThe harbour of Ragusa, once one of the chief ports of tinued into the 17th, earned for the city its title of the “ South southern Europe, is too small for modern needs; but Gravosa Slavonic Athens.” (See SERVIA, Literature.) The earthquake (Gruž), a village at the mouth of the river Ombla, on the of 1667, which had been preceded by lesser shocks in 1520, north, is a steamship station and communicates by rail with 1521, 1536 and 1639, destroyed a considerable portion of the Herzegovina and the Bocche di Cattaro. Ragusa has thus city, and killed about one-fifth of the inhabitants. Only some transit trade with the interior. Its industries include the during the Napoleonic wars did the republic regain its pros. manufacture of liqueurs, oil, silk and leather; but Malmsey, perity. From 1800 to 1805 it was the sole Mediterranean state its famous wine, could no longer be produced after the vine- remaining neutral, and thus it secured a very large share of disease of 1852.

the carrying trade. In 1805, however, it was seized by the History. The name Ragusa is of uncertain origin. Con- French; Napoleon deprived it of independence; and in 1814 stantine Porphyrogenitus, in the roth century, connects its it was annexed to Austria. early form, Lausa, with dau, a “precipice.” Jireček dissents See L. Villari, The Republic of Ragusa (London, 1904), for a from this view, and from the common opinion that Dubrovnik | thorough description and history, with a full bibliography. T. G. Jackson, Dalmatia, the Quarnero and Istria (Oxford, 1887), gives | The acts of its armed forces cannot in reason be distinguished the best account of Ragusan architecture and antiquities. The

from the acts of the armed forces of the state government. most accurate native history is G. Gelcich (Gelčić), Dello Sviluppo civile di Ragusa (Ragusa, 1884). The course of Ragusan trade may

Thus compensation is just as much due for them as for the be studied in C J. Jireček, Die Handelsstrassen und Bergwerke vont deliberate acts of the state itself, and any claim of an injured Serbien, &c. (Prague, 1879); and Heyd, Histoire du conimerce du state can only be preferred against the state to which the Lévant au moyen âge (Leij zig, 1885).

company belongs. Invasion by the regular forces of a state, RAGUSA, a town of Sicily in the province of Syracuse, or by the regular forces of its delegated authority, being an 70 m. S.W. of Syracuse by rail and 32 m. direct. It consists act of war, the laws of war apply to it, and, on capture, such of an upper (Ragusa Superiore) and a lower town (Ragusa forces, or any members or part of such forces, are prisoners Inferiore), each of which forms a separate commune. Pop. 1 of war. On the other hand, the state whose subordinate (1906) of the former, 35,529; of the latter, 866. It has some authorities commit acts of war against a friendly state has churches with fine Gothic architecture, and is commercially the option of following them up as a commencement of hostilities, of some importance, a stone impregnated with bitumen being or of giving satisfactory compensation to the invaded state. quarried and prepared for use for paving slabs by being ex- Where the invasion is not by forces subject to the orders of a posed to the action of fire. On the hill occupied by the castle | state. the invaded state has the right to apply its own laws of Ragusa Inferiore stood the ancient Hybla Heraea, a Sicel for the repression of disturbances in its territory. Thus, in town, under the walls of which Hippocrates of Gela fell in the so-called Jameson Raid, the Transvaal government had 491 B.C. A Greek settlement seems to have arisen in the neigh

no right to treat Dr Jameson, an officer holding his powers bourhood close to the present railway station, about the middle under the British government, and his subordinates, as outof the 6th century B.C., and to have disappeared at the end laws, and it was probably so advised, and the British governof the 5th. Orsi points out that the remains (cuttings in the ment owed proper compensation for an act for the consequences rock and a part of the castle wall), attributed by Freeman of which, under international law, it was responsible. (History of Sicily, i. 163) to Sicel times, are in reality post, British domestic law punishes raiding under the Foreign Roman.

Enlistment Act 1870 (33 & 34 Vict. c. 90).' Section ii of See Orsi in Nolizie degli scavi (1899), 402-418.

this act provides as follows.-"If any person within the RAHWAY, a city of Union county, New Jersey, U.S.A., in limits of His Majesty's dominions, and without the licence of the north-eastern part of the state, on the Rahway river His Majesty, prepares or fits out any naval or military exand about 20 m. S.W. of New York City. Pop. (1890) 7105;pedition to proceed against the dominions of any friendly (1900) 7935, of whom 1345 were foreign-born; (1910 U.S. state, the following consequences shall ensue: (1) Every census) 9337. Rahway is served by the main line of the person engaged in such preparation or fitting out, or assistPennsylvania railroad, and is connected with neighbouring ing therein, or employed in any capacity in such expedition, cities by electric lines. It has wide streets and attractive shall be guilty of an offence against this act, and shall be parks, and is, to some extent, a residential suburb of New York punishable by fine and imprisonment or either of such punishand other neighbouring cities. It has a public library (1864), ments, at the discretion of the Court before which the offender with upwards of 17,000 volumes, and about ii m. distant is is convicted; and imprisonment, if awarded, may be either the New Jersey Reformatory (1903), to which prisoners between with or without hard labour. (2) All ships and their equipthe ages of sixteen and thirty may be sentenced instead of ments, and all arms and munitions of war, used in or forming to the State Prison. There are various manufactures. Rahway part of such expedition, shall be forfeited by His Majesty." was first settled in 1720, and was named in honour of the Indian Section 12 provides for the punishment of accessaries as chief Rahwack, whose tribe owned the site and the surrounding principal offenders, and section 13 limits the term of imprisonterritory; it was chartered as a city in 1858. For many ment for any offence under the act to two ycars. In the years Rahway was popularly known as Spanktown, and in Sandoval case (1886),” in which Colonel Sandoval, who was January 1777, during the War of Independence, a skirmish, not a British subject, bought guns and ammunition and shipped known as the battle of Spanktown, was fought here.

them to Antwerp, where they were put on board a vessel, RAICHUR, a town of India, in the state of Hyderabad, at which afterwards made an attack on Venezuela, it was held the junction of the Madras and Great Indian Peninsula railways, that the offence of fitting out and preparing an expedition 351 m. N.E. from Madras. Pop. (1001) 22,165. It gives its within British territory against a friendly state, under this name to the doab, or tract between the rivers Kistna and Tunga- section, is sufficiently constituted by the purchase of guns bhadra, which was the scene of much fighting between Mahom- and ammunition in the British Empire, and their shipment for medans and Hindus as debatable land during the 16th century. the purpose of being put on board a ship in a foreign port, It contains a well-preserved fort and two old mosques. It is a with knowledge of the purchaser and shipper that they are thriving centre of trade, with several cotton-presses.

to be used in a hostile demonstration against such state, though RAID, in the language of international law, an invasion the shipper takes no part in any overt act of war, and the ship by armed forces, unauthorized and unrecognized by any state, is not fully equipped for the expedition within any British of the territory of a state which is at peace. Piracy is the port. Under the same section, Dr Jameson, administrator attack on the high sea of any vessel by an armed vessel, not of the British South Africa Company, and his confederates authorized or recognized by any state, for the purpose of were tried before the Central Criminal Court and sentenced robbery. A raid for the purpose of carrying off movable to different terms of imprisonment. The offence committed property and converting it to the use of the captors would under a British act is, of course, that of preparing and fitting still be distinguishable from piracy, because it was committed out an expedition on British territory. Any acts subsequently on territory subject to an exclusive territorial jurisdiction. committed by any British expedition on foreign soil are beyond Where the attack or invasion by an armed ship not authorized the operation of domestic legislation, and fall to be dealt with or recognized by any state is not for the purpose of capturing by tae domestic legislation of the state within which they occur, property, it is properly speaking a raid and not piracy. An or by diplomacy, as the case may be.

(T.BA.) » attack though in time of peace, by armed forces authorized or RAIFFEISEN, FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1818–1888), founder recognized by a regular government, is not a raid but an act of the German system of agricultural co-operative banks, was of war, there being a government responsible for the act.com-| iThe preamble to the Foreign Enlistment Act 1870 stated that mitted. The fact of any act being authorized, not by the its object was “to make provision for the regulation of the conduct supreme government, but by a chartered company, or by of Her Majesty's subjects during the existence of hostilities between its overning officer makes no difference in internationella its governing officer, makes no difference in international law,

foreign states with which Her Majesty is at peace." This preamble

was repealed by the Statutes Law Revision (No. 2) Act 1893. the directorate of a chartered company exercising its powers ?R. . Sandoval, 1886, 56 Late Times, 526. by delegation of the state under which it holds its charier. I .. R. v. Jameson, 1896,2 Q.B., 425

XXII 14

born at Hamm on the Sieg on the 30th of March 1818, being, we may believe as a straggler from Europe or Barbary. The the son of Gottfried Raiffeisen, burgomaster of that place. land-rail looks about as big as a partridge, but on examination Educated privately, he entered the artillery in Cologne, but its appearance is found to be very deceptive, and it will hardly defective eyesight compelled him to leave the army. He then ever weigh more than half as much. The plumage above is of entered the public service at Coblenz, and in 1845 was ap- a tawny brown, the feathers being longitudinally streaked pointed burgomaster of Weyerbusch. Here he was so successful with blackish brown; beneath it is of a yellowish white; but that in 1848 he was transferred in a like capacity to Flammers- the Aanks are of a light chestnut barred with white. The feld, and in 1852 to Heddersdorf. Raiffeisen devoted himself species is very locally distributed, and in a way for which there to the improvement of the social condition of the cultivators is at present no accounting. In some dry upland and corn. of the soil, and did good work in the planning of public roads growing districts it is plentiful; in others, of apparently the and in other ways. The distress of the years 1846–47, the same character, it but rarely occurs; and the same may be causes of which he discerned in the slight amount of credit said in regard to low-lying marshy meadows, in most of which obtainable by the small landed proprietors, led him to seek it is in season always to be heard, while in others having a for a remedy in co-operation, and at Heddersdorf and at Weyer-close resemblance to them it is never met with. The nest is busch he founded the first agricultural co-operative loan banks on the ground, generally in long grass, and therein from pine (Darlehnskassenverein). These banks were called after him, to eleven eggs are commonly laid. These are of a cream

idespread system of land colour, spotted and blotched with light red and grey. The

colour, spotted and blotched banks, supported by the government. In 1865 the state of his young when hatched are thickly clothed with black down, as health compelled him to retire, but he continued to take an is the case in nearly all species of the family. interest in the movement he had originated, and in 1878 he The water-rail, locally known as the skiddy or billcock, founded at Neuwied a periodical, Das landwirtschaftliche Genossen- is the Rallus aqualicus of ornithology, and seems to be less schaftsblatt. He died on the 11th of March 1888.

abundant than the preceding, though that is in some measure Among Raiffeisen's writings are, Die Darlehnskassenvereine als due to its frequenting places into which from their swampy Mittel zur Abhilfe (Neuwied, 1866; new ed., 1887); Anleitung sur

nature men do not often intrude. Having a general resemblance Geschäfts- und Buchführung ländlichen Spar- und Darlehns.

to the land-rail,' it can be in a moment distinguished by its kassenvercine (new ed., 1896); and Kurze Anleitung zur Gründung von Darlehnskassenvereinen (new ed., 1893). See A. Wattig, Friedrich partly red and much longer bill, and the darker coloration of Wilhelm Raiffeisen (1890); H. W. Wolff, People's Banks. A its plumage--the upper parts being of an olive brown with Record of Social and Economic Success (1895); and Fassbender, I

black streaks, the breast and belly of a sooty grey, and the Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (Berlin, 1902).

flanks dull black barred with white. Its geographical disRAIGARH, a feudatory state of India, in the Chattisgarh tribution is very wide, extending from Iceland (where it is said division of the Central Provinces. Area, 1486 sq. m. Pop. to preserve its existence during winter by resorting to the hot (1901) 174,929, showing an increase of 4% in the decade. | springs) to China; and though it inhabits Northern India. Estimated revenue, £10,000; tribute, £260. The chief belongs Lower Egypt and Barbary, it seems not to pass beyond the to the old Gond royal family. The state is traversed by the tropical line. It never affects upland districts as does the land. Bengal-Nagpur railway, with a station at Raigarh town, 363 m. rail, but always haunts wet marshes or the close vicinity of from Calcutta. Rice is the chief crop; iron ore is worked by water. Its love-note is a loud and harsh cry, not continually indigenous methods, and coal is known to exist. Fine tussore repeated as is that of the land-rail, but uttered at considerable silk is produced at Raigarh town (pop. 6764). Raigarh is intervals and so suddenly as to have been termed " explosive." also the name of a hill fortress in Kolaba district, Bombay, Besides this, v

Besides this, which is peculiar to the cock-bird, it has a croaking which Sivaji made his chief place of residence. Here he was call that is frog-like. The eggs resemble those of the preceding, crowned in 1674.

but are more brightly and delicately tinted. RAIKES. ROBERT (1735-1811), English educationist, the The various species of rails, whether allied to the former or latter founder of Sunday schools, was the son of Robert Raikcs, a l of those just mentioned, are far too numerous to be here noticed. printer in Gloucester and proprietor of the Gloucester Journal, Hardly any part of the world is without a representative of the and was born on the 14th of September 1735. On the death genera Crex or Rallus, and every considerable country has one or of his father in 1752 he succeeded him in the business, which perhaps more of each--though it has been the habit of systematists

to refer them to many other genera, the characters of which are he continued to conduct till 1802. Along with some others he with difficulty found. Thus in Europe alone three other species started a Sunday school at Gloucester in 1780, and on his allied to Crex pratensis occur more or less abundantly; but one of giving publicity to the enterprise in the columns of his journal them, the spotted rail or crake, has been made the type of a som the notice was copied into the London papers and awakened I called genus Porzana, and the other two, little birds not much

bigger than larks, are considered to form a genus Zapornia. The considerable attention. For nearly thirty years he continued

first of these, which used not to be uncommon in the eastern part actively engaged in the promotion of his undertaking, and he of England, has a very near representative in the Carolina rail or lived to witness its wide extension throughout England. He sora, Crex carolina, of North America, often there 'miscalled the

ortolan, just as its European analogue, C. porsang, is in England died on the sth of April 1811. His statue stands on the Thames

often termed the dotterel. But, passing over these as well as Embankment.

some belonging to genera that can be much better defined, and Among various accounts of the life and work of Raikes mention other still more interesting forms of the family, as Aphana pleryr, may be made of that by P. M. Eastman, 1880.

coot (9..), moor-hen (9.v.) and ocydrome (9.0.), a few words must be RAIL. (1) (From Fr. Råle, cf. Ger. Rolle, Low Lat. Rallus, of

said of the more distant group formed by the South American

Heliornis, and the African and Indian Podica, comprising four or unknown origin), originally the English name of two birds,

five species, to which the name “ Finfoots" has been applied distinguished from one another by a prefix as land-rail and from the lobes or flaps of skin that fringe their toes. Though for a water-rail, but latterly applied in a much wider sense to all long while placed among the Podicipedidae (see GREBE). their the species which are included in the family Rallidae.

osteology no less than their habits appear to indicate their alliance

with the rails, and they are placed as a separate family, Helioras. . The land-rail, also very commonly known as the corn- thidae of the order Gruiformes, to which the rails belong: but they crake, and sometimes as the daker-hen, is the Rallus crex of seem to show the extreme modification of that type in adaptation Linnaeus and Crex pratensis of recent authors. Its monotonous to aquatic life. The curious genus Mesites of Madagascar, whose grating cry has given it its common name in several languages.

systematic place has been so long in doubt, has been referred by

A. Milne-Edwards (Ann. Sc. Naturelle, ser. 6, vii. art. 2) to the With comparatively few individual exceptions, the land-rail

neighbourhood of the rails, but is now associated as a sub-order is essentially migratory. It is the Orlygometra of classical Mesitae with Galliform birds. On the other hand the jaca nas or authors-supposed by them to lead the quail (9.0.) on its Parridge, which from their long toes were once thought to belong voyages-and in the course of its wanderings has now been

'Formerly it seems to have been a popular belief in England that known to reach the coast of Greenland, and several times that the land-rail in autumn transformed itself into a water-rail, ré of North America, to say nothing of Bermuda, in every instance ) suming its own characters in spring,

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