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on the intertropical patio the climatic Taphical positioner with edible turtle anesh waters; on the toises are exemplit

times found to infest the berries. The Queensland Raspberry | enables them to play a very useful part in checking the undue (Rubus rosacfolius) is widely spread and commonly used, but the increase of noxious insects. Snakes, on the other hand, are in too fruit is rather insipid. The representatives of the genus Vitis all | great variety for human interests, as they live very largely on insectbelong to the sub-genus Cissus; several of them, although somewhat | Teeders. The great majority belong to the venomous Colubridae, acrid, are useful for jam and jelly: probably the best for the purpose but fortunately the kinds of which the bite is more or less deadly is one met with near the Walsh River, V. Gardineri, which is said are not numerous, and snake bite is one of the rarest causes of to bear bunches from 1 lb to 2 lb in weight, the berries being large death. Those with the worst reputation are the Black Snake and and of pleasant flavour. A large number of nut-like fruits are used | the Orange-bellied Black Snake (Pseudechis), the Brown Snake by the aborigines for food, but the only one used by the white (Diemansia), the Keeled Snake (Tropidechis), and the Death Adder population is the fruit of Macadamia ternifolia, the Queensland nut. (Acanthopis). The principal non-venomous species are the Pythons

The foliage of many plants yields by distillation essential oils, or constricting snakes, e.g. the common Carpet Snake (Morelia). particularly Eucalypts. Backhousias and other Myrtaceous plants. the long lithe Tree Snake (Dendrophis) and the Fresh-water Snake as well as some belonging to Rutaceae and Labiatae, especially the (Tropidonolus). The Black-headed. Rock Snake (Aspidiotes), one genus Mentha. Apart from plants of economic value, there is a of the Pythons, is said to reach the length of from 20 to 25 ft., but profusion of ornamental plants, shrubs, trees and parasites. Of to be perfectly inoffensive. Several kinds of marine snakes occur lerns, one-half of the kinds met with in Australia are found in on the coasts, and all are to be accounted dangerous. Os reptiles, Queensland as well as in the other states, one-fourth in Qucensland the most numerous group by far is that of the lizards, which have alone, the remaining fourth belonging to the other states, but not among them representatives of each of the leading families of the to Queensland. The indigenous ferns equal in number those of New class except the Chameleons. Tortoises are exemplified by many Zealand, and are three times the number of those of Great Britain. forms in the fresh waters; on the coasts by the leather-back, the Fauna.-The land fauna of Queensland is essentially one with

edible turtle and the tortoise-shell turtle. Queensland waters are that of the entire continent. But the geographical position of the not at present infested by any species of alligator, though in times state, which exposes it to the climatic and transporting influences

past one of large size was a scourge on the borders of the then of the intertropical Pacific, has to a notable extent impressed

inland sea. The crocodilian of its coasts is the crocodile of the on its fauna characters of its own. It has thus been made the

Indian Seas, which ranges over the whole of the western tropical headquarters of Australian bird-lise on land and fish-life at sea, Pacific, and wanders south into Queensland waters as far as Keppel the moisture of its coastal regions and the warmth of its tidal

Bay. In the fresh-water pools of the northern tableland is found waters being eminently favourable to that wcalth of insect and a small and harmless crocodile (Philas) of a very uncommon form. other low types of life which determines the multiplication of The avifauna is to the naturalist exceedingly attractive, for it is the higher. The quadrupeds of Queensland are of the ordinary

full of surprises and interesting lines of research, while to the artist Australian type already described. Of the predominant class,

it is a storehouse of form and colour. Where flowering and honeythe marsupials, one of the most interesting forms is the Tree yielding trees prevail, a profusion of birds seek their food either on Kangaroo (Dendrolagus), as, apart from the habit of climbing trees,

the insects attracted by the honey, or, if so fitted, on the honey which is shared to some extent by the Rock-Wallabies, they afford itself. Accordingly, the most striking seature of the bird-lise, amid a proof of the one-time continuity of the sauna with that of the the forests of eucalypts and acacias, is its richness in honey-eaters islands to the north, when land communication still existed between

and insect destroyers. The former, however, taken as a whole. the two areas. Of these curious animals, two species at least are are not a natural group, but include a family of perching birds and known. As to the rest of the marsupials, there is of course a general

a portion of the parroquet family, both furnished with brush resemblance to those of the continent as a whole, but this is accom

tongues adapted to the extraction of honey. A second characteristic panied by much evolution of forms, especially among the smaller

is the great development of that quaint company, the bower birds, sorts, recognized by differences which are occasionally sufficient

among them the regent bird, satin bird, cat birds, &c., constructors to mark of distinct generic, or even more differentiated groups.

of the elaborate playgrounds which have excited so much attention. The larger Kangaroos are pretty conservative in character every

A third is the presence in one small part of the territory of a cassowary, where, while the common Wallabies, the Rock-Wallabies and the and on its seaboard of three kinds of rifle birds, both extensions Kangaroo-Rats exhibit a greater tendency to differ from their

southwards of the tropical families of cassowaries and paradise southern and western kindred. The Koala, or native Bear, is birds. In the same region of prolific vegetation the handsome almost absolutely invariable, a sign of the antiquity of the race.

fruit-pigeons are also outliers of a large family of such pigeons The Opossums and the so-called Flying-Opossums are not many spread through the Papuan jungles. There is one species of lyrein species, and are dwarfed descendants from a more flourishing

bird found in the southern highlands; the giant kingfisher, a laughing ancestry. The Bandicoot family (Peramelidae) is fairly represented;

jackass, is found in the same region. The Scrub-turkey (Catheiurus) it includes the rabbit-bandicoot, which crosses in its eastern range

heaps its mound of rotting débris to ferment in the shade of the the western border of the country. Carnivorous marsupials of jungles and give warmth to its eggs; the Scrub-hen (Mega podius) destructive powers are few: the largest of them, the spotted-tailed piles up sand on the beach for the sun to furnish the necessary native cat (Dasyurus maculatus), is the most troublesome. Superior

temperature. The comparative paucity of birds of prey (Falconidae). in size to the domestic cat, this pretender to the rank of cat is able

and the almost total absence of rasorial game- and poultry-birds, to devastate a whole hen-roost in a single night, and is even said

may be noted. Birds pursued for sport or profit, however, are not by the aboriginals to attack their infants. With the exception of

wanting. The Emu and the Bustard or Plain Turkey afford sport a smaller species of the same kind, and a brush-tailed ally very

in the open country, Quail and Snipe in or near the timber, while much smaller, but yet able to kill a fowl with a single bite, the rest

rivers and lakes still unvisited by the gun are covered with Ducks (marsupial mice) are but partly carnivorous, chiefly insectivorous,

and Geese, Swans and Pelicans. It has been said that Australia and therefore useful. This fauna is now fortunately deprived of

has no migratory birds: this is an error, founded upon an undue the Thylacinus (Native Tiger) and Sarcophilus (Native Devil), which

restriction of the term migratory. Several species could be mentioned have been driven by physical changes southwards to Tasmania,

which are truly migratory in Queensland, as the Drongo-shrike, and, it was thought until lately, of the Wombats, but a new species

Bee-eater, Dollar-bird, &c. On the land surface, among its lowly of these inoffensive burrowers has recently been discovered within

organized products, interest centres in the multitudinous forms of the southern borders of the state. One other peculiarity in the

insect-life, of which,excepting the Butterflies and Moths (Lepidoptera) form of a marsupial mammal is the little Musk-Rat (Hypsiprymnus),

and Beetles (Coleoptera), comparatively little is known at present. inhabiting those northern scrubs which are so prolific in other

Insects inimical to man, with the exception, in some localities, of animal forms foreign to the rest of Australia, and seem to have

ants, flies and mosquitoes, are inconsiderable in number, and received some of their denizens from the Malay Archipelago and

possess few hurtful properties. Centipedes, scorpions and leeches some from the Papuan Islands. The remarkable deposits of fossil

are less troublesome than in most other tropical regions. Spiders bones, extending in patches throughout the length of the country,

present themselves in astonishing variety, but only one kind, a are sufficient proof that in former times a much larger number of

small black spider with red spots (Lathrodectus), is malignant. animals were supported by it than are now to be found within its

Among the larger insects proper, the great-winged Phasmas, the borders. Queensland has only one native carnivorous beast, the

Skeleton or Stick-insects, the Leaf-insects, and the splendid Swallowdingo, not a marsupial. Rats and mice of native origin are in

tailed Butterflies are especially notable. Many of the Beetles are considerable variety; among them are the Jumping Rats (Ha polotis),

remarkable for size or brilliancy of colour, Jerboa-like little animals, which are seldom seen. The bats are of Fishes and Fisheries. The class fishes is extraordinarily profuse several species; the most notorious of them are the great fruit-bats, in diversified forms, the coral reefs being the grazing- and hunting, or fiyin -foxes, which the fruit grower could well enough spare. grounds of hosts of gorgeously decorated fish, chiefly of the Wrasse The Sirenian mammal, the dugong. haunts nearly the whole of family; these, however, are almost equalled in beauty by the the coast-line. The Echidna, a porcupine ant-eater, and the Chaetodons, Gurnards, &c., of other habitats. Among the Perches playtpus are met with in the south. Batrachians are limited to the are the enormous Groper, which may attain the weight of 4 cwt., frogs and their nearest allies-that is, to the tailless division of the the Murray Cod, and the Giant Perch, both excellent food-fish of order, the tailed batrachians (newto, &c.) being, as far as is known about 70 lb in weight. Sharks of many species abound. A survival at present, entirely absent. The greater part of the frogs are from the Mesozoic period is the Ceratodus or Burnett Salmon. arboreal in habit, the most familiar being the large Green Tree Frog. which, formerly inhabiting the headwaters of the Murray, still The exuberance and diversity of their food have doubtless been breeds in two of the smaller rivers north of the Bunya Range. This the cause of their differentiation into many distinct species, which fish possesses a rudimentary lung in addition to ordinary gills. The

Lory bing Pelica by ti

barrier reefs are thickets of corals of the most varied forms, in life, even on the plains of the interior from 20 to 30 in. usually fall glowing with colour, in death shrubs of snowy purity. Among every year. West of the coast range the air is dry and hot, and in the shell-fish conspicuous for beauty or rarity are the exquisitely summer the thermometer rises frequently to 106° in the shade. delicate paper nautilus and Venus comb (Murex tenuispina), the The monsoons play an important part in cooling the atmosphere orange and other valuable cowries, and the gigantic clam-shell, near the coast, and are very regular in the north. The winter which may require a ship's tackle to lift it from its bed. The fishery climate is perfection, especially in the north, but frosts are frequent of the trepang, bêche-de-mer or sea slug employs a considerable and regular west of the coast range. Ice is commonly seen at number of boats about the coral reefs. Boiled, smoke-dried and Herberton, 17° S., during winter, and on the Darling Downs frosts packed in bags, the trepang sells for exportation to China, though are of nightly occurrence. its agreeable and most nourishing soup is relished by Australian

Population.—The population of Queensland in 1905 was invalids. One species of this sea slug-the teat-fish-fetches as much as £240 per ton. The pearl fishery is a prosperous and estimated at 528,048-290,206 males and 237,842 females, progressive one in or near Torres Straits. A licence is paid, and the density of population per sq. m. being about 0.79. In the traffic is under government supervision. . Thursday Island is 1861, that is, two years after the separation from New South the chief seat of this industry; The shells, are procured by Wales, the population of the colony stood at 34.400; in 1871 diving, and fetch from $120 to $200 a ton. Mother-of-pearl and tortoise-shell constitute important exports of the colony, capable | it had reached 125,100; in 1881, 227,000; in 1891, 410,300, of great expansion. Oysters are as fine flavoured as they are and at the census of 1901, 498,129. The policy of assisted abundant. Turtles are caught to the northward. Of the immigration contributed greatly to Queensland's progress, and fish which frequent the coast, one of the best known varieties is the sea mullet (Mugilidae), large shoals of which strike the

people of foreign descent are proportionately more numerous Australian coast 100 m. south of Sydney, and travel northwards,

than in any of the other states, though they only amount to arriving on the southern coast-line of Queensland in the months of 8.71% of the total population. At the census of 1901 April and May, crossing bars and ascending rivers on the appearance there were 13,166 Germans, 3161 Danes, 2142 Scandinavians, of south-easterly weather. These magnificent fish often attain a

and among coloured aliens 8587 Chinese, 2269 Japanese, 939 weight of from 10 ib to 12 Ib. Small schools of brcam succeed the mullet. and are followed in September and October by the Hindoos and Cingalese, 9327 Pacific Islanders, and 1787 other poombah or tailor-fish, a fish of exceptional flavour, and much races, making a total of 22,909 coloured aliens. It is estimated esteemed by epicures. These are succeeded by jewfish, specimens

that the total aboriginal population of Queensland is about of which caught in southern waters have been known to exceed a weight of 50 lb, whiting, garfish and flatheads, while flounders,

25,000. black and tongue soles are occasionally caught by seine or hauling The births in 1905 were 13,626, of which 950 were illegitimate, nets. White and black trevally, groper and rock cod, and a variety and the deaths 5503, the respective rates per thousand of the of bonito identical with the tunny of the Mediterranean Sea are population being 25.92 and 10-47. The decline in the birth rate also frequently met with. Several species of the tassel fish (Poly

will be gathered from the following table: nemus macrocohoir), from which isinglass is procured, have been

Period. Birth Rate per 1000

Period. Birth Rate per 1000 taken by fishermen. King-fish, batfish, gurnards and eels of many

of Population.

of Population. varieties are also common. Schnapper, bream, rock cod, parrot-fish 1861-65 . .43.07 1886-90 . . 38-81 and groper are caught by hook and line in from 10 to 30 fathoms 1866-70

• 43.91
1891-95

. 35.15 of water off the rocky headlands of the southern coast. Sardines,

1871-75 , . 40.81

1896-1900 . . 30-40 whitebait and sprats make their appearance in large shoals on 1876-80

. 36.72 1901-05 . . 26.60 the coast at intervals. The barramundi (Osteoglossum leichardti), 1881-85 . . 36-37 which occurs in the Dawson and western waters, is found also on

The death rate shows a remarkable diminution: in 1861-65 it the east coast, and is one of the most esteemed fresh-water fish in

averaged 21.06 per 1000; in 1871-75, 17.94; in 1881-85, 19.10; Queensland. Dugong, which formerly were found in herds along

and in 1891-95, 12.82. The marriage rate in 1905 was 6.04 per .the northern coast and as far south as Moreton Bay, are caught in

1000, being an increase on the figures for 1904 of 95. . set nets of 36 in. mesh, 100 fathoms in length. Different varieties

The chief cities and towns, with their population in 1905, are: of turtle are plentiful, the green edible turtle being caught by large

Brisbane, 128,000; Rockhampton, 15,461; Gympie, 13,200; set nets, and preserved and tinned for export. In. Torres Strait Maryborough, 12,000; Townsville, 10,950; Toowoomba, 10,700; and the northern coast the hawksbill turtle, yielding the valuable

Ipswich, 8637; Mount Morgan, 8836; Charters Towers, 6000; tortoise-shell of commerce, is said to be captured in a peculiar

Bundaberg, 5000. manner, the sucking-fish or remora (Echeneis noucrates) being utilized by the islanders for that purpose. The remora is carried

Administration.-As one of the Commonwealth states alive in the bottom of the canoe, a long thin line being attached to Queensland returns six senators and nine representatives to the fish's'tail and another usually to the gill. On a turtle being the federal parliament. The state parliament consists of a sighted and approached to within the length of the line, the sucking

he legislative council of 37 members nominated for life, and a fish is thrown towards it, and immediately it swims to and attaches itself by its singular head sucker to the under surface of the turtle legislative assembly of 72 members, who each receive £300 which is of moderate size is easily pulled into the canoe.

per annum for their services. For purposes of local governAmongst the crustacea may be enumerated the gigantic clams ment the state in 1905 was divided into 46 municipa which are found on the reels of the Inner Route. Occasionally 125 shires. The boroughs control 354 sq. m. and the shires some are met with weighing nearly half a ton, embedded in coral. 667,898 sq. m.; the revenue and expenditure of the former in Fresh-water clams are found in the rivers in the northern districts. The edible oyster (Ostreo graminifora) has been largely cultivated | 1905 being respectively £312,510 and £321,645, and of the in southern Queensland. Amongst other crustacca, the squat latter £190,837 and £180,457. Revenue is mainly derived

ith giant prawns and quampi, or from rates levied on the capital value of assessed properties, small golden-lipped pearl shell, obtained by trawling in the southern which amounted for the whole state to £42,358,173, representing waters. Many varieties of crabs are also found on reefs and foreshores at low tide; prawns and shrimps are caught, dried, and form

an annual value of £2,647,400. All improvements are exempt an article for export to China; mussels, pinna or razor-shell cockles, from assessment, and much of the revenue is expended in and eugaries (a species of small shell-fish) are also abundant. road-making and the building of bridges. Rates are supple

Climale.-As one-half of Queensland lies within the tropics the mented by an endowment from the central government. climate is naturally warm, though the temperature has a daily Education.Public education is free, unsectarian and compulsory. range less than that of other countries under the same isothermal State of provisional schools are formed wherever an average lines. This circumstance is due to the sea breczes, which blow with attendance of twelve children can be got. Theoretically the school great regularity. The hot winds which prevail during the summer age is from six to twelve years, but in practice compulsory attendance in some of the other states are unknown in Queensland. Of course, is seldom if ever enforced in certain parts, owing mainly to the in a territory of such large extent there are many varieties of climatė, difficulty of providing suitable schools within reasonable access. and the heat is greater along the coast than on the elevated lands of in 1905 there were 1044 state schools, with 2382 teachers and the interior. In the northern parts of the state the high temperature 88,903 scholars. of private schools the number in 1905 was 171, is trying to persons of European descent. The mean temperature with 739 teachers and 14,891 pupils. Exclusive of coloured aliens at Brisbane during December, January and February is about 76°, almost the whole adult population can read and write. In 1905 while during June, July and August it averages about 60°. In the sum spent on education was $281,575. Ten grammar schools towns farther north, however, the average is higher. Winter in are endowed by the state. By a system of competitive scholarships Rockhampton, for instance, averages nearly 650, while the summer the government gives free education in grammar schools to scholars average rises almost to 85°. At Townsville and Normanton the in state schools, and also three-yearly exhibitions to universities to average is higher still. The average rainfall is high, especially students who pass an examination of a high standard. State aid along the northern coast, where it ranges from 60 to 70 in. per is also rendered to schools of art, schools of design, free libraries annum. At Brisbane 50.01 in. is the average of 35 years, and I and technical schools..

gst the comes easily pullar ander surfac

difficulty of ever enforced in certain pare

The interieat is greater along the coast than any varieties of climate,

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1871

There is no state church. Amongst the different denomina- , in 1894 the tallow export was nearly 30,000 tons, valued at tions the Church of England, at the date of the last census, | £596,000. numbered 37.5 % of the population, the Roman Catholic Manufactures.- Queensland is not populous enough to have 24.5%, the Presbyterians 11.7, the Methodists 9.5, the Baptists manufactures on a large scale, nevertheless there are 21,705 persons 2.60, the Jews 0-2, other Christian bodies 12.3, Pagans and Mahom- employed in the 1911 establishments of the state. The majority medans, 4.43.

of these persons are engaged in the preparation of natural products Finance. For the year ending June 1905, the receipts amounted for export, such as sugar, preserved meats and the like, or in to $3.595.399, cqual to £6, 175. rod. per inhabitant. . The chief i industries arising out of the domestic requirements of the popula. items of revenue were: taxation, £454.574; crown lands. £623,416;tion. The horse power employed in 1905 was 28,009; the value railways, £1,409,414; balance refunded by the federal government, of plant and machinery was £3.988,056; and of land and premises £752,532. The expenditure for that year was £3,581,403, equal to $2,709,951; while the value of the output stood at £8,130,480. 16, 178. 4d. per inhabitant; the chief items being interest on Commerce.—The shipping entering Queensland ports in 1905 public debt, £1,547,091; railways, £812,931; education, 1322,496; had a tonnage of 1,067.741 as compared with 468,607 in 1890. charitable institutions, £135.338. The public debt of the state | The imports in 1905 were £6,699.345, which is much less than the at the end of 1905 was £39,068,827, or $74, 6s. 3d. per inhabitant; average of Australia, but nearly all the Queensland importations the bulk of this sum, £23.567,554, having been expended on railways. are for home consumption, whereas New South Wales, Victoria The following shows the growth of the public indebtedness:

and South Australia have a large re-export trade, In, 1861 the Year. Total Debt. Debt per Inhabitant.

imports were valued at $968,000, or {31 per inhabitant; in 1871, 1861 . £70,000

£2 09

£1.563.000, or £13 per inhabitant; in 1881, £4,064,000, or £18, 6s. 1871 • 4,047,850

32 6ií

per inhabitant; in 1891, £5,079,000, or £12, 13s. per inhabitant; 1881

13,245,150
58 7 2

in 1900, £7,184,112, or £14, 135. 3d. per inhabitant. The disparity 1891 , . . . 29,457,134 73 125

between the capitation figures of various years is due chiefly to 1901 •

two causes: the irregularity of the state borrowings, and the . 39,338,427 1905 • 39,068,827

74 6 3

manner in which private capital has been sent from England and

from the Australian states for investment in Queensland, both the Defence.-The Commonwealth defence forces in Queensland had borrowings and the investments appearing in the imports. The

borrowings and the investme, an actual strength at the end of 1905 of 7212 men, comprising a

1 important bearing of these two items on the Queensland import

important bearing of these two items permanent force of 258, 2486 militia, 959 cadets and 3189 riflemen. trade may be gathered from the fact that, since 1863, there has

Mining-In Mount Morgan Queensland possesses one of the chiefbeen an inflow of capital into the state at the rate of about one gold mines of the world, and this mine is also one of the leading million and a quarter sterling per annum. The exports from copper mines of the Commonwealth. In 1905 the value of the mineral Queensland in 1905 were valued at $11,939,594, which is equal to production of the state was (3.726,275, being an excess over that the very high average of £22, 143. 3d. per head; nearly the whole of the previous year of £22,034, the highest in the history of the amount represents goods and produce of local origin. Going back state. This advance was due, not to any improvement in the gold to 1861 the amount of exports at the various decennial periods yield, which, latterly, has receded from the high level of former was years, but to the increased output of the industrial metals. The

Year.

Value of Total Exports. Exports per Head. value of the minerals, other than gold, won during 1905 amounted 1861

£709,599

122 14 8 to (1,208,980, almost one-third of the total value of the year's

2,760,045

22 18 8 mineral production, in which gold represented $2,517,295; silver, 1881

3.540,366

15 18 £69,176; copper, £503,547; tin, £297,454, and coal, £155,477.

1891

8,305,387

20 13 6 Agriculture.-The total area under cultivation in Queensland in 1901

. 9,249,366

18 5 10 1905 was 622.987 acres, the principal crops being :--wheat, 119,356 acres; maize, 113,720 acres; hay. 37,425 acres; green forage, 66,183

Brisbane is the chief seat of trade, but this port does not hold so acres; potatoes, 7170 acres; barley, 5201 acres. Sugar-cane cultiva

predominating a position as do the chief cities of the other states tion is important. The progress of the industry may be gauged from

in regard to their minor ports. In 1905 the trade at the seven the following figures:-arca under cane in 1864, 94 acres; 1871,

principal seaports of Queensland was: 9581 acres; 1881, 28,026 acres; 1891, 50,948 acres; 1901, 112,031 Port.

Imports. Exports. acres; 1905, 134,107 acres. The greater part of the field work on Brisbane

£4.104.574 13.524.939 the Queensland plantations was long performed by coloured labour, Rockhampton

437,068 1,708,489 chiefly South Sea islanders, In 1901, however, the federal parlia Townsville,

671,853 1,838,055 ment passed an act under the provisions of which a limited number

Bundaberg:

121,567 498,381 of Pacific islanders were allowed to enter Australia up to the 31st Maryborough

157,023 248,706 of March 1904, but after that date their coming was to be pro Mackay

80,468

499,034 hibited. All agreements for the employment of these Kanakas Cairns

184,716 873,370 were to terminate on the 31st of December 1906, after which date all Pacific islanders were to be deported. Fruit cultivation has Railways.-Up to 1905 the state had expended £21,683.355 upon attained considerable importance. In 1905, 2014 acres were under the construction and equipment of railways. The mileage open vines; 6198 under bananas; 1845 under pineapples; 3078 under for traffic at the end of that year was 3113; there were also 268 m. oranges; 374 under mangoes; 173 under strawberries; 537 under of privately owned railways. Railway construction in the state apples. The soil and climate of Queensland are admirably fitted commenced in 1864, some five years after the introduction of refor the production of excellent cotton, but this promise has not been sponsible government. Progress during the early years was very realized. In 1871 the export of this staple was over 2,600,000 lb, slow; in 1871 only 218 m. had been constructed and in 1881 only valued at $79,000; the production gradually diminished and in 800 m.; between 1881 and 1891 railway construction was pushed 1898 absolutely ceased. The year 1902 saw a revival when 8 acres on rapidly, an average of 152 m. a year being opened between those were planted; and in 1905 171 acres were devoted to cotton- dates. In 1891 the length open for traffic was 2320 m., and in growing. While the area set apart for tobacco cultivation continues | 1901 2801 m. The state railways in 1905 carned £1.483,535 and to increase, the yield in 1905 bcing 10,230 cwt. (cured leaf) from 933 the working expenses were 1851,627, leaving the net earnings acres, the production of coffee dropped from 132,554 lb in 1904 to 1631,908, which is equal to 2.91% upon the capital expended. 82,230 lb in 1905.

As the rate of interest paid on the outstanding loans of the Queens. Stock-raising is, however, the principal industry of the country. land government is 3.94, there is an actual loss to the state of 0.30 At the close of 1905 the numbers of the principal kinds of stock | This loss, however, is more than counterbalanced by the advandepastured were: cattle, 2.963,695; sheep, 12,535,231; horses, tages resulting from the construction of the railways. 430,565; swine, 164,087. The cattle industry has been greatly Posis and Telegraphs.--There were 1360 post offices in the state affected by the ravages of the cattle tick and by a succession of in 1905; telegraph stations numbered 515, and there were 19 teledisastrous seasons, and the number in the state in 1905 was con- phone exchanges. The revenue from these three services in 1905 siderably less than half the number mustered in 1894. As the was respectively (233,523, £88,285 and 131,765-a total of 1353,573, state is very lightly stocked a few good seasons will serve to bring as against an expenditure of £415,420. the number of cattle up to the previous greatest record. The sheep Banking.-The liabilities of the eleven banks trading in the state industry in Queensland though of less importance than the cattle, in 1905 totalled £13,770,865, and the assets £16,362,292. The is still considerable, and of the six states of Australia, Queensland deposits amounted to $13,217,084. The banks held coin and bullion ranks second in the number which it depastures. The sheep to the value of £1,897,576. In the Government Savings Bank depastured in 1905 were some nine millions less than in 1892. The there was a sum of £3,992.758 to the credit of 84.163 dcpositors weight of wool exported in 1905 was 53,072,727 Ib; in 1892, The deposits in all banks amounted, therefore, to £17,209,842, which however, the export was over 105 millions. Good progress has been represents (32, Uls. iod. per head of population. made in dairying, the production of butter in 1905 being 20,320,000 I AUTHORITIES.-Statistical Register of Queensland (annual): Queens 1b; of cheese, 2.682,089 lb; of bacon and ham, 10.500,335 lb. land Official Year Book (1901); Reports of the Government Statistician; It is estimated that the annual value of the pastoral and dairying | H. Russell, Genesis of Queensland (Sydney, 1888); T. Wecdon, industry of Queensland is about 18,224,000. The export of live ! Queensland Past and Present (Brisbane, 1897); T. A. Coghlan, cattle in 1905 amounted in value to £1,500,855; of fresh and pre- | Australia and Nero Zealand (Sydney, 1904); F. M. Bailey, Notes served meat, £707,345; of wool, £2,280,924; of tallow, £183.372-' on the Flora al Queensland.

(T. A.C.)

Saul Samuel, treasurer of New South Wales, took a broad and HISTORY

generous view of the situation, and rendered financial aid, The Portuguese may have known the northern shore nearly whilst in 1861 the first Government loan of £123,800 was a century before Torres, in 1605, sailed through the strait authorized, the money being appropriated to public works and since called after him, or before the Dutch landed in the Gulf European immigration. Labour was so scarce that as early of Carpentaria. Captain Cook passed along the eastern coast as 1851 the squatters had imported Chinese; various schemes in 1770, taking possession of the country as New South Wales. for the introduction of coolies on a large scale were now mooted, Flinders visited Moreton Bay in 1802. Oxley was on the but public opinion was decidedly against any increase in the Brisbane in 1823, and Allan Cunningham on Darling Downs in number of coloured aliens then in the colony. In 1859 the 1827. Sir T. L. Mitchell in 1846-47 made known the Maranoa, educational system was a mixed national and denominational Warrego, and Barcoo districts. Leichhardt in 1845-47 tra- onc; there were 10 schools of the latter class, I of the former, versed the coast country, going round the gulf to Port Essington,' and 30 private schools. In 1860 a Board of Genera but was lost in his third great journey. Kennedy followed was established, which extinguished the denominational system down the Barcoo, but was killed by the blacks while exploring and placed the schools under State control. In the same York Peninsula. Burke and Wills crossed western Queens year State aid to religion was abolished. The governor, in land in · 1860. Landesborough, Walker, M‘Kinlay, Hann, opening Parliament in 1863, pronounced decisively against Jack, Hodgkinson and Favence continued the researches. the reintroduction of convicts. In that year Queensland Squatters and miners opened new regions. Before its separa boldly grappled with the extension of colonizing, and a settletion in 1859 the country was known as the Moreton Bay districtment was established at the northerly point of Cape York penof New South Wales. A desire to form fresh penal depôts led insula by Mr Jardine. During the following two years ports to the discovery of Brisbane river in December 1823, and the were opened along the coast, and pastoral occupation spread proclamation of a penal settlement there in August 1826. The far into the northern and western interiors. The first sod convict population was gradually withdrawn again to Sydney, of the first railway, from Ipswich to the Darling Downs, and in 1842 the place was declared open to free persons only. was turned on 15th February 1864. On February 1, 1866, The first land sale in Brisbane was on August 9, 1843. An Mr Herbert retired, and Mr Macalister became premier and attempt was made in 1846, under the colonial ministry of Mr Mackenzie colonial secretary. In the following July the Gladstone, to establish at Gladstone on Port Curtis the failure of the Overend and Gurney and Agra banks, in the colony of North Australia for ticket-of-leave men from Britain latter of which the Government had public moneys, caused the and Van Diemen's Land. Earl Grey, when secretary for the collapse of a loan which was being negotiated in London. A Colonies, under strong colonial appeals arrested this policy, and panic followed: the Government could not pay the railway broke up the convict settlement. In 1841 there were 176 males contractors, and the navvies employed by them started for and 24 females; in 1844, 540 in all; in 1846, 1867. In 1834 Brisbane, threatening to hang the ministers and loot the town. the governor and the English rulers thought it necessary to On arrival, however, they were easily headed off to a reserve. abandon Moreton Bay altogether, but the order was withheld. By this time the treasury was empty, general insolvency preThe first stock belonged wholly to the colonial Government, vailed, and the community appeared to be wrecked. Treasury but focks and herds of settlers came on the Darling Downs in bills to the amount of £300,000 were issued, and the governor 1841. In 1844 there were 17 squatting stations round Moreton in council was authorized to legalize treasury notes, when Bay and 26 in Darling Downs, having 13,295 cattle and necessary, as currency, payable in gold on demand, to tide 184,651 sheep. In 1849 there were 2812 horses, 72,096 cattle, over the crisis. Prior to this, however, the treasurer took and 1,077,983 sheep. But there were few persons in Brisbane preliminary steps to issue £300,000 “ Legal Tender Notes "and Ipswich. The Rev. Dr Lang then began his agitation in inconvertible “greenbacks”-but Sir George Bowen informed England on behalf of this northern district.

the premier that he should veto such a scheme, and suggested Some settlers, who sought a separation from New South the issue of treasury bills. Mr Macalister thereupon resigned, Wales, offered to accept British convicts if the ministry granted and Mr Herbert, who had made arrangements to proceed to independence.' In answer to their memorial a shipload of England (where subsequently he became permanent secretary ticket-of-leave men was sent in 1850. In spite of the objection of the Colonial Office), took office again to help the colony of Sydney, the Moreton Bay district was separated from New through the difficulty. His second ministry lasted for cightcen South Wales by an Order in Council of 13th May 1859, and pro- | days, and, having passed the Treasury Bills Act, he retired claimed the colony of Queensland. The population was then from the public life of Queensland. The only determined about 20,000, and the revenue £6475.

opposition the Herbert ministry met with was from the townsThe constitution, which was based upon the New South people's representatives, whose contention was that the squatters Wales Act of 1853, provided for 16 electoral districts, with a dipped too deeply into the public purse for public works exrepresentation of 26 members. A Legislative Council was penditure; but an important factor in the early parliamentary also formed, to which the governor of New South Wales, Sir days was the opposition between the Brisbane and Ipswich parties William Denison, appointed 5 members, to hold office for four in the House, the latter town aspiring to be the capital of the years, and Sir George Ferguson Bowen, the first governor of colony. the new colony, 8 lise members. Robert (afterwards Sir The Discovery of the Goldfield's, 1866-1870.-Macalister Robert) George Wyndham Herbert was the first premier and returned to power in August 1866, and dealt so vigorously with colonial secretary, and held office until 1866. Of the 39 repre the after-effects of the financial crisis that by the end of 1867 sentatives in the first Parliament, 20 were pastoralists; the affairs had approached their normal condition. A new era was others may be roughly classed as barristers, solicitors, and now opened for Queensland by the discovery of gold. The merchants. The pastoralists were the pioneers of settlement Gympic field was discovered by Nash in 1867, and a big "rush" in the colony; those best known were the Archers of Gracemere, resulted. In 1872 Hugh Mosman discovered Charters Towers, the Bells of Jimboor, the Gores of Yandilla, the Bigges of the premier goldfield of the colony; and Hann, the rich Palmer Mount Brisbane, Mr (afterwards Sir) Arthur Hodgson, Robert diggings. Other important discoveries were also made, and Ramsay, Gordon Sandeman, and Messrs Kent and Wienholt. Queensland has ever since been a gold-producing colony. Mining The white population at the end of 1859 was 25,788, and the is the foundation upon which much of the progress of the colony exports were valued at £500,000.

has been built, and the legislation and records show continuous Herbert's Administration, 1859-1860.-The first Parliament traces of the influence of the gold-getter. In 1873 John Murtagh was opened on May 29, 1860. The providing of revenue and Macrossan, a digger, was returned to Parliament expressly as a the establishment of immigration were the chief matters for mining representative; and other men of a different stamp from consideration. The treasury was practically empty, but Sir I the representatives of the squatters and townspeople, who had hitherto composed the House, now began to enter public life. | land-grant railways, and a European mail service via Torres From 1870 to 1879 progress was satisfaotory, trade interests Straits. The Government, however, concluded an agreement were prosperous, and in this decade the foundations of the with the British India Steam Navigation Company for a monthly public and social structure of Queensland were laid. Agriculture mail service between Brisbane and London for an annual was extended, and sugar-growing took the place of cotton subsidy of £55,000. The Railway Companies Preliminary Act, cultivation. (The first crop of sugar was grown by the Hon. giving the governor in council power to treat with persons Louis Hope at Cleveland, about 1862.) Hitherto politics had willing to construct railways in return for grants of sooo acres been non-partisan, and legislation was chiefly of a domestic of land for each mile of rails laid, was also passed. This measure character. From the time of Herbert's departure until the was generally unpopular, and no railways were built under its appearance of Thomas McIlwraith and Samuel Walker Griffith, provisions. During the session Mr Griffith impeached the the two master-spirits of Queensland parliamentary life, the premier in connexion with contracts for the purchase of 15,000 political history of the colony was composed of short-lived tons of steel railway metals, and their carriage to the colony, administrations, with Messrs Macalister, Mackenzie, Palmer, made in London whilst Mcllwraith was there in January 1880. Lilley, George Thorn and John Douglas (afterwards Government A select committee in the colony, and afterwards a Royal Resident at Thursday Island) as premiers. Arthur Hunter Commission in London, subsequently reported in the premier's Palmer (whose administration, from 1870 to 1874, had the favour. The discovery of the celebrated Mount Morgan gold longest life), a New South Wales squatter, entered the Queens- mine, and the initiation of artesian well-boring by R. L. Jack, land Parliament in 1866. He was one of the most popular of Government geologist, took place in 1881. In 1883 a great Queensland's parliamentary leaders, and has left the impress of drought prevailed, and the compulsory stoppage of public works his labours on the public works, and educational and defence demoralized the labour market. Early in the year information force systems of the colony. In 1870 Queensland was dis-reached the colony that Germany proposed to annex a portion appointed in her ambition of becoming the connecting-point of New Guinea, which, together with other islands in the Papuan for Australia with the European and Eastern cable systems. A Gulf, was becoming of great strategic value to Australia; and company-the British Australian Telegraph Company was the premier, fearing that it would thus be lost to the empire, formed in London to connect Australia by cable with Singapore. instructed Mr H. M. Chester, police magistrate at Thursday The plan provided for a land line from the Queensland telegraphs Island, to proceed to Port Moresby and take possession of the at Burketown to Port Darwin, in the Northern Territory, where unappropriated portion of the island in the name of the crown. the cable was to be landed. Writing on 25th January 1890, This act was afterwards—to the indignation of Australiathe Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company officially repudiated by Lord Derby; and, eventually, under the Berlin informed the governor of Queensland that it had received a | Treaty of 1886, England and Germany entered into jointcontract from the British Australian Telegraph Company to possession of that part of New Guinea lying east of 141° E. In construct “cables and land lines, to be laid between Singapore July Sir Thomas McIlwraith (created K.C.M.G. in 1882) was and Burketown, in North Australia." The Construction Com- defeated by 27 votes to 16 on a proposal to arrange for the pany deputed Commander Noel Osborn to negotiate with the construction of a land-grant railway from Charleville to the Governments of South Australia and Queensland in reference Gulf of Carpentaria. The general elections which followed were to the land line; but on arrival in Adelaide he accepted the offer fought mainly on the questions of coloured labour for the sugar of the South Australian Government to construct and maintain plantations and land-grant railways. The Government was a telegraph line right across the continent from Port Darwin to defeated, and Griffith formed his first administration. Later Adelaide, and Queensland was informed that the original plan in the year the premier drafted the Federal Council Act at had been abandoned. Although the company was thus saved Sydney, and through his efforts Queensland eventually joined the expense of making and maintaining the Port Darwin-Burke- the Federal Council of Australasia. In 1884 a ten-million Loan town line, it was regarded as having broken faith with Queens- Act was passed, intended to secure continuity in borrowing for land, which had specially pushed on her telegraph system to railway construction, but many of the lines specified were connect with the proposed line. In consequence of this incident unsurveyed. According to the view now generally held in Queenslanders have not always had the facilities for cheap cabling Queensland, this loan seriously hampered the colony in after to Europe enjoyed by the other colonies, though the subsequent years. In 1887 the number of seats in the Assembly was owners of the cable, the Eastern Companies, were in no way increased to 72 (the present number), and several reforms were responsible for the act of their predecessors.

effected in the public service, notably the establishment of the A resolution in favour of the payment of members was department of agriculture. At the general elections in 1888 carried in 1871. In 1872 the first Agent-General in London, Sir Thomas McIlwraith was returned for North Brisbane, defeat. Richard Daintree, was appointed. The same year the Railways ing Sir Samuel Griffith (who had been created K.C.M.G. in 1886) Act Amendment Act was passed, authorizing the construction by a large majority, and resumed office as premier and leader of of railways by private. enterprise, land being offered as com- the “National Party." . Ill-health, however, soon compelled pensation for the outlay. Electoral representation was increased him to leave the colony, and he was succeeded by Boyd Dunlop to forty-two members. In January 1874 Palmer resigned, Morehead. Sir Thomas McIlwraith's inflexible nature was and Macalister came into power for two years, the most import- evidenced all through his public life. On the death of Sir ant measure of his Government being the State Education Anthony Musgrave in Brisbane in 1888, he maintained that the Act of 1875, on which the present educational system is based. Government should be consulted as to the appointment of the Both Messrs McIlwraith and Griffith were members of the new governor. Lord Knutsford declined to accept this view, Macalister ministry, but the former resigned in October 1874, and appointed Sir Henry Blake. The premier formally protested, owing to a difference of opinion as to a proposed land-grant and a deadlock ensued, which was only removed by the resignarailway from Dalby to Normanton. In 1878 Mr (afterwards tion of the governor-designate. In 1889 payment of members at Sir) James Francis Garrick first became a cabinet minister, the rate of £300 a year, plus is, 6d. per mile travelling expenses, joining the Douglas ministry as secretary for public works and was established. In 1890 a financial crisis arose. Sir Thomas mines.

McIlwraith had returned to the colony and dissociated himself Active Politics, 1879-1890,-On 21st January 1879 the first from the ministry. He conferred on the situation with Sir McIlwraith administration came into power, and an import- Samuel Griffith, and a want-of-confidence motion was nearly ant extension of local government was one of the early measures carried. Morehead resigned, and a coalition ministry, with passed, divisional boards being formed to take charge of public Griffith as premier, chief secretary and attorney-general, and works in districts not included in municipalities. In the McIlwraith as treasurer, was formed. An agitation for the following session, 1880, the Opposition, led by Mr Griffith, separation of Queensland into two or three separate coloniesbitterly opposed the Government proposals on Kanaka labour, I mentioned as early as 1866-was very marked during this

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