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found, by a tiny cove (Wolfe's cove), from which a steep footpath | QUEDLINBURG, a town of Germany in the Prussian province led to the summit. . It was no place for artillery, and even for of Saxony, situated on the Bode, near the N.W. base of infantry the climb was long and exhausting, but the attempt the Harz Mountains, 12 miles S.E. by rail from Halberstadt was made. Considered as a way of taking Quebec, it was on the line Magdeburg-Thale. Pop. (1905) 24,798, almost in the last degree a forlorn hope, but Wolfe, as a true soldier, all Protestants. It consists of the old town, which is still felt the imperative necessity of preventing his opponent from partly surrounded by a turreted wall, the new town and four sending reinforcements to the force opposing Amherst, and suburbs. On the west it is commanded by the castle, formerly slaked everything upon achieving this at least. “Happy if the residence of the abbesses of Quedlinburg, connected with our efforts here," as he wrote, “can contribute to the success which is the interesting. Schlosskirche, which was dedicated of His Majesty's arms in any other part of America." What | in 1129 and completely restored in 1862-82. The German with losses in action and by. sickness, and detachments to king, Henry the Fowler, his wife Matilda, and Aurora, guard the camps and batteries, only 3600 men could te spared countess of Königsmark, the mistress of Augustus the Strong, for the attempt. These embarked on the warships on the are buried in the Schlosskirche. There are many interesting evening of September 12, and sailed up stream. The watchful articles in the treasury. The Gothic town hall, a 14th-century Montcalm sent a detachment to observe their movements, but building, restored and enlarged in 1900, contains a collection the ships proceeded to a point well above the cove, luring the liof antiquities, and near it stands a stone figure of Roland. detachment out of the way. Then at I a.m. Wolfe, with half The town also possesses a gymnasium founded in 1540 and his force, dropped down stream in the boats of the squadron now containing the abbey library and a municipal and landed. The path was guarded by a redoubt, but the It has a fine memorial of the war of 1870–71. Quedlinburg is light infantry which led the advance scarcely attempted to famous for its nurseries and market gardens, and exports follow it, scrambling up the hillside wherever they could find a vegetable and flower seeds to all parts of Europe and America. foothold. The garrison of the redoubt, startled by the unfore. Its chief manufactures are iron goods, machinery and cloth, seen attack, abandoned the work, and by daylight Wolfe had and it has a trade in grain and cattle. Near the town is the assembled his 3600 men on the plains above the city. Mont-church of St Wipertus, which dates from the 12th century, calm meanwhile had been held in check by a demonstration and has a crypt of the roth century. of part of the feet under Admiral Saunders on Beauport, but Quedlinburg was founded as a fortress by Henry the Fowler at last, realizing that the real attack was coming from the other about 922, its early name being Quitlingen. Soon it became

e troops he could collect over the St a favourite residence of the Saxon emperors and was the scene Charles and drew them up on the plain, with their backs to of several diets. It afterwards joined the Hanseatic League. the walls of the upper town. He took the offensive at once. The abbey of Quedlinburg was planned by Henry the Fowler, He had plenty of militiamen and irregulars, and these rapidly although its actual foundation is due to his son Otto the Great. drove the British light infantry on to their main body, which It was a house for the daughters of noble Saxon families and was threatened on both flanks. On so small a battlefield, the was richly endowed, owning at one time a territory about troops in Wolfe's line of baille quickly became aware that the 40 sq. m. in area. The abbesses, who were frequently members enemy was attacking in superior force. But their leader of the imperial house, the second of them steadied them by his personal example, and when the French Matilda, ranked among the princes of the empire, and had no came within close range one “perfect volley" from the whole ecclesiastical superior except the pope. The town at first line decided the battle. Then as the French stopped, with strove vigorously to maintain its independence of them, and great gaps in their lines, Wolse led on his men to complete the to this end invoked the aid of the bishop of Halberstadt. In victory. He received two painful wounds and then a shot 1477, however, the abbess Hedwig, aided by her brothers, through the breast. His last order, one rare indeed in the Ernest and Albert of Saxony, compelled the bishop to withannals of 18th-century fighting, was to send a force to the St draw, and for the next 200 years both town and abbey were Charles bridge to cut off the retreat of the French Montcalm under the protection of the elector of Saxony. In 1530 the too was mortally wounded, and died next day. On the 18th townsmen accepted the reformed doctrines and the abbey of September Quebec surrendered.

was converted into a Protestant sisterhood. In 1697 the QUEBEC ACT, the title usually given to a bill introduced elector of Saxony sold his rights over Quedlinburg to the into the House of Lords on May 2, 1774, entitled “ An Act elector of Brandenburg for 240,000 thalers. The abbesses, for making more Essectual Provision for the Government of however, retained certain rights of jurisdiction, and disputes the Province of Quebec, in North America." It passed the between them and the Prussian government were frequent House of Lords on May 17, was discussed in the Commons until the secularization of the abbey in 1803. The last abbess from May 26 to June 13, and finally passed with some amend | was Sophia Albertina (d. 1829), sister of King Charles XIII. ments. These were accepted by the Lords, in spite of the of Sweden. After forming for a few years part of the kingdom opposition of Lord Chatham, and the bill received the royal of Westphalia, the abbey lands were incorporated with Prussia assent on June 22. The debates in the House of Commons in 1815. are not found in the Parliamentary History, but were published

See the Urkundenbuch der Stadt Quedlinburg, edited by Janicke

(Halle, 1873-82); Ranke and Kugler, Beschreibung und Geschichte separately by J. Wright in 1839. The speech of Lord Chatham

der Schlosskirche su Quedlinburg (Berlin, 1838); Lorenz, All. Qued. is given in the Chatham Correspondence (iv. 351-353).

linburg, 1485-1698 (Halle, 1900); and Huchs, Fiihrer durch Quedlin. By this act the boundaries of the Canadian province of burg. For the history of the abbey see Fritsch, Geschichte des Quebec were extended so as to include much of the country | Reichsstifis und der Sladi Quedlinburg (Quedlinburg, 1828). between the Ohio and the Mississippi. The French inhabitants QUEEN (O.E. cwen, wife, related to "quean," 0.E. cwene, of the province were granted the liberty to profess“the a hussy; cf. Gr. yuvń: from root gan., to produce; cf. genus, religion of the Church of Rome"; the French civil law was "kin,” &c.), the title of the consort or wife of a king (“queen established, though in criminal law the English code was consort”), or of a woman who is herself the sovereign ruler introduced. Government was vested in a governor and of a state (“queen regnant"); the widow of a former council, a representative assembly not being granted till the reigning sovereign is a “queen dowager," and, when the mother Constitutional Act of 1791.

of the reigning sovereign, a “ queen mother." The granting of part of the Western territory to Quebec, For the position of the queen in English constitutional law see and the recognition of the Roman Catholic religion, greatly | CONSORT, and for her household see HoUSEHOLD, ROYAL. angered the American colonies. On the other hand, it did QUEEN ANNE'S BOUNTY, the name applied to a perpetual much to keep the French Canadians from joining the Americans fund of first-fruits and tenths granted by a charter of Queen in the coming struggle. The act is still looked back to by the | Anne, and confirmed by statute in 1703 (2 & 3 Anne, c. 11), French in Canada as their great charter of liberty.

I for the augmentation of the livings of the poorer Anglican clergy. First-fruits (annales) and tenths (decimae) formed to that held by Vancouver Island farther to the south, in regard originally part of the revenue paid by the clergy to the papal to the mainland coast and its immediately adjacent islands, but exchequer. The former consist of the first whole year's profit is separated by a somewhat wider sea from the coast. It was of all spiritual preferments, the latter of one-tenth of their named by Captain Dixon, who visited the islands in the “ Queen annual profits after the first year. In accordance with the Charlotte" in 1787. Although the islands promise to become

nne. c. 21. and 6 Anne. c. 27) I important, because of their excellent harbours, the discovery of about 3900 poor livings under the annual value of £50 were good seams of bituminous coal (beside the anthracite already discharged from first-fruits and tenths. The income derived known), their abundant timber of certain kinds and their from first-fruits and tenths was annexed to the revenue of prolific fisheries, but little settlement has taken place. The the crown in 1535 (26 Hen. VIII. c. 3), and so continued until wonderfully productive halibut fisheries of Hecate Strait, which 1703. Since that date there has been a large mass of legisla- separates these islands from the mainland and its adjacent tion dealing with Queen Anne's Bounty, the effect of which islands, have attracted the attention of fishing companies, and

mmillee great quantitics of this fish are taken regularly and shipped on the Queen Anne's Bounty Board, 1900. The governors across the continent in cold storage. The natives, the Haida consist of the archbishops and bishops, some of the principal people, constitute with little doubt the finest race, and that officers of the government, and the chief legal and judicial | most advanced in the arts, of the entire west coast of North authorities. The augmentation proceeds on the principle America. They had developed in its highest degree the peculiar of assisting the smallest benefices first. All the cures not conventional art of the north-west coast Indians, which is found exceeding £10 per annum must have received £200 before in decreasing importance among the Tsimshians on the west, the governors can proceed to assist those not exceeding £20 the Tlingit on the north and the Kwakiull and other tribes per annum. In order to encourage benefactions, the governors farther south on the Pacific coast. The carved totem posts of may give £200 to cures not exceeding £45 a year, where, apy the Haida, standing in front of the heavily framed houses, or at person will give the same or a greater sum. The average a little distance from them, represent the coats of arms of the income from first-fruits and tenths is a little more than respective families of the tribes and generally exhibit designs £16,000 a year. In 1906 the trust funds in the hands of treated in a bold and original manner, highly conventionalized the governors amounted to £7,023,000. The grants in 1905 but always recognizable in their purport by any one familiar amounted to £28,607, the benefactions to £29,888. The with the distinctive marks of the animal forms portrayed. accounts are laid annually before the king in council and the These primitive monuments are, however, rapidly falling to houses of parliament. The duties of the governors are not decay, and the people who erected them are becoming reduced confined to the augmentation of benefices. They may in in number and spirit. The native population of the islands is addition lend money for the repair and rebuilding of residences less than 700.

(F. D. A.) and for the execution of works required by the Ecclesiastical QUEENSBERRY, EARLS. MARQUESSES AND DUKES Dilapidations Acts, and may receive and apply compensation OF. The Queensberry title, one of the many with which the money in respect of the enfranchisement of copyholds on any Scottish house of Douglas is associated, originated in the creation

The governors are unpaid: the treasurer and of Sir William Douglas (d. 1640) as earl of Queensberry in 163 secretary receives a salary of £1000 a year. He is appointed | He was the eldest son of Sir James Douglas of Drumlanrig by patent under the great seal, and holds office during the (d. 1616). His grandson William, the 3rd earl (1637-1695), pleasure of the crown.

was created marquess of Queensberry in 1682 and duke of QUEENBOROUGH, a municipal borough in the Faversham Queensberry in 1684; he was lord justice general and an parliamentary division of Kent, England, in the Isle of Sheppey, extraordinary lord of session. He was also lord high treasurer close to the junction of the Swale and Medway, 2 m. S. of of Scotland, and served James II. as lord high commissioner to

ness on the South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. the parliament of 1685, but in 1686 he was deprived (1901) 1544. The prosperity of the town has been revived in offices. He had assented to the accession of William and Mary modern times by the establishment by the railway company and had again enjoyed the royal favour before he died on the of a branch line from Sittingboume in connexion with a service 28th of March 1695. His son James Douglas, the 2nd duke of mail and passenger steamers to Flushing (Holland), which (1662–1711), was born at Sanquhar Castle on the 18th of run twice daily. The first copperas factory in England was September 1662, and was educated at the university of Glasgow, established at Queenborough in 1579, by Matthias Falconer, of afterwards spending some time in foreign travel. At the Brabant. In 1890 Portland cement works were built, and Revolution of 1688 he sided with Willia there is a large trade in timber. The town is governed by a made a privy councillor; aíter he had become duke of Queensmayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 302 acres.

berry in 1695 he was appointed an extraordinary lord of session A fortress, called Sheppey Castle, is said to have existed from and keeper of the privy seal. He was the royal commissioner an early period for guarding the passage of the Swale river. | to the famous Scottish parliament which met in 1700, and just Queenborough Castle was built about 1361 by Edward III., who after the accession of Anne in 1702 he was made one of the named the town after Queen Philippa and made it a free borough, secretaries of state for Scotland. In the latter part of 1703 he with a governing body of a mayor and two bailiffs. Charters came under a temporary cloud through his connexion with the were granted by subsequent sovereigns down to Charles I., who Jacobite intriguer, Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, who had utilized reincorporated the town under the title of the mayor, jurats, Queensberry's jealousy of the duke of Atholl to obtain a combailiffs and burgesses of Queenborough. The castle never had mission from him to get evidence in France which would impliany military history, and having been seized by parliament cate Atholl. The plot was betrayed by Robert Ferguson, and together with the other royal possessions, and being considered Queensberry was deprived of his offices. However, in 1705 he of insufficient importance for repair, was demolished during was restored and in 1706 he was again commissioner to the the Commonwealth. The borough subsequently decreased in Scottish parliament; in this capacity he showed great ability

The chief part of the population were employed in in carrying through the treaty for the union of the two cro the oyster fishery. The town was first represented in parliament which, chiefly owing to his influence and skill, was completed in by two members in 1572; it lost its franchise by the Reform 1707. For this he was very unpopular in Scotland, but he Act of 1832.

received a pension of £3000 a year. In 1708 he was created QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, a compact group lying off duke of Dover and marquess of Beverley, and he obtained a the northern part of the coast of British Columbia, and forming special remainder by which his titles were to pass to his second part of that province of Canada. Geologically the group is surviving son Charles, and not to his eldest son James, who was composed mainly of Triassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary strata, an idiot. In February 1709 he was appointed third secretary of penetrated by intrusive rocks. It occupies a position similar | state, and he died on the 6th of July 1711.

Charles Douglas, the 3rd duke (1698-1778), who had been in many places. Clay-ironstone was formerly raised in concreated earl of Solway in 1706, was lord justice general from nexion with the anthracite from the coalfield. 1763 until his death in October 1778. In 1720 he married | The climate is dry and healthy. Originally a great extent Catherine, daughter of Henry Hyde, 4th earl of Clarendon; of the surface was occupied with bog, but by draining much of this lady, a famous beauty, although very eccentric, was the it has been converted into good land. For the most part it friend of many of the wits and writers of her day, notably of is very fertile except in the hilly districts towards the north, Gay, Swift and Walpole. She died on the 17th of July 1777. and there is some remarkably rich land in the south-east. The Their two sons predeceased the duke, and when he died his acreage under pasture is not quite twice that of tillage. DairyBritish titles, including the dukedom of Dover, became extinct, | farming is extensively practised. Agriculture forms the chiet but the Scottish titles passed to his cousin, William, 3rd earl occupation, but the manufacture of woollen and cotton goods of March (1724-1810).

is carried on to a small extent. The main line of the Great This William Douglas, who now became the 4th duke of Southern & Western railway traverses the county from N.E. Queensberry, is best known by his soubriquet of “Old Q.” On to S.W. by way of Portarlington and Maryborough; from the turf he was one of the most prominent figures of his time, the latter town branches run N. to Mountmellick and S. to and his escapades and extravagances were notorious. From Waterford, and from Ballybrophy a line runs W. to Birr 1766 10 17.76 he was vice-admiral of Scotland, and in 1760 he (Parsonstown) and to Limerick. was made a lord of the bedchamber by George III.; but later The population (63,855 in 1891; 57,417 in 1901) decreases he was an associate of the prince of Wales, being removed in excess of the average of the Irish counties, and emigration from his office in the royal household in 1789. A generous patron is considerable. Of the total about 88% are Roman of the stage and of art, he was to the end of his life a “noble Catholic, and almost the whole is rural. Maryborough (the sportsman" of the dissolute type, and his degeneracy was the county town, pop. 2957), Mountmellick (2407) and Mountrath theme both of Wordsworth and of Burns. He died unmarried, | |(1304), with Portarlington (1943, partly in King's County), but not without children, in London on the 23rd of December are the principal towns. The county is divided into eleven 1810. The dukedom of Queensberry and some of his other baronies. Ecclesiastically it is in the Protestant dioceses of titles, together with his fine seat Drumlanrig Castle, now passed Dublin, Killaloe and Ossory, and in the Roman Catholic dioto Henry Scott, 3rd duke of Buccleuch, in whose family they ceses of Kildare and Leighlin, Ossory and Killaloe. Assizes still remain; but the marquessate of Queensberry descended are held at Maryborough, and quarter sessions al Abbeyleix, to Sir Charles Douglas (1777-1837), the representative of Borris-in-Ossory, Graigue (a suburb of Carlow), Maryborough, another branch of the Douglas family, who became the 5tb Mountmellick and Stradbally. The county is divided into the marquess.

Leix and Ossory parliamentary divisions. To the Irish parliaJohn Sholto Douglas, 8th marquess of Queensberry ment two members were returned for the county and two each (1844-1900), son of Archibald William, the 7th marquess for the boroughs of Ballinakill, Maryborough and Portarlington. (1818-1858), became a well-known patron of sport and particu The territory now included in Qucen's County covered the larly of pugilism. He helped to found the Amateur Athletic districts of Leix, Slewmargy, Irry and part of Glenmaliry, until Club in 1860, and the new rules for prize-fighting, drawn up in in 1556 it was made shire ground under the name of Queen's 1867, were called after him the “ Queensberry Rules." He County, in hdnour of Queen Mary, the place chosen for the married the daughter of Alfred Montgomery, and was succeeded county town being named Maryborough. Three miles south of by his son, Percy Sholto, 9th marquess (b. 1868).

Stradbally is Dun of Clopook, an ancient dun or fort occupying QUEENSCLIFF, a town of Grant county, Victoria, Australia, the whole extent of the hill. Aghaboe, where there are the 68 m. by land and 32' by sea S.W. by S. of Melbourne. Pop.ruins of the abbey, was formerly the seat of the bishopric of (1901) 2025. It lies on Shortlands Bluff, a small peninsula Ossory. There are no remains of the abbey of Timahqe founded connected with the mainland by the Narrows, a contracted by St Mochua in the 6th century, but in the neighbourhood strip of land some 400 yds. broad. Queenscliff is a favourite there is a fine round tower, 96 ft. high. Abbeyleix, a small watering-place, having a fine pier and excellent and safe sea- market town south of Maryborough, had a famous Cistercian bathing. It is also a pilot station; and the quarantine station foundation of the 19th century. The church of Killeshin, in for vessels entering Port Phillip is near the town.

the S.E. of the county, exhibits fine carving of the Norman QUEENS'S COUNTY, a county of Ireland, in the province of period. •Among the principal old castles are the ruined fortress Leinster, bounded N.W. and N. by King's County, E. by of the O'Mores occupying the precipitous rock of Dunamase, Kildare, S. by Carlow and Kilkenny, and W. by Tipperary; 3 m. E. of Maryborough, Borris-in-Ossory on the Nore, and area, 424,723 acres, or about 664 sq. m. The surface is for the Lea Castle on the Baitow, near Portarlington, erected by the most part level or gently undulating, but in the north-west Fitzgeralds about 1260, burnt by Edward Bruce in 1315, again rises into the elevations of the Slieve Bloom Mountains, the rebuilt, and in 1650 laid in ruins by the soldiers of Cromwell. highest summit being Arderin, 1733 ft. In the central part QUEENSFERRY, a royal and police burgh of Linlithgowof the county there is a large extent of bog. The south-east shire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 1850. It is situated on the portion is included in the Leinster coalfield. Nearly the whole S. side of the Firth of Forth, 9 m. by road N.W. of Edinof the county is drained either by the Barrow, which has its burgh and about 1 m. from Dalmeny station on the North source in the Slieve Bloom Mountains, and forms at various British railway, and is sometimes called South Queensferry, points the boundary with King's County, Kildare and Carlow, to distinguish it from the Queensferry on the opposite shore. or by the Nore, which enters the county from Tipperary near Of old it was the ferry giving access to Dunfermline and other Borris-in-Ossory, and flows east and then south till it reaches places on the north side of the firth, its use in this respect by Kilkenny. The lakes are few and small, the largest being Margaret, the queen of Malcolm Canmore, originating its name; Lough Anaghmore on the north-western boundary. The just as Port Edgar, } m. W., was named after her brother, Grand Canal enters the county at Portarlington, and runs Edgar Atheling. The Hawes Inn, which figures in Scoil's southwards to the Barrow in Kildare, a branch passing west- | Antiquary, was the terminus of the run from Edinburgh in the wards 12 miles to Mountmellick.

coaching days. Queensferry became a burgh of royalty in The limestone plain prevails in this county, but the high 1363, a royal burgh in 1639 and a police burgh in 1882, and coalfeld, shared with Kilkenny and Carlow, rises from it in belongs to the Stirling district group of parliamentary burghs the south; while the Slieve Bloom Mountains, a round-backed (with Stirling, Culross, Dunfermline and Inverkeithing). The Old Red Sandstone mass with Silurian inliers, doninate the principal structures include, besides the small parish church of lowland west of Maryborough. The limestone itself produces Dalmcny (the best example of pure Norman in Scotland), the a range of hills near Stradbally, on which the fortress of Duna- Countess of Rosebery Memorial Hall (erected in 1893 by the mase stands conspicuously. Esker-gravels provide sandy soils I earl of Rosebery), a library and reading-room, and a public

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hall which also does duty as a town hall. A Carmelite friary appear to underlie the whole of the state. They were originally was converted into an Episcopal chapel in 1800. There is a regarded as metamorphosed Silurian rocks, which had been converted

into gneiss, mica-schists and hornblende-schists. large oil-works in the parish. Dalmeny House, the seat of the age was affirmed owing to their lithological resemblance to rocks

Their Silurian earl of Rosebery, lies in beautifully wooded grounds about in Victoria, which were then regarded as Silurian, but have since 2 m. E. of the ferry. In the park, on the seashore facing Drum been shown to be Archean. The gneisses and schists occupy the Sands, stands Barnbougle Castle, a building of unknown age

Barklay Tableland, the Cloncurry Goldheld and the rocks of the

Mackinlay district in the west of the state. The second chief which became the seat of the Mowbrays in the 12th century.

Archean area is around Charters Towers and the Cape Goldfieid; After passing into the hands of the earls of Haddington, it was it includes quartzites, conglomerates and slates, striking from purchased in 1662 by Sir Archibald Primrose, an ancestor of north-west to south-east. The third Archean area occupies the the earl of Rosebery. The castle was thoroughly restored in

Gilbert, Woolgar and Etheridge Goldfields, and is composed of

schists trending from west to east, and with dikes of diorite and 1880. Dundas Castle, i} m. S. of Queensferry, was a seat of

quartz-porphyry. Smaller Archean outcrops occur south of Bowen the Dundases from 1124 to 1875, was besieged in 1449, received in the Clarke Range and on the Peak Downs. To the Archean a visit from Cromwell in 1651 and was partly rebuilt about series doubtless belong some of the many granitic massifs, including 1850. Hopetoun House, nearly 3 m. W. of the ferry, was

those of Charters Towers, Ravenswood and Croydon; but some

of the granitic rocks are of Lower Carboniferous age, and some begun about 1696 from the plans of Sir William Bruce of Kinross

are apparently Mesozoic. and completed by Robert Adam. It is the seat of the marquess The Lower Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks are widely distributed, of Linlithgow. Abercorn, a little to the west, gave the title but owing to the rarity of fossils they are not well known. In the of duke to a branch of the Hamiltons. It was the site of an

south-west of Queensland there are some Ordovician rocks, the

eastern continuation of those in the Macdonnell Ranges. Silurian ancient monastery, and from 681 to 685 the see of the earliest

limestones occur in the mining field of Chillagoe and at Mount bishopric in Scotland.

Wyatt. The Upper Palaeozoic systems are well developed, even QUEENSLAND, a state of the Australian commonwealth, when many of the schists, which have been included in the Devonian. occupying the whole of the north-eastern portion of the

are eliminated. The Middle Devonian is represented by the

Burdekin limestones, which contain a rich fossil fauna corresponding Australian continent, and comprising also the islands in Torres

to the Bucban and Bindi limestones of Victoria. The Middle Strait. (For map, see AUSTRALIA.) It lies between 10° and

Devonian limestones occur on the Marble and Hunter Islands in 29° S., and is bounded on the N. by Torres Strait and the Gulf the Northumberland Archipelago. The Devonian rocks in the of Carpentaria, on the W. by South Australia and the Northern

Pentland and Gilbert district are estimated by Jack to be over Territory, on the S. by New South Wales and on the E. by

20,000 ft. in thickness; but they probably include some Lower

Palaeozoic beds. the Pacific Ocean. It has an area of 668,497 sq. m., a coast - The Queensland Carboniferous system is divided into five series line of 3000, is 1250 m. long and 950 m. wide at its widest part. the Gympie, Star and the three divisions of the Bowen beds. The

With so extensive a seaboard Queensland is well favoured lowest series is the Gympie, which occurs between Brisbane and with ports on the Pacific side. Moreton Bay receives the

Maryborough. It consists of shales and sandstones, and is

traversed by dikes of diorite, which often contain pyrites and gold. river, on whose banks Brisbane, the capital, stands. | The age of these gold-bearing rocks is proved by the presence of Maryborough port is on the Mary, which flows into Wide Bay; such fossils as Productus cora and Prolorelepora ampla. The Gympie Bundaberg, on the Burnett; Gladstone, on Port Curtis; Rock

series is well developed in the districts of Burnett, Broad Sound hampton, up the Fitzroy (Keppel Bay); Mackay, on the

Bay and Wide Bay, along the coast from Port Curtis to the south of

Cape Palmerston. The Gympie beds are greatly contorted; and Pioneer; Bowen, on Port Denison; Townsville, on Cleveland

those of the Star series are regarded as younger, because they are Bay. Cairns and Port Douglas are near Trinity Bay; Card- less disturbed. They are best known in the basins of the Great well is on Rockingham Bay; Cooktown, on the Endeavour; and Little Star rivers, tributaries of the Upper Burdekin. They Thursday Island port. near Cape York: and Normanton are best developed on the Belyando river and in the Drummond

Range, where the shales and sandstones yield abundant fossil and Burketown near the Gulf of Carpentaria. The quiet Inner fish

fish; on the Star river the shales contain Lepidodendron. The Passage, between the shore of the Great Barrier Reef, 1200 m. Bowen beds are divided into three series which represent the upper long, favours the north-eastern Queensland ports. Brisbane part of the Carboniferous. The Lower Bowen series consists of was founded in 1826, but colonization was restricted until

agglomerates and altered rocks exposed in the Toussaint Range:

farther south, the Lower Bowen beds consist of grits, sandstones 1842, when the Moreton Bay district of New South Wales was

and shales, which have been altered by some granitic intrusions, thrown open to settlers. It was named "Queensland” on The Middle Bowen series contains beds with Productus core and its separation from the mother colony in 1859. Abroad Glossoplcris. The Upper Bowen beds contain coal scams, abundant plateau, from 2000 to 5000 ft. in

remains of Glosso pleris and one marine band. They form the centre height, extends from

of the basin of the Bowen coalfield; while the Middle Bowen beds north to south, at from 20 to 100 m. from the coast, forming outcrop in a band around it. The Upper Bowen beds occur also the Main Range. The Coast Range is less elevated. A plateau at Townsville and Cooktown in Northern Queensland. goes westward from the Great Dividing Range, throwing most • The rocks of the Mesozoic group may be divided into two divisions, of its waters northward to the gulf. The Main Range sends

of which the lower includes terrestrial deposits containing coal

seams; the upper is mainly a marine formation, but it terminates numerous but short streams to the Pacific, and a few long

with a further development of terrestrial deposits. The Lower ones south-westward, lost in earth or shallow lakes, unless Mesozoic division includes the Burrum and Ipswich series. The feeding the river Darling. Going northward, the leading Burrum series occurs along the eastern coast from Laguna Bay, rivers, in order, are the Logan, Brisbane, Mary, Burnett,

through Wide Bay and Maryborough, to Blackwater Creek: and

it extends inland for about 30 m., where it is faulted against Fitzroy, Burdekin, Herbert, Johnstone and Endeavour. The

the Gympie beds. The western edge of the Burrum beds are de Fitzroy receives the Mackenzie and Dawson; the Burdekin scribed as highly altered in places, by contact with granites. The is supplied by the Cape, Belyando and Suttor. The chief Ipswich series occupies 12,000 sq. m. in the south-eastern corner gull streams are the Mitchell, Flinders. Leichhardt and Albert. of Queensland, and is the northern continuation of the Upper

Clarence series of New South Wales. It contains coal seams which The great dry western plains have the Barcoo, Diamantina, I have been worked, though the coal is of inferior value to that of Georgina, Warrego, Maranoa and Condamine. (T.A. C.) the Carboniserous of New South Wales. One seam, on Stewarts

Geology.--Queensland consists geologically of three areas. The Creek, near Rockhampton, is 26 ft. thick. Interbedded basalts eastern division of the state, including all the Cape York Peninsula occur in the Ipswich beds, forming the scarp of the Toowoomba and the mountainous areas behind the coast, is occupied by the Range. The Burrum and Ipswich beds have been included in the Queensland Highlands, which are built up of a foundation of Trias and the Jurassic, or in both systems as the Trias-Jura, but Archean and contorted Lower Palaeozoic rocks, upon which rest according to A. C. Seward their characteristic fossil, Tacnio pleris some sheets of comparatively horizontal Upper Palaeozoic and dairtreei, is of Lower Oolitic age. Mesozoic rocks. The rocks of the Highlands sink to the west below The Cretaceous system is represented by a lower group of marine the Western Plains, which consist in the main of a sheet of clays forming the Rolling Downs formation. They are said to rest Cretaceous clays, capped by isolated ridges and peaks of Desert conformably upon the Ipswich beds, and some of the fossils found Sandstone. In the far west the plains end against the foot of an in these beds were first described as Upper Oolitic. The affinities Archean tableland, which is the north-eastern projection of the of the fauna are in part with Lower Cretaceous and in part with the Western Plateau of Australia.

Cenomanian; so both these series may be represented. The RollThe oldest rocks in Queensland are gneisses and schists, which ing Downs formation consists in the main of clays, forming the

impermeable cover over the subterranean stores of water, which its stem, which is formed by the metamorphosed lower pinnae and maintain the flowing wells of central Australia. The Rolling Downs pinnules. formation underlies the whole of the Western Plains of Queensland, The Myrtaceous genus Eucalyplus, of which sixty species are from the foot of the Queensland Highlands, westward to the Barklay found, furnishes the greater part of what is designated "HardTableland: and it extends from the Gulf of Carpentaria on the north, I woods," the kinds being variously termed "Box," " Gum," "Ironacross the state into South Australia and New South Wales. The bark." "Bloodwood." " Tallow-wood." "Stringy-back." &c. Desert Sandstone overlies the Rolling Downs formation. Its These are mostly trees of large size. Other large trees of the order age is shown to be Upper Cretaceous by some marine fossils from

which supply hard, durable timber are the broad-leaved tea

which supply hard. durable timber ar Maryborough and Croydon, which are said to be from rocks inter

tree (Melaleuca leucadendron and others), “Swamp Mahogany " bedded in it. In the interior, the Desert Sandstone is entirely of (Tristania suaveolens)," Brisbane Box" (T. conferta)," Turpentine terrestrial and lacustrine origin, and the only fossils are obscure

| (Syncarpia laurifolia), “ Peebeen" (S. Hillii), “ Penda" (Xanthoplant remains and the silicified trunks of trees. Glossopteris has

slemon opposilifolius). These are most generally cut at sawmills. been collected on Betts Creek from a rock identified as Desert Sand

Other orders, however, furnish equally serviceable, large-sized stone, which is said to overlie the Rolling Downs formation; but

timber, particularly the following: Sour Plum" (Owenio venosa, there is probably some mistake in the stratigraphy, as Glossopteris Meliaccae)." Red Cedar" (Cedrela Toona), "Crow's Ash" (Flindersia is only found in Coal Measures which are clearly of Palaeozoic age.

australis, Meliaceae), “Burdekin Plum" (Pleioginium Solandri, If it had survived into the Cretaceous, some specimens of it would

Anacardiaceae); " Bean-tree" (Castanospermum australe, Legumindoubtless have been obtained from the coal seams of the Lower

osae), "Johnstone River Teak" (Afzelia australis, Leguminosae), Mesozoic. The Desert Sandstone once · covered nearly three

| " Ringy Rosewood” (Acacia glaucescens, Leguminosae), " Black quarters of Queensland, having a wider range than the Rolling Walnut " (Cryptocarya Palmerstoni, Laurineae), “ Hill's Teak" Downs formation. It was formed partly on land, partly in fresh

| (Dissiliaria baloghioides). Many trees yield wood particularly water lakes and partly in arms of the sea, as at Croydon and Mary.

adapted for carving and engraving, such as the “Native Pomeborough. There is no trace of volcanic rocks in this period, and the granate" (Capparis nobilis), the “Native Orange" (Citrus vitreous surface of the Desert Sandstone is due to the deposition

australis), “Sour Plum" (Owenia acidula), “ Ivorywood " (Siphonoof efflorescent chert. The Desert Sandstone formation has now

don australe). Coachbuilders and wheelwrights use the wood of been weathered into isolated plateaus and tent-shaped hills.

many myrtaceous trees and several others, with Flindersias The Cainozoic group includes many volcanic rocks, mainly sheets (Meliaceae), whilst tool-handles are also formed from these and other of basalt, as at Townsville and Hughenden. Near Herberton, trees. There is also a large variety of woods suited for cabinet. between the head of the Burdekin and the Einasleigh River, the making and building. A large number furnish tannin barks, gums, basalts occupy 2000 sq. m. of country. Their age appears to be &c. The tannin barks are mostly derived from various kinds of Oligocene, as they probably correspond with the oldest Cainozoic acacia. Three spice barks, locally known as sassafras, are employed basalts of Victoria. Volcanic rocks of a later period occur north of for flavouring in the northern parts, Daphnandra aromatica, a Cooktown, and in the Einasleigh River, where the eruptive centres Monimiaceous tree, and Cinnamomum Tamala; and in the southern are recognizable; and a series of hot springs, some of which are parts Cinnamomum Oliveri. Many indigenous plants are used in described as geysers, represent the last stage of volcanic activity, domestic medicines, and several are recognized in the PharmaThe most important Cainozoic sedimentary rocks are the bone copaeia, such as Eucalypts, Cinnamomums, Sideroxylons, Alstonias, breccias, made up of bones of extinct marsupials, such as Diprotodon, Duboisias and Pipers. Thylacoleo and giant Kangaroos. They appear to have been 1 With regard to fodder-plants, no country is better furnished; bogged in the mud by drying water holes, during droughts. The

there are many herbs and a large number of salt bushes and other boncs also occur in beds of gravel and sand, and they have been

shrubs, which form excellent auxiliaries to the food supply for found in places covered by 188 ft. of overlying deposits. Caves

stock. It is, however, to the grasses that the excellence of the occur in the limestones, and on their floors there are beds

pastures is mainly due. On the extensive plains where the best yiclding bones of marsupials and extinct birds; but no well

spccies abound may be seen a large number of the genus Panicum, authenticated case of the ancient remains of man has yet been of which the following are looked upon with the greatest favour: established.

“ Vandyke grass," a form of P. flavidum, Cockatoo grass" (P. The chief mineral product of Queensland is gold, found in veins

semialatum), on the roots of which a species of cockatoo, in some parts in Archean, Palaeozoic and Lower Mesozoic rocks. The most of North Queensland, feeds; " Barley grass" (P. decompositum and famous gold mines are Mount Morgan, now changing into a copper P. distachyum); “ Blue grass" (Andropogon sericeus, A. perlusus, mine, Charters Towers and Gympie. Tin is found in the fields of

A. refractus, and A. erianthoides); " Russell River grass(Paspalum Herberton, Cooktown and Stannary Hills. Copper occurs near

golmarra, nearly allied to the South American species P. paniculatum, Herberton, Chillagoe and Mungana, coal in southern Queensland

P. minuliflorum, and P. brevifolium, Agropyrum scabrum); “ Tall in the Upper Carboniferous and Lower Mesozoic deposits.

Oat grass" (Anthistiria arenacea); “Landsborough grass" (Anthis. A fuli account of the geology of Queensland up to 1892 is given liria membranacea); Danthonia racemosa, D. pilosa, D. pallida, and in Jack and Etheridge's Gcology of Qucensland. The tectonic | D. semiannularis; Sporobolus Benthami, an excellent species found geology of the coast-line has been described by E. C. Andrews, and near the Diamantina and Georgina rivers, and S. actinocladus; the general geology is described in the numerous valuable publica Stipa aristiglumis, Leptochloa chinensis, Microlaena slipoides; tions of the Gcological Survey of Queensland. A summary of the 1 “Early spring grass " (Eriochloa punctata), with the following mineral resources was issued by the Queensland government in “ Love grasses": -- Eragrostis Brownii, E. chacrophylla, E. pilosa 1901. Information regarding the artesian water supply is given and E. lenella. The " Mitchell grasses" (A strebla pectinala) and in the Annual Reports of the Queensland Hydraulic Engineer.

its varieties, viz. the Wheat (Iruicoides), the weeping (elymoides) (J. W. G.)

and the curly (curvifolia), are those that have the most extraFlora.-The Queensland flora comprehends most of the forms ordinary vitality, but some stockholders consider that the "Sugar peculiar to Australia, with the addition of about five hundred grass " or “ Brown Top" (Pollinia fulva) surpasses them in its species belonging to the Indian and Malayan regions. There are quickness of bursting into leal with the first showers of rain. no mountain ranges of sufficient altitude to make any appreciable Amongst the fruits are Antidesma Bunius, A. Dallachyanum, A. change in the plant-life. Bellenden Ker, the highest mountain in erostre, A. Ghacsembilla, and A. parvifolium, called cherries or tropical Australia, has a height of only 5200 st., and the plants currants according to the size of the fruit they bear, the jelly made growing upon its summit, as well as on the highest parts of the from the fruit of some species being in nowise inferior to that made neighbouring mountains, are for the most part similar to those from the European red currant. The Kumquat or lime of Southern on the low lands in the southern parts of the state, and the plants | Downs country (Atalantia glauca) makes a peculiarly nice-flavoured which may be considered as peculiar to these heights are few preserve. Of the allied genus Citrus two species are met with in number of species. They consist of a Leplospermum and a in the south, C. australis, which has a round fruit i to 2 in. in (?) Myrtus, which attain a height of about 30 or 40 ft., and have diameter; the other, C. australasica, with long finger-like fruits widespreading, densely leaved heads. The most attractive of the 3 or more inches long and about 1 in. in diameter; of this a red tall shrubs are Dracophyllum Sayeri, of which there are two forms, variety (C. inodora), which is only met with in the tropics, bears Rhododendron Lochae and Orites fragrans. A few orchids of small a fruit often 2 in. long by it in diameter. All these fruits growth are met with, but the only large specics known to inhabit are juicy, and of an agreeably sharp, acid flavour. “ Davidson's these localities is the normal form of Dendrobium speciosum. These Plum" (Davidsonia pruriens) is a fruit with a sharply acid, rich, high spots have a few serns peculiar to them, and of others it is the plum-coloured juice, sometimes attaining the size of a goose's egg. only known Australian habitat; for instance, the pretty white of the genus Eugenia, over thirty are indigenous, and fully onefronded Java bristle-fern (Trichomanes pallidum) has only so far I third produce more or less useful fruits. One Fig (Fichas gracilipes) in Australia been met on the south peak of Bellenden Ker; here produces a fruit used for jam and jelly. Two Garcinias are recorded also Todca Fraseri may be seen with trunks 2 to 3 ft. high. The as indigenous, but of one only (G. Mestoni) is the fruit known. sides of these mountains are clothed by a dense forest scrub growth, It is of a depressed globular form, sometimes 3 in. in diameter, some of the trees being very tall, but diminishing in height towards very juicy, and of a pleasant flavour. Leplomeria acida, one of the summits. Palms and fern-trees are plentiful, but the greatest the very early fruits used by Australian colonists, is met with in variety are met with at about 4000 ft. altitude. So far this is some localities. The “Finger Berryor “Native Loquat" the only known habitat of that bcautiful fern-tree Alsophila Rebeccae (Rhodomyrius macrocarpa) makes a good jam, but is in bad repute var. commutala, peculiar for the wig-like growth at the summit of 1 for use in the raw state, perhaps owing to a peculiar fungus at

A fuli account, heridge's Geology described by E. Gjuable publica:

Co the Geological Survey by the Queensland apply is given

Early spring ,,!1> Eragrostis Brousses" (A strebla pe celymoides)

and Erieties, viz. the Wheatre those that have the the Sugar

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