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supplies of the Dominion, supplies which with a little husbanding | Rivers on the St Maurice are the falls of Shawinigan, 150 ft. on the part of the government could be made to afford a bountilul high, from which a large amount of electrical power is obtained, supply of timber for all future generations. The country also contains valuable mineral deposits, and is the great home of the

a portion of which is used in the production of aluminium, fur-bearing animals of the Dominion. While, however, along the while several thousand horse-power are transmitted to the city southern border it supports a considerable agricultural popula of Montreal. The Batiscan river enters the St Lawrence at tion, the Laurentian country cannot be considered as one which in

Batiscan. The Jacques Cartier, the Ste Anne and the Montrespect to its agricultural capabilities can ever take rank with the southern portions of eastern Canada or with the great plains and

morency are northern tributaries of the St Lawrence. The British Columbia which lic to the west.

Montmorency is famous for its falls, situated about 8 m. from (2) That portion of the lowlands of the St Lawrence valley Qucbec city, and 250 ft. high. These beautiful falls, however, which belongs to the province of Quebec forms a wedge-shaped have in recent years been creatly reduced in volume

have in recent years been greatly reduced in volume, the water arca extending along the river from a short distance below the city of Quebec to the western border of the province. It is throughout

being largely employed for the development of electricity, and a practically level plain of very fertile land, on which are situated also for the supply of power to a large cotton-mill in the vicinity, the chief towns and cities of the province, and on it also are settled Near these falls is Haldimand House, once the residence of the the majority of the rural population. These lowlands are bounded

duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria, The Saguenay rises on the north by the Laurentian plateau, and on the south by the Notre Dame Mountains, which physical features gradually converge,

in Lake St John and discharges into the St Lawrence at the latter mountains reaching the shore of the river St Lawrence a

Tadousac after a course of room. On the south side of the short distance to the east of the city of Quebec. The plain in this St Lawrence is the Richelieu river, which rises in Lake way gradually narrows on going to the north-east, and is finally

Champlain and enters the St Lawrence at Sorel on Lake St closed off in that direction. It was a portion of this plain that was first occupied by the early French settlers. Much of its surface,

Peter. Champlain sailed up this river in 1609. Other important as has been said, is absolutely level, and it nowhere exceeds an streams are the St Francis, rising in Lake Memphremagog; the elevation of a few hundred feet. Its uniform expanse, however, Chaudière, rising in Lake Megantic, with its beautiful falls is broken by a line of eight isolated hills composed of rocks of 125 ft. high about 10 m. above Quebec; the Chateauguay, igncous origin, being a series of eroded reninants of ancient volcanoes

Yamaska, Etchemin, du Loup, Assomption and Bécancour. which now rise abruptly from the plain and constitute the most striking features of the landscape. They are known as the Monte

Among the largest lakes in the province are Lake St John, regian Hills and rise to elevations of 560 ft. to 1600 ft. above sea which has an area of 360 sq. m.; Lake Temiscaming, having level. From the summit of Mount Royal, at the foot of which lies

an area of 126 sq. m.; Lake Matapedia, Lake Megantic and the city of Montreal, all the other Monteregian Hills are plainly visible, and the margin of the Laurentian Highlands may be seen

Lake Memphremagog. bounding the horizon some 30 m. to the north, while south

The largest islands in the province of Quebec are: Anticosti, ward the Green Mountains, and the Adirondacks in the state of now used as a game preserve; Bonaventure, an important New York, are distinctly visible on a clear day.

fishing station to the cast of Gaspé; and the Magdalen Islands, (3) The Notre Dame Mountains and the Eastern Townships. The Appalachian Mountain range, passing out of the state of

situated in the gulf of St Lawrence about 50 m.' north of Vermont, where it is known as the Green Mountains, crosses

Prince Edward Island. into the province of Quebec between Lake Champlain and Lake Memphremagog, and becoming lower and less rugged continues

Geology and Minerals.--Beginning with the oldest rocks, the in a north-easterly direction to a point about 30 m. south

more northern part of the province of Quebec is underlain by the of the city of Quebec. Thence it pursucs its course, following the

Laurentian system of Sir William Logan. This includes a great general trend of the river St Lawrence at a varying distance from

series of very highly altered sediments, largely limestones, known

as the Grenville series, which is penetrated by great intrusions its southern margin, and reaches the latter river ncar Metis. From

of anorthosite, &c., and is invaded by and rests upon enormous the border to this point the range is known as the Notre Dame Mountains. The highest peak in the Notre Dame Mountains is

bathyliths of granite, which are sometimes referred to as the Sutton Mountain-3100 ft. Continuing on to the north-east it

" Fundamental Gneiss." The Grenville series is best developed develops into the high land of the Gaspé Peninsula, of which the

along the southern margin of the Laurentian Highlands between

Three Rivers and the Georgian Bay. Two of the great anorthosite most elevated portion constitutes the Shickshock Mountains, the

intrusions occur on the margin of the Laurentian country to the higher summits of which rise to elevations of 3000 to 4000 ft. above sea level. The whole central area of the Gaspé Peninsula

north of Montreal and about Lake St John. The Laurentian is a forest-clad wilderness.

system is succeeded to the south by the Potsdam sandstone, probably To the south-east of the Notre Dame Mountains is an undulating

equivalent to the Upper Cambrian of Britain. On this rests a

dolomitic limestone-the Calciferous formation-and on this the country known as the “Eastern Townships." These hills, as mentioned above, are lower and less rugged than the Green Moun

great and highly fossiliserous limestones known as the Chazy and

Trenton formations. These limestones afford the best building tains, the general elevation of the country being from 500 to 1000 st.

stone of the province, while the Potsdam sandstone is also frequently above sea level. There are a nuinber of large and fine lakes in

employed for building purposes. Above the Trenton is the Utica this district, among which may be mentioned lakes Metapedia.

shale, rich in graptolites and trilobites. This is succeeded by the Temiscouata, Memphremagog, Aylmer, St Francis and Megantic. In the belt of the Notre Dame Mountains the country is not

Hudson River group composed largely of sandstones and calcareous

beds. These constitute the complete Ordovician succession. Upper in the strict sense of the term a mountainous one, but rather a

Silurian and Devonian beds, the latter holding fossil plants and rolling country containing much good farming and pasture land,

fishes, occur in the south-east portion of the province, while on while the Eastern Townships is a fine agricultural country, em

the shore of Chaleur Bay these are succeeded by the lowest beds bracing some of the best farming and grazing land in the Dominion.

of the Carboniferous. No coal occurs in the province of Quebec. This latter district was originally settled by Loyalists from the

In the region of the Notre Dame Mountains and the Eastern TownUnited States at the time of the revolt of the colonics, but is now

ships there are great intercalations of ancient volcanic rocks and being gradually occupied by French Canadians from the more

many important mineral deposits. Among these may be mennorthern portions of the province, the younger generation of English

tioned gold, copper, asbestos and chromic iron ore; also serpentine, speaking Canadians preferring to take up land and settle in Ontario or the western provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and

marble and roofing slates. The asbestos deposits are the most

extensive and most productive in the world, the chief centre of British Columbia

asbestos mining being at Thetford Mines. A large part of the The whole country is exceptionally well watered and abounds country, more especially on the lower levels, is covered with in numerous large rivers, bays and lakes. The principal river is

Pleistocene deposits of the so-called Glacial age.
Pleis

Till or boulder the St Lawrence, which flows through the entire length of the

clay is usually at the base of these deposits. On this rests a finer

stratified blue clay, in some places rich in fossil shells and known province. A short distance above Montreal it receives from

as the Leda clay. It affords a good material for the manufacture the north-west the Ottawa, a large and beautiful river over of bricks and tiles. Above the Leda clay are sands and gravels 600 m. in length with many tributaries, among which the most

known as the Saxicava sand. This is also stratificd and frequently

contains an abundance of fossils. These stratified clays and sands important are the Gatineau, the Lièvre, the North, the Rouge

are due to a re-sorting of the boulder clay by the action of water, and the Kinojevis. The St Lawrence is navigable for large

and imply a submergence at the close of the Glacial period with a ocean steamship as far as Montreal, beyond which place subsequent elevation. In certain alluvial deposits in the vicinity navigation is interrupted by rapids. The St Maurice rises in of the St Maurice river there occur deposits of Log iron ore which Lake Oskelaneo, flowing into the St Lawrence at Three Rivers,

have been worked for many years.

Climate.--The climate of Quebec is variable. In the winter and is over 400 m. long. It has many tributaries, and drains the co

as the cold is generally steady and the atmosphere clear and bracing. an area of 21,000 sq. m. Twenty-four miles above Three | About Montreal snow lies on the ground from the end of November

building while the

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many inpa. copper, asbetes. The

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until the following April, affording good sleighing for four months council (or cabinet) who have seats in, and are responsible to, in the year. The inhabitants enjoy with zest and spirit all the out the local legislature. In reality the lieutenant-governor is a door sports common in the country, such as skating, curling, tobogganing, snowshoeing, ski-ing and sliding. The snowfall is heavy, and figure-head, and power is in the hands of the legislature, which though the winds are often sharp they are not often raw or damp, consists of two houses, a Legislative Council, appointed nominnor is there any fog. The summer is warm and pleasant. The ally by the lieutenant-governor, really by the premier, and an extreme heat is indicated at 90° F. The finest season of the year | Assembly. chosen by what is practically manhood suffrage. is the autumn, which lasts about six or eight weeks. The following is a table of temperatures as recorded by the meteorological stations

Either French or English may be used in addressing either house. at certain points in the province

The municipalities have large powers of local government, Table showing Normal Temperature, Precipitation &c., at various

which are used with more or less efficiency, the predatory Stations in the Province of Quebec.

tendencies of the ward-politician being sometimes apparent,

though of late years an improvement has been effected. The

Average
Lati Longi- Alti.
Mean Temperature.

finances of the province are drawn from the same sources as

Precipitude. tude. tude,

tation. those of Ontario (9.0.). Their administration has not becn so Winter. Year.

economical as in the sister province, and there is a net provincial

debt of over £4,000,000. Feet.

Inches. Anticosti, W. Pt. . 40°

15

35 89 Education. In primary education Quebec is still behind the Bird Islands . .

125

2876 Chicoutimi . .

20 38

other provinces, but great progress has been made since Federa. Quebec . .

4198 tion; illiteracy is decreasing, and 80% of the population over five Brome .

3535 years of age can read and write. The Council of Public Instruction Montreal

39 24 Cape Magdalen

3155

is divided into two committees of equal number, a Catholic and a

Protestant, and all ratepayers are allowed to state whether they The normal percentage of bright sunshine at Montreal is 41 and

prefer their taxes to go to the Protestant or to the Catholic school.

Both religious bodies have combined to carry out this system with at Quebec 39, a higher average than northern Europe. (F. D. A.)

very little friction or proselytizing. The Catholic schools are Area and Population.—The boundaries of Quebec have been controlled by the clergy, the episcopate forming, ex officio, onc-half more than once enlarged since 1867. By the extension given

of the Catholic section of the council. In the cities of Quebec and

Montreal the schools are efficient and the teachers well paid; but to them in 1898, the province has an area of 351,873 sq. m., of

in the rural districts the schools, especially those of the Catholics, which 341,756 sq. m. are land and 10,117 sq. m. are water.

are often inadequate, the buildings being poor, and the teachers This estimate includes the islands of Orleans, Anticosti, and the receiving a mere pittance, in some cases less than £20 per annum. Magdalen group, but not the gulf of St Lawrence or the

Over 95% of the teachers in the primary schools are women. The

great majority of the schools are controlled by the council, but there territorial seas. In 1901 the population was 1,648,898, 992,667

are also a number of independent schools, primary and secondary, being classed as rural and 656,231 as urban. Since 1891 the usually under religious control; of these the so-called “Collèges rural population has increased but little, but there has been a Classiques," supported by the Catholic Church, are the most imgrowth of about 11% in the population of the towns and cities. No

portant. The chief universities are McGill (undenominational),

at Montreal (founded 1820), and Laval (Roman Catholic) (founded province has taken so small a share in the development of the

1852), with its headquarters at Quebec, and with a large branch West. True to his ancestral instincts, the French-Canadian

at Montreal. (See MONTREAL and QUEBEC CITY). There is also remains close to the place of his birth. If he emigrates, it is to a small Anglican university, that of Bishop's College, Lennoxville the neighbouring cities of New England or to the castern districts (founded 1853), in connexion with which is Bishop's College school,

on the model of the public schools of England. To McGill is affiliated of the province of Ontario. On the other hand, in the rural

a well-equipped Agricultural College established at Ste Anne de parts of the province, the French are driving out the English- Bellevue by Sir William Macdonald (b. 1832), at a cost of over speaking settlers, especially in the south-western counties, $2,000,000; and to Laval an Agricultural School at Oka, founded settled by Loyalists at the close of the War of American Indepen in 1893 by the Trappist Fathers. There are numerous normal and

model schools, the most important being that of Ste Anne de Bellevue dence, and known as the Eastern Townships, Nearly 98% of

in connexion with Macdonald College. the population are Canadian-born. Of these over 80% are of

Agriculture.—The French Canadian is a thrifty though somewhat French descent; of the remainder about 7% are English, unprogressive farmer, and loves the 7% Irish and 4% Scots. Save to the city of Montreal there attachment than do the peasants of old France. Till recently his

agriculture was of a very domestic character. He grew enough is little immigration; but so prolific are the French that the

wheat to grind into flour, and enough oats to feed his horses; raised population of the province increases as fast as that of the rest sheep whose wool his wife spun into rough cloth in the winter even. of the Dominion, in which to the natural increase is added a ings; and even grew his own tobacco. Now his horizon is widening, large imm igration. The census gives the number of the average and his imports and exports are increasing. The general climatic

conditions are much the same as in Ontario, and the crops are family as 5.36, but families with twelve and eighteen children

similar. All the chief cereals are successfully cultivated, oats being are not uncommon. The English-speaking population is the chief crop. The wise care of both federal and provincial almost wholly confined to the towns, especially Montreal, in governments has fostered the dairy farming of the province. In which city it controls the chief shipping and commercial interests. 1906 over 14,200,000 of cheese was produced, and over £5,200,000 of

butter. Most of the butter is made in well-equipped creameries, Of the original inhabitants about 8000 Indians remain, chiefly

in the nunber of which Quebec exceeds any other province; in on reserves in the neighbourhood of Montreal and Quebec

exports of cheese she equals Ontario. In the production of fruit Though quite peaceful, they are on the whole less civilized than she ranks second to Ontario, Nova Scotia coming third. Perhaps those of eastern and southern Ontario. The capital is Quebec, the most typical Çanadian industry, the making of syrup and sugar with a population of about 70,000, which increases but slowly.

from the sap of the maple tree as it rises in the spring, centres in

this province. Over two-thirds of the tobacco grown in the Dominion The largest city is Montreal, the commercial and shipping centre is raised in Quebec, about 10,000 acres being under cultivation. of the Dominion, at the head of ocean steamship navigation, | At first of a coarse character, it is improving in quality. The total with a population of about 350,000. Other cities are Hull annual value of the agricultural produce of the province is about

(18,000,000, about half that of Ontario. Several agricultural and (practically a suburb of Ottawa; pop. in 1901, 13,993); Sher

dairy schools are supported or assisted by the provincial governbrooke (11,765); Three Rivers (9981); Lévis (7783). S

ment, and much good' is being done by the Agricultural College at The French, Irish and Indians are almost entirely of the Ste Anne de Bellevue. Roman Catholic faith; a majority of the English are Anglican, The province still possesses large areas of crown land, which is sold

at a nominal price to bona fide settlers. In the northern part of the with some Methodists; the Scots are Presbyterian, The

province new and fertile areas have been opened up by the Grand Roman Catholic Church enjoys extensive rights and privileges, Trunk Pacific railway. and nowhere in the world is devotion to that faith more wide Forests.-Next to agriculture in importance are the various spread or more unquestioning.

industries which depend on the products of the forest. Over

150.000 69. m. of forest land are still uncleared, chiefly in the northern Administration. As in all the provinces, the executive power

part of the province, though the best timber is said to grow'south is nominally vested in a lieutenant-governor, appointed for five of the watershed. In the north, pine, spruce, and fir predominate, years by the federal government, and assisted by an executive and, farther south, the maple; spruce, lime (linden, bass-wood,

Tilia Americana) and poplar, are used extensively in the making upper and lower town,-access to the former being obtained of paper pulp. The annual value of the wood cut in the province | by steep and winding streets. by several flights of narrow steps. is about 14,000,000, rather less than that of Ontario, and not quite two-fifths that of the whole Dominion. An export duty is levied | or by an elevator. Much of the lower town still recalls the on all pulp wood exported.

older portions of such French provincial towns as Rouen or Fur and Fish.—The value of the annual catch of fish is estimated St Malo. The streets, with one or two exceptions, are narrow at £450,000, most of which consists of the product of the cod and

and irregular; but it remains the principal business quarter herring fisheries in the gull of St Lawrence. From Isle Verte eastward almost all the settlers along the coast depend largely on

of the city. In the upper town, where the streets are wider the produce of this industry. It is carried on mainly in small and well paved, are the better class of dwelling-houses and boats, which put out in the morning and return at nightfall, few public buildings, most of the churches, the public walks and large vessels being employed. Throughout the province are numerous

gardens, and many of the retail shops. To the west are the trout-streams, and many of the northern lakes are well supplied with trout, bass and pike. In Lake St John is caught the celebrated

suburbs of St John and St Roch. The latter occupies the winninish, a land-locked salmon growing to the size of six or cight

| lower plain, and is of some commercial importance; the pounds, and well known to anglers. Moose, deer, bear and other former is on the same level as the upper town. South-west animals provide excellent shooting in the Laurentian mountains,

of St John stretch the historic Plains of Abraham. On this and in the wooded districts of the north. Manufactures. In manufactures Quebec ranks second among

battleground stands a simple column 40 ft. high, marking the the provinces, Ontario coming first. The largest Canadian manu- spot where General Wolfefell. It was erected in 1840 by facturing town is Montreal, where most of the industries are controlled the British army in Canada, to replace a monument erected by the English-speaking minority. No other part of the Dominion in 1822 by the governor-general. Lord Avlmer which had is so rich in water power, which is provided to a limitless extent by the falls of the rivers Montmorenci, St Maurice (Shawinigan Falls),

been broken and defaced by ruffians. Till 1908 the Plains Ste Anne, the rapids on the St Lawrence and the Richelieu, and

were also disfigured by a gaol and a rifle factory, but these many others. Tanning, and the making of paper pulp and of have been removed, and the battleground converted into a furniture, prosper on account of the great forests of the province. public park. In the governor's garden, which overlooks the The French-Canadian workman is hardy and intelligent, and Quebec may yet become the manufacturing centre of the Dominion,

St Lawrence, is a monument 65 ft. in height, erected in 1828 though as yet higher wages are paid in the American cities across

under the administration of Lord Dalhousie, dedicated to the the border, and thousands of French-speaking workmen are employed memory of Wolfe and Montcalm. An iron pillar surmounted in the factories of Lowell and other American border towns.

by a bronze statue, the gist of Prince Jerome Napoleon, stands Communications.-The rivers were long the chief roads, by water

on the Ste Foy road, and was erected in 1855-60 to commemorate in summer, over the ice in winter; but though the St Lawrence is still the main artery of the province, the bulk of travel and of

the achievements of the British and French troops in the transport is now done by rail. The first railway in Canada was brilliant but fruitless French victory of April 28, 1760. The built in 1830 to carry stone from the wharves to aid in the con- | chief point of interest in the upper town is Dufferin Terrace, struction of the citadel of Quebec. The first passenger railway

a magnificent promenade overlooking the St Lawrence, was built in 1836, between Laprairie on the St Lawrence river and St John's on the Richelieu. There is now good railway communica

1400 ft. long and 200 ft. above the level of the river. Part tion between all the chief points, and branch lines are opening up of this terrace occupies the site of the old Château St Louis, new areas to settlement. While a few main roads are kept in good which was destroyed by fire in 1834. At the eastern end of condition, those in the country parts are very indifferent.

the terrace stands a fine statue of Champlain, erected in 1898. BIBLIOGRAPHY.-The various departments of the provincial government publish annual reports on a great variety of subjects.

Near by, and conspicuous from the river, is the Hotel Frontenac, The annual Canada Year Book, published by the Federal Govern- erected by the Canadian Pacific railway on the model of an old ment, gives much information in a tabular form. Interesting French château. Nothing remains of the fortifications erected articles are contained in J. Castell Hopkins, Canada, an Encyclopaedia under the French régime. The present walls and the citadel. (Toronto, 1898-1900). The legal enactment's in which the municipal system is embodied are found in the Revised Statutes of the pro

which covers an area of about 40 acres, were built in 1823-32 vince (Acts 4178-4640). On education and religion A. Siegfried, at a cost of over £7,000,000. Since then, several of the gates Le Canada; les deux races (1905; translated into English under have been destroyed, and others rebuilt, but in other respects the title or The Race Question in Canada, 1906), is well-informed

ed the walls are practically intact, and, though obsolete as and impartial.

(W. L. G.)

fortifications, add greatly to the picturesque beauty of the QUEBEC, the capital of the Canadian province of the same city. Between 1865 and 1871 three forts were built on the name, situated on the north bank of the river St Lawrence, Lévis side of the river, but were neither manned nor armed, at its junction with the St Charles, about 300 m. from the Quebec's natural position still makes it one of great military gulf of St Lawrence and 180 m. by river N.E. of Montreal, strength, though depending on naval control of the sea and of in 71° 12' 19": 5 W. and 46° 48' 17". 3 N. The origin of the the gulf of St Lawrence. name Quebec has been much disputed, but it is apparently Besides numerous Protestant churches, including a small the Algonkian word for a strait, or sudden narrowing, the |Anglican cathedral, there is a Jewish synagogue; but the river at its junction with the St Charles being about 2500 yds. bulk of the population is Roman Catholic. The cathedral, wide, but narrowing opposite Cape Diamond to 1314.

founded in 1647, and enlarged at intervals, is a large but not Quebec is built on the northern extremity of an elevated very striking building in the upper town. It contains some tableland which forms the left bank of the St Lawrence for good oil paintings and some much-prized relics, but is rather a distance of 8 m. The highest part of the headland is garish in its ornamentation. Of the numerous other churches, Cape Diamond, 333 ft. above the level of the water, and the most interesting is Notre Dame des Victoires, in the lower crowned by the citadel;- towards the St Lawrence it presents town, erected in 1688, and named in honour of the defeat of a bold and precipitous front, while on the landward side and Phips in 1690 and the shipwreck of Sir Hovenden Walker in towards the St Charles the declivity is more sloping and 1711. Laval University, which derives its name from François gradual. The harbour of Quebec is spacious and deep enough de Montmorency Laval, the first bishop of Quebec, who founded to hold the largest ships, and, with the Louise basin and Lorne in 1663 a seminary for the training of priests, is under strict graving-dock,—the latter on the opposite shore at Lévis,-forms Roman Catholic control. It was instituted in 1852 by a royal one of the best harbours in America. It is usually open from charter from Queen Victoria and in 1876 received a charter the end of April to the middle of December, being closed by from Pope Pius IX. The building is large and spacious, and ice during the winter. The Louise basin consists of twin wet. I the university includes faculties of theology, law. medicine docks and tidal harbours, with areas of 40 and 20 acres and arts, a library of 125,000 volumes, a museum and a picture respectively, and a minimum depth of 26 ft. The harbour | gallery. A large branch of the university has been established is protected towards the north-east by the island of Orleans, at Montreal, and has often, but vainly, sought permission to on either side of which there is an approach, though that to become an independent Catholic university. In connexion the north of the island is used only by small vessels. The with Laval are the grand seminary sounded in 1663, where spring tides rise and fall about 18 ft. Quebec is divided into theology is taught, and the minor seminary for literature and

philosophy. Other Roman Catholic institutions are Laval | 59,699 in 1871 to 68,840 in 1901; of these over 60,000 are Normal and Model School, the Ursuline Convent, the Convent French and Roman Catholic. of the Good Shepherd and several nunnerics. The convent! The first known white man to visit Quebec

uebec was Jacques and church of the Ursulines, founded in 1641, contains nearly Cartier, the French navigator, in 1535, who found on the site 100 nuns and lay sisters, and nearly 600 pupils. It possesses a large Indian village, called Stadacona. In July 1608 the some excellent paintings and a number of relics, among which present city was founded, and named by Champlain. Its is the skull of the French general, Montcalm. Morrin College, growth was slow, and in 1629 it had but two permanently founded in 1859 by Dr Morrin, was for some years an efficient settled families, with a shifting population of monks, oficials college in arts and theology, under Presbyterian control, but and fur traders. In that year it was captured by the English is now defunct. High schools for boys and girls and numerous under Sir David Kirke (1597–1656; see H. Kirke, The First academics are supported by the Protestants, under the dual | English Conquest of Canada, London, 1871, reprinted 1908), system of education in the province. The Literary and but in 1632 it was restored to the French by the treaty of St Historical Society-the oldest chartered institution of the kind | Germain-en-Laye. In 1663 the colony of New France was in Canada, founded by Lord Dalhousie in 1824-the Canadian created a royal province, and Quebec became the capital. In Institute, the Geographical Society, the Young Men's Christian 1690 Sir William Phips, governor of Massachusetts, attempted Association, the Advocates' Library and the Parliamentary to reconquer it with a fleet and army fitted out by New England, Library, have valuable collections of books, the latter contain- but was defeated by the French governor, Front ing 70,000 volumes, and numerous MSS. chiefly relating to 1711 a great British expedition the early history of the province. The principal benevolent in den Walker was shipwrecked in the gulf of St Lawrence, and stitutions are the marine hospital, the Hotel Dieu, founded the French held possession till 1750 (see below), when it was in 1639 by the duchess of Aiguillon, the general hospital (1693), captured by the British troops on the 18th of September, five the Jeffrey Hale Hospital, and the lunatic asylum at Beauport days after the battle of the Plains of Abraham; it was finally controlled by the Grey Nuns (sisters of charity). The pro ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Paris in 1763. In 1775 vincial parliament buildings, erected in 1878-92, are situated the American generals Montgomery and Benedict Arnold in extensive grounds on Grande Allée. The main building is attacked the city, but Montgomery was killed (December 31, quadrangular in form, and is ornamented with numerous 1775) and Arnold was compelled to retreat in the following statues. The seat of the lieutenant-governor is at Spencerwood, spring. a pleasant country estate outside the city. Other prominent In 1763-1841, in 1851-55, and in 1859-65 Quebec was buildings are the palace of the Roman Catholic Archbishop, the capital of Canada, and it is still its most historic and which adjoins Laval University, the court house, post office, , picturesque city. custom house, city hall (1890-95) and masonic hall. Quebec

| See Quebec under Two Flags, by A. G. Doughty and N. E. Dionne is well lighted with gas and electric light, and has a system (Quebec, 1903). Canada, an Encyclopaedia, by J. C. Hopkins of electric tramcars, a plentiful supply of power being obtained (Toronto, 1898–1900), has a good account (vol. v. pp. 241-248). from the Montmorency Falls (268 st. in height), 6 m. N.E.

(W. L. G.) The climate is severe, but bracing, the mean temperature in Wolse's Quebec Expedition, 1759.-Both in itself and also as winter being 10°, in summer 68°, and the mean of the year 39o the central incident of the British conquest of Canada, the The main lines of the Grand Trunk, Canadian Pacific and Inter taking of Quebec is one of the epics of modern military history. colonial railways are on the south bank of the St Lawrence, The American campaigns of the Seven Years' War, hitherto but branch lines connect the city with Montreal, and it is the somewhat spasmodic, were, after Amherst's capture of Louisheadquarters of the Quebec and Lake St John, and various

nd various burg in 1758, co-ordinated and directed to a common end by smaller railways. Steam ferries connect the city with Lévis that general, under whom James Wolíe, a young major-general on the opposite bank, but the project of a bridge, though of of thirty-three years of age, was to command an expedition great importance to the city, has been in various ways delayed against Quebec from the lower St Lawrence, while Amherst In August 1907 the portion completed fell into the St Lawrence. himself led a force from New England by Lake Champlain on

The city returns three members to the Canadian House of Montreal. Wolfe's column consisted of about 7000 troops, Commons, and three to the Provincial House of Assembly. and was convoyed by a powerful fleet under Admiral It is governed by a mayor and council of aldermen, who hold Saunders. The expedition sailed 300 m. up the St Lawrence, office for two years, and are usually re-elected, one mayor disembarked on the Isle of Orleans and encamped facing the having held office for eleven successive years. Quebec is the city. The defenders were commanded by Montcalm, a soldier seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop and of an Anglican bishop.whose character and abilities, like Wolfe's, need no comment Economically, Quebec was long the chief port of Canada. A here. The French were superior in numbers, though a conseries of strikes almost ruined its export trade, and numerous siderable part of their force was irregular; but they had the severe fires, of which that of 1845 was the chief, also lessened defender's difficult task of being strong everywhere. Wolfe its importance. For many years the export trade passed began the attack by seizing Point Lévis, and thence bombarding almos: entirely to Montreal, but the increasing size of sea- | Quebec. This, however, affected the main defences of the going vessels makes navigation above Quebec more and more upper city but little, and they were moreover protected from difficult, especially for fast passenger steamships, and for such closer attack by the St Lawrence and the St Charles. The vessels Quebec is again becoming the terminus. Quebec's third side of the triangle was the "plains of Abraham," to staple export is timber, the greater portion of which comes which it was thought there was no approach from the river. from the Ottawa and St Maurice districts. Formerly the After wasting some weeks, therefore, Wolfe decided to cross rasts floating down the river were collected in the coves which the St Lawrence 7 m. below Quebec and to fight his way to

the river. above the city, and were the city by the St Charles side. But Montcalm's fortified fastened by booms along the banks. Now much of the timber posts spread out from Quebec through Beauport as far as the is sent by rail. On the right bank of the stream, not far from Montmorency, and this formidable obstacle checked the English Quebec, are extensive sawmills. Deals and square timber form advance at the outset. No artifice could lure the desenders the bulk of the export, but some furniture is also sent, and an away, and at last Wolse attacked the line of the Montmorency increasing quantity of wheat is shipped. The building of and was repulsed with heavy loss (July 31). Wolse's fragile wooden ships was formerly one of the chief industries of Quebec. health gave way under the disappointment, and despondency The principal manufactures are iron castings, machinery, set in in the English camp. But as soon as the young leader cutlery, nails, leather, rifles, gunpowder, musical instruments, had recovered a little, he sumrooned his brigadiers and worked boots and shoes, paper, india-rubber goods, ropes, tobacco, out a plan for attacking by the upper waters and the heights steel. The population increases but slowly, having risen from I of Abraham. Access to the heights coiud be obtained, it was

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