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already existed in their place in our Psalter, or that Ps. cvi. even musicians with treble lutes and with harps an octave lower (or with existed in its present form.
lutes and harps over the sopranos and tenors respectively) were to
lead the singers in giving out the melody. If this explanation be Other evidence of date is to be found in the Levitical psalms of the Elohistic collection. These, as we have seen, form two
correct-and it certainly accords best with the meaning of mus in
1 Chron. xv. 21—the own will be that part of the orchestra which groups, referred to the sons of Korah and to Asaph. In Nehe
played the melody to be sung, virtually corresponding. mulalis miah xii. 46 Asaph is taken to be a contemporary of David and
mulandis, to what we now call the choir organ, and we need not comchief of the singers of his time, and in 1 Chron. xxv. I seg. one plicate the compilation of the Psalter by postulating an altogether of the three chief singers belonging to the three great Levitical unnecessary “ Director's Psalter." Now we have seen that the 5 houses. But the older history knows nothing of an individual prefixed to mp 25 cannot refer to authorship; we seem therefore Asaph; în Ezra ii. 41 the gild of singers as a whole is called shut up to one of two alternatives, either the psalms inscribed Bnė Asaph, as it was apparently in the time of Nehemiah (Neh. my belonged to the répertoire of the Korahites, or they were xi. 22, Heb.). The singers or Asaphites are at this time still intended to be sung in the Korahite style. It is indeed possible distinguished from the Levites; the oldest attempt to incorporate that each division of the Levitical singers had its own collection; them with that tribe appears in Exod. vi. 24, where Abiasaph
but this is hardly probable unless we are to suppose that they
never officiated simultaneously, in which case we should certainly that is, the eponym of the gild of Asaphites-is made one of
have expected that the psalm qucted by the Chronicler (1 Chron. the three sons of Korah. But when singers and Levites were xvi.) would be included in the Asaphic collection. But there is no fused the Asaphites ceased to be the only singers, and ultimately, difficulty in supposing that each division o! the Levitical musicians as we see in Chronicles, they were distinguished from the Korah
had its own traditional music, certain instruments being peculiar
to the one and certain to the other, in which case the assignment of ites and reckoned to Gershom (1 Chron. vi.), while the head of
a psalm to the Asaphites or Korahites will merely denote the sort the Korabites is Heman, as in the title of Ps. lxxxviii. It is of music to which it is set. In like manner it is not improbable that only in the appendix to the Elohistic psalm-book that we find mmeant originally “to be sung in the Davidic mode";' that is, Heman and Ethan side by side with Asaph, as in the Chronicles; perhaps," with harp accompaniment" (cf. 1 Sam. xvi. 16), or, since but this does not necessarily prove that the body of the collection the Chronicler ascribes to David the initiation of the Temple music, originated when there were only two gilds of singers.
" in the oldest traditional mode." Under such circumstances,
however, a confusion would easily arise between the composer of the But here it becomes necessary to ask what is the precise meaning
tune and the author; and when once the idea had arisen that David which we are to assign to the phrases, " to David," "to Asaph,"
was the author of psalms, it would be natural to endeavour to dis“ to the sons of Korah." We certainly need not suppose that the
cover in the story of his life suitable occasions for their composition. Davidic, Asaphic and Korahite psalms severally once existed as
The interpretation of the titles here suggested removes an objecseparate books, for, if this had been the case, it is probable that
tion brought against the assumption of a Maccabacan datelor the ascription would not have been prefixed to each separate
certain psalms, which lay's stress on the fact that some of them, psalm, but rather to the head of each collection (cf. Prov. i. 1, X. I.,
c.g. Ps. xliv., are written in a time of the deepest dejection, and yet xxv. 1), together with some such note at the end as is found in Job.
are psalms of the Temple choirs; whereas, when the Temple was xxxi. 40, Ps. Ixxii. 20; moreover we should be compelled to assent
re-opened for worship, after its profanation by Antiochus, the Jews to the view expressed in the Oxford Dictionary that those psalms
were victorious, and a much more joyful tone was appropriate. which have the heading 7472 (A. V. "to"-R. V. " for "-" the
For if the titles mp 175100. &c., do not denote that the psalms so chief Musician ") also originally formed a separate collection. But
inscribed were collected by the Temple choirs, there is no evidence against this explanation of the heading 0937? there is an almost that these psalms were originally sung in the Temple. The earlier insuperable objection; for, since both the first and second books collections of psalms may well have been used first in synagogues, contain psalms with this heading, it is clear that the “Chief and only adapted to the Temple worship when they had become part Musician's---or Director's-Psalter" must have been in existence of the devotional life of the people. It is noteworthy that the psalms before either of these books; in which case, apart from the difficulty quoted by the Chronicler belong to the last collection, books IV. and of the antiquity which we should be compelled to assign to this earliest
V., which, as a whole, is far more suitable for liturgical use. Psalter, it is impossible to understand on what principle the first book
Since, then, the existence of separate books of psalms anterior to of Psalms was formed. If the compiler of the first book aimed simply the present divisions of the Psalter is very doubtful, we must look at making a collection of Davidic psalms from a major Psalter com for other evidences of date. Now, both the Korahite and Asaphic piled by the "Director," why should he have deliberately rejected | groups of psalıns are remarkable that they hardly contain any recog. a number of Davidic psalms (Ps. li. sqq.) which, ex hypothesi, lay before nition of present sin on the part of the community of Jewish faith him in this Psalter? It is surely as difficult to suppose that the though they do conless the sin of Israel in the past-but are exercised Davidic psalms of the first book are a selection made from a greater with the observation that prosperity does not follow righteousness collection of such psalms contained in the “ Director's Psalter " as either in the case of the individual (xlix., Ixxiii.) or in that of the it is to imagine that St Mark's Gospel is an abridgment of St nation, which suffers not withstanding its loyalty to God, or even on Matthew's. It is true that the preposition " to " (%) may denote accoun
account thereof (xliv., Ixxix.). Now the rise of the problems
of individual faith is the mark of the age that followed Jeremiah, thorship, as it does apparently in Isaiah xxxviii. o. Hab. üi. I.
while the confident assertion of national righteousness under misbut it certainly has a much wider meaning: and indeed in some cases
fortune is a characteristic mark of pious Judaism after Ezra, in the the idea of authorship is out of the question, for the psalms ascribed
period of the law but not earlier. Malachi, Ezra and Nehemiah, to the Korahites can scarcely have been supposed to be the joint
like Haggai and Zechariah, are still very far from holding that the composition of that body. Moreover, it is very doubtful whether
sin of Israel lies all in the past. Again, a considerable number of the word my can be translated “ Director." In 1 Chron. xv. 21 these psalms (xliv., Ixxiv., Ixxix., Ixxx.) point to an historical situathe verb of which oxip is the participle is used of the duty which tion which can be very definitely realized. They are post-exilic was discharged by Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Miknciah, Obed-edom,
in their whole tone and belong to a time when prophecy had ceased Jeiel and Azaziah (and perhaps, if verse 20 is to be taken in close
and the synagogue worship was fully established (Ixxiv. 8, 9). connexion with verse 21, by Zecharaiah, Aziel, Shemiramoth,
But the Jews are no longer the obedient slaves of the oppressing Jeiel, Unni. Eliab, Maaseiah and Benaiah also) on one definite
power; there has been a national rising and armies have gone forth occasion. Unfortunately the exact nature of these men's per
to battle. Yet God has not gone forth with them: the heathen formances is not quite clear, for it is said to have been connected
have been victorious, blood has flowed like water round Jerusalem, with "harps set to the sheminith," or according to another inter
the Temple has been defiled, and these disasters assume the character
of a religious persecution. These details would fit the time of pretation, with " harps over the tenors." But whatever the obscure
religious persecution under Antiochus, to which indeed Ps. Ixxiv. is expression roomy may mean, tus cannot here mean to “direct,"
referred (as a prophecy) in i Macc. vii. 16. It is contended by those for a choir with six " directors" would have been a veritable bear who, like the late Professor W. Robertson Smith, are opposed to garden. Obviously the word 089% must refer to something in the the dating of any psalms of the second collection in the Maccabaean music; and inasmuch as the cymbals were for the purpose of produc.
period, that, since they are post-exilic, there is one and only one
time in the Persian period to which they can be referred, viz. that ing a volume of sound (ropin), it is reasonable to suppose that the
of the great civil wars under Artaxerxes III. Ochus (middle of 4th
was discharged by and perhaps, if verseiah, Aziel, Shemerale Jeielation with verse 21, by and Benaiah also on men's
The threefold division of the singers appears in the same list according to the Hebrew text of verse 17. but the occurrence of Jeduthun as a proper name instead of a musical note is suspicious, and makes the text of LXX. preferable. The first clear trace of the triple choir is therefore in Neh. xii. 24.
Some confirmation of this explanation of the titles may be found in the fact that in place of primarily (Ps. xxxix. 1) we find in lxii. I, lxxvii. 1, przebo, the latter expression being apparently an abbreviation of port: sobe.
re is nothing
part of the very
in Egypt as early
Morcovering in the revolts imably be sufficient in the most imp
lorcover, even if the Jews which other parts of Syria were involved. Iness, they stood on the bordern chure that such a revolt must needed it cannot fairly be main linnon a time of great trouble
:. Thus, for
the merged triumphant from a desaron--this is a notable points
century, B.c.). But there is no evidence that the Jews were involved, collections had arisen; and if, as seems probable, we may identify in these ; for the account which Josephus gives of Bagoses' oppres. | this place with the Temple at Jerusalem, the absence of musical sion of the Jews represents the trouble as having arisen originally titles is easily explained, for the number of skilled musicians who from internal dissensions, and does not hint at anything of the there ministered, and who would, of course, possess the tradition of nature of a rebellion against Persia. Moreover the statement of the various modes and tones, would make precise musical directions Eusebius (Chron. anno 1658 Abr.) that Artaxerxcs Ochus in the superfluous. On the other hand, in a collection intended for synacourse of his campaign against Egypt transported a detachment of gogue use and the second collection of psalms is as a whole far more Jews to Hyrcania does not prove that Judaea as a whole had revolted. suitable to a synagogue than to the Temple--where there would not There is nothing even to connect these Jews with Palestine; they be a large choir and orchestra of skilled musicians, it would obviously may have formed a part of the very considerable Jewish community be desirable to state whether the psalm was to be sung to a Davidic, which we know to have been settled in Egypt as early as the 5th Asaphic or Korahite tone, or to give the name of a melody approcentury B.C. On the other hand, it is extremely improbable that priate to it. Again, the general tone of large parts of this collection the Jews of Judaea, whom Nehemiah had entirely detached from is much more cheerful than that of the Elohistic psalm-book. It their immediate neighbours, would have taken part in any general begins with a psalm (xc.) ascribed in the title to Moses, and seemingly rising against Persia. Between them and the Samaritans on the designed to express feelings appropriate to a situation analogous to north and the Edomites on the south there was the most implicable that of the Israelites when, after the weary march through the wilder. hostility, which would probably be sufficient in itself to keep them ness, they stood on the borders of the promised land. It looks from joining in the revolts in which other parts of Syria were involved. | back on a time of great trouble and forward to a brighter future. Morcover, even if the Jews had revolted, it cannot fairly be main | In some of the following psalms there are still references to deeds of tained that such a revolt must necessarily have had a religious oppression and violence, but more generally Israel appears as happy character. Even Josephus does not say that the Persians tricd to under the law. The problems of divine justice are no longer burning interfere with the Jews in the exercise of their religion; and nothing questions, the rightcousness of God is seen in the peaceful felicity less than this would satisfy the language of Ps. xliv. 22: “ Yea, for of the pious (xci., xcii., &c.). Israel, indeed, is still scattered and not thy sake are we killed all the day long," &c. On the other hand, triumphant over the heathen, but even in the dispersion the Jews not only is the atmosphere of the second collection of psalms as a are under a mild rule (cvi. 46), and the commercial activity of the whole the atmosphere of godly Judaism in the 2nd century B.C., ! nation has begun to develop beyond the scas (cvii. 26 seq.). But but it may fairly be claimed that this collection contains many some of the psalms refer to a time of struggle and victory. In Ps. psalms which may naturally be interpreted in the light of the history cxviii. Israel led by the house of Aaron---this is a notable pointof that period of which no satisfactory explanation in their details) has emerged triumphant from a desperate conflict, and celebrates at can be given if they are assigned to any other time. Thus, for the Temple a great day of rejoicing for the unhoped for victory: example, Ps. xliv., with its description of the sufferings of the in Ps. cxlix. the saints are pictured with the praises of God in their righteous for God's sake, would be perfectly appropriate in the mouth throat and a sharp sword in their hands to take vengeance on of one of the “ godly" (lla sidin) about 167 B.C. Ps. xlv., though the the heathen, to bind their kings and nobles, and exercise unsoundness of the text in certain parts makes it difficult to speak against them the judgment written in prophecy. Such an enthusiasm with certainty would suit the marriage of Alexander Balas at Ptole- of militant piety, plainly based on actual successes of Israel mais in 150 B.C., at which the high priest Jonathan was present as and the house of Aaron, can only be referred to the first victories an honoured guest. In this connexion verse 10 is particularly of the Maccabees, culininating in the purification of the Temple appropriate as addressed to an Egyptian princess whose forefathers, in 164 B.C. This restoration of the worship of the national though their rule had not on the whole been tyrannical, had been sanctuary, under circumstances that inspired religious scelings very regarded by the Jews as heathen oppressors. Again, Ps. Ix., with different from those of any other generation since the return from its ideal description of Jehovah's kingdom as including Gilcad, Babylon, might most naturally be followed by an extension of the Samaria, Moab, Edom and Philistia though the ideal was not realized | Temple psalmody; it certainly was followed by some liturgical innotill the days of John Ilyrcanus, would be quite appropriate in the vations, for the solemn service of dedication on the 25th day of Chisleu mouth of a Maccabaean patriot. The author of Ps. Ixviii. would was made the pattern of a new annual feast (that mentioned in John seem to have been inspired by the sight or the description of the x. 22). In later times the psalms for the encaenia or feast of dedica. never-to-be-forgotten procession of the victorious Maccabees in tion embraced Ps. xxx. and the hallel Ps. cxiii.cxvii.; and though 164 B.C. to rededicate the desecrated Temple. Hence the taunt to Ps. xxx. may have been adapted from a collection already cxisting, Bashan, the stronghold of the Seleucid government; hence the men- | there is every reason to think that the hallel, which especially in its tion of Judah and Benjamin with the two Galilaean tribes Zebulon closing part contains allusions that fit no other time so well, was and Naphtali (as in Isaiah ix. I--a passage which on independent first arranged for the same ceremony. The course of the subsequent grounds has been assigned to the time of Simon Maccabacus), while history makes it very intelligible that the Psalter was finally closed, schismatic Samaria is completely ignored. The historical back as we have seen from the date of the Greek version that it must have ground of Ps. lxxix. is apparently the same as that of Ps. xliv. been, within a few years at most after this great event. From the Again, Ps. Ixxxvii. would seein to date from a time when the Jews, time of Hyrcanus downwards the ideal of the princely high priests having won freedom to worship God, were able to look forward became more and more divergent from the ideal of the pious in to the conversion of their former oppressors (cf. Isaiah xi., xix.), Israel, and in the Psalter of Solomon we see religious poctry turned That this psalm was composed at least as late as the 3rd century B.C. | against the lords of the Temple and its worship. is made probable by the name here given to Egypt, Rahab. Having All this does not, of course, imply that there are not in books IV. regard to Job. ix. 13. xxvi. 12, Isaiah li. 9, there can be little doubt and V. any pieces older than the completion of books Il..and III.. that Rahab is the (? Palestinian) name of Tiamat the dragon of the for the composition of a poem and its acceptance as part of the Levitiabyss, the natural symbol of the power of darkness, or of the kingdom cal liturgy are not necessarily coincident in date, except in psalms of the world as opposed to the kingdom of the people of the saints written with a direct liturgical purpose. In the fifteen “songs of of the Most High God. It is extremely improbable that such a degrees" (Ps. cxx.cxxxiv.) we have a case in point. According name was applied to Egypt simply because Egypt possessed the to the Mishna (Middoth. ii. 5) and other Jewish traditions, these crocodile. The origin of its application must be sought in a time | psalms were sung by the Levites at the Feast of Tabernacles on the when Egypt was regarded as hostile to the people of the Lord fifteen steps or degrees that led from the women's to the men's that is to say, during the Ptolemaic rule over Palestine. These court. But when we look at the psalms themselves we see that they considerations, in addition to numerous phrases and expressions must originally have been a hymn-book, not for the Levites, but for which cannot here be noticed, of which the full force can only be the laity who came up to Jerusalem at the great pilgrimage feasts, felt by those who have specially studied the Maccabacan period and and who themselves remembered, or their fathers had told them, the those other portions of the Old Testament, such as Zechariah ix.-xiv., days when, as we see in Ps. xlii., it was impossible to make pilgrimage which may plausibly be assigned to it, make it almost certain that to Zion. They are hymns of the laity, describing with much beauty the second collection of psalms was made not earlier than the time and depth of feeling the emotions of the pilgrim when his feet stood of Jonathan or even of Simon.
within the gates of Jerusalem, when he looked forth on the encircling Now books IV. and V. are, as we have seen, later than the Elohistic
hills, when he felt how good it was to be camping side by side with redaction of books II. and III., so that the collection of the last part
his brethren on the slopes of Zion (cxxxiii.), when a sense of Jehovah's of the Psalter must, if our argument up to this point is sound, fall
forgiving grace and the certainty of the redemption of Israel within the second half of the 2nd century B.C. And here it is to
triumphed over all the evils of the present and filled his soul with be noted that though no part of the Psalter shows clearer marks of a
humble and patient hope. liturgical purpose, we find that in books IV. and V. the musical
The titles which ascribe four of the pilgrimage songs to David and titles have entirely disappeared. This does not necessarily prove
one to Solomon are lacking in the true LXX., and inconsistent with that "the technical terms of the Temple music had gone out of use,
the contents of the psaling. Better attested, because found in the presumably because they were already become unintelligible, as
LXX. as well as in the Hebrew, and therefore probably as old as they were when the Septuagint version was made"; for it does not
the collection itself, are the name of Moscs in Ps. xc. and that of follow that technical musical terms which had originated in the
David in Ps. ci., cii., cviii.cx., cxxxviii. cxlv. But where did the Temple at Jerusalem and were intelligible in Palestine would have
last collectors of the psalms find such very ancient pieces which had been understood in Egypt. The absence of the musical titles, however, may be taken as an indication that the last collection of "Possibly under Simon; compare the other hallel (Ps. cxlvi. cl. psalms was formed in a different place from that in which the earlier with i Macc. xiii. 50 seg.
that is sypt was regards its applicat
been passed by all previous collectors, and what criterion was there when Abimelech (the Philistine king in the stories of Abraham and to establish their genuineness? No canon of literary criticism can Isaac) could be substituted in the title of Ps. xxxiv. for Achish, king treat as valuable external evidence an attestation which first appears of Gath. In a word, the ascription of these two collections to David so many centuries after the supposed date of the poems, especially has none of the characters of a genuine historical tradition. when it is confronted by facts so conclusive as that Ps. cviii. is made At the same time it is clear that the two collections do not stand up of extracts from Ps. Ivii. and lx. and that Ps. cxxxix. is marked on quite the same footing. The second collection of “ Davidic" by its language as one of the latest pieces in the book. The only psalms, as well as the Korahite and Asaphic psalms, have been subpossible question for the critic is whether the ascription of these jected to an Elohistic redaction, for which we must find a reason psalms to David was due to the idea that he was the psalmist par if the history of the Psalter is to be written. An explanation that excellence, to whom any poem of unknown origin was naturally naturally suggests itself is that, at the time when books II. and III. ascribed, or whether we have in some at least of these titles an ex (with the exception of the appendix, Ps. lxxxiv.-Ixxxix.) were ample of the habit so common in later Jewish literature of writing collected, it was already the custom, from motives of reverence, to in the name of ancient worthies. In the case of Ps. xc. it can hardly abstain from pronouncing the Tetragrammaton. Upon this supbe doubted that this is the real explanation, and the same account position it might be explained that book I. was collected before this must be given of the title in Ps. cxlv., if, as seems probable, it is scruple arose, and books IV. and V. when the custom had arisen of meant to cover the whole of the great hallel or tehilla (Ps. cxlv.-cl.), substituting in reading the word Adonai. - But, as we have seen, it is which must, from the allusions in Ps. cxlix., as well as from its place, impossible to separate the contents of the Elohistic books from those be almost is not quite the latest thing in the Psalter.
of the last collection. Both include psalms which are most naturally For the later stages of the history of the Psalter we have, as we understood as referring to the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes have seen, a fair amount of evidence pointing to conclusions of a and to the Maccabaean victories, and cannot therefore be separated pretty definite kind. We have stil to consider the two great groups by a long interval of time. Moreover the scruple as to the proof psalms ascribed to David in books I. and II. We have en nunciation of the Tetragrammaton seems to have arisen earlier, as deavoured to show that the ascription " to David " in these groups in the LXX. version of the Pentateuch an is represented by Kúpur. did not originally denote authorship by David, and that, notwith And further, if the Elohistic redaction was due merely to a desire standing the subscription of Ps. lxxii., which may well be a later to avoid pronouncing the divine name, why was not the presumably note, there is no necessity to suppose an original collection of Davidic earlier collection of psalms in book I. subjected to a similar redaction? psalms from which excerpts were made. It is, however, probable It is therefore difficult to suppose that the Jewish Church as a whole that the title soon came to be understood of David's authorship, passed through a stage in which it was felt desirable to substitute with the result that further notes were added indicating the situation Dumb in writing for in. There is, however, no difficulty in in David's life to which the psalms appeared to be appropriate.
supposing that such a thing was done in some sections of the Jewish It is certainly not impossible that the two groups of “Davidic "
Church, and it is probable that we must look for an explanation of the psalms once formed separate collections independently compiled,
peculiarity not to the time but to the place where the second collec. and that the subscription to Ps. lxxii. originally stood at the end of
tion was formed. Now it must be frankly admitted that the earlier the second collection; for in book I. every psalm, except the intro
books of psalms exhibit no particular suitability for the Temple ductory poems i. and ii. and the late Ps. xxxiii., which may have
services. It is only in the last collection, books IV. and V., that we heen added as a liturgical sequel to Ps. xxxii., bears the title " of
find any number. of psalms appropriate to such a ritual as that of David," and in like manner the group Ps. li. Ixxii., though it contains a few anonymous pieces and one psalm which is either" of," or
the Temple, and it is difficult to resist the conviction that the earlier
collections were made for use, not in the Temple at Jerusalem but in rather, according to the oldest tradition, " for Solomon," is composed of " Davidic" psalms. It would seem also that the collectors
some synagogue or synagogues. Thus, for example, the numerous
psalms in which the poets, though speaking perhaps, not as in. of books I.-III. know of no Davidic psalms outside of these two
dividuals but as members of a class, describe themselves as poor and collections, for Ps. Ixxxvi. in the appendix to the Elohistic collection
afflicted at the hands of certain ungodly men, who appear to be is merely a cento of quotations from Davidic pieces with a verse
Jews, can hardly have been originally collected by the Temple choirs. or two from Exodus and Jeremiah. Now that the ascription
For since the ministers of the Temple at Jerusalem were the aristo" to David " was understood of David's authorship before the time
cracy of the land, and were often, as we know both from the book of the LXX. is clear from such titles as that of Ps. xviii., for example,
of Malachi and from the history of the Maccabces, the chief offenders, but there is no evidence that in early times David was regarded as
it is extremely unlikely that they collected for the official services the author of any of the psalms. Even the Chronicler, though he
of the Temple compositions directed against themselves. It is regarded David as the great founder of the Temple music, does not
also remarkable that hymns such as Exodus xv., which would be quote any psalm as composed by him, and the Chronicler's omission
specially suitable to the Temple, find no place in the Psalter. Moreof 2 Sam. xxii.-xxiii. 7 makes it probable that this section has been
over, in Ps. xl., we have the striking assertion, which surely did not inserted in the book of Samuel since he wrote. If, as is possible,
originate in the Temple, that God has no delight in sacrifice and Ecclus. xlvii. 8 is a reminiscence of Ps. ix. 2 and Ps. xviii. 2, we should
offerings. On the other hand, the first collection of “Davidic " indeed naturally infer that these two psalms were regarded by Ben
psalms taken as a whole would be perfectly appropriate in the Sira as the work of David; but this would prove nothing as to the
worship of a Judaean community of Hasidim in the Maccabacan date of the collection in which we now have them. It may fairly
period. We have, unfortunately, no information as to the origin of be contended therefore that the tradition that David is the author
synagogues, but their existence in pre-Maccabacan times may be of the psalms which are assigned to him in books I. and Il. comes to
inferred not only from the statement in Ps. Ixxiv. 8, but also from the us from a period later than that in which the Chronicler wrote.
fact that there must have been some rallying points for the religion of And it is not too much to say that that view which to some extent
the Hasidim: besides that supplied by occasional visits or pilgrimages appears in the historical psalms of the Ehohistic Psalter-implies
to Jerusalem, We need not suppose that congregations gathered absolute incapacity to understand the difference between old Israel
together to worship away from Jerusalem, especially in times of and later Judaism, and makes almost anything possible in the way of
distress, would necessarily sing the religious poems which they the ascription of comparatively modern pieces to ancient authors. In
had collected, though it is by no means improbable that they would any case the titles are manifestly the product of the same uncritical
do so. At any rate, Ps. CXxxvii. 4 may fairly be taken as evidence spirit as we have just been speaking of, for not only are many of
that those heathen among whom the Jews dwelt "in a strange the titles certainly wrong, but they are wrong in such a way as to
land" had heard and admired the " songs of Zion." Certainly in prove that they date from an age to which David was merely the
happier times, when the worst period of storm and stress was over, abstract psalmist and which had no idea whatever of the historical
there would be a desire to enliven the services with music, which conditions of his age. For example, Ps. xx. xxi. are not spoken by a king but addressed to a king by his people; Ps. V. xxvii. allude
would naturally be borrowed from the traditional music of the great
national sanctuary. to the Temple (which did not exist in David's time) and the author
In thus assigning the first collection of psalms to some Judacan of the latter psalm desires to live there continually. Even in the
community of Hasidim in the earlier Maccabaean period we need older Davidic psalm-book there is a whole series of hymns in which
not conclude that all the psalms contained in this collection were the writer identifies himself with the poor and needy, the righteous
first composed at this time. Although there is no psalm which can people of God suffering in silence at the hands of the wicked, without
be shown with any probability to be pre-exilic, it is not impossible other hope than patiently to wait for the interposition of Jehovah
that there are some which date from as carly a time as the age of (Ps. xii. xxv., xxxvii., xxxvüi., &c.). Nothing can be further
Zerubbabel, by whose appointment national hopes were raised to so removed than this from any possible situation in the life of the
high a pitch. Thus, for example, Ps. xviii., xx. xxi., which in some David of the books of Samuel, and the case is still worse in the second
respects recall the language of the song ascribed to Hannah in 1 Sam. Davidic collection, especially where we have in the titles definite
ii., may possibly, like that song, be referred to this period. It must, notes as to the historical occasion on which the poems are supposed
however, be admitted that as a whole the psalms of the first collection to have been written. To refer Ps. lii. to Doeg, Ps. liv. to the Ziph
are more suitable to a later date. Ps. viii., which is almost certainly ites, Ps. lix, to David when watched in his house by Saul, implies
quoted in Job. vii. 17, need not have been composed long before the an absclute lack of the very elements of historical judgment. Even
book in which it is quoted: the references to the “godly " and to the bare names of the old history were no longer correctly known
their persecutions at the hands of wicked men, who seem to be Jews,
recall the Maccabaean age; in Ps. xxii. the speaker, who is not an The explanation of 175 suggested above offers another alter individual but speaks in the name of a community, bears a remarknative.-R. H. K.
| able resemblance to the "suffering servant" of Isaiah lii. 13-ü : *
be tradition the them. It may in the worlms taken as
and of this last passage it may be said that all the translatable | Musical Execution and Place of the Psalms in the Temple portions of it can be naturally explained, if it refers to the time when I Service. The musical notes found in the titles of the psalms the resistance of the Hasidim, whom the Sadducees had despised and shunned, had won freedom for Israel as a whole, and at no other
and occasionally also in the text (Selah,' Higgaion) are so known period; the fragment, Ps. xxiv. 7-10, is most easily understood obscure that it seems unnecessary to enter here upon the various of the time when the Lord who had shown Himself strong and mighty conjectures that have been made about them. The clearest by His victories over the heathen returned in triumph to His Temple
point is that a number of the psalms were originally at least set in 164 B.C.-in the days of Zerubbabel or of Nehemiah Jehovah had not recently shown Himself " mighty in battle."
to melodies named after songs, and that one of these songs - In the light of these circumstances and space here forbids more beginning nemba (Al-tasḥith in E. V., Ps. lvii. seq.), may be than the scantiest reference we may reasonably suppose that the probably identified with the vintage song, Isa. Ixv. 8. The first book, with the exception of Ps. i., ii. and possibly xxxiii., is a
original music of the psalms was therefore apparently based on collection of psalms in the shape which it assumed in a Judaean synagogue in the earlier days of the Maccabacan victories.
popular melodies. A good deal is said about the musical services We have already noticed the difficulty of supposing that the of the Levites in Chronicles, both in the account given of David's Elohistic Psalter was compiled in a place where a Jehovistic Psalter ordinances and in the descriptions of particular festival occasions. was already in use. It is therefore probable that the second collec
But unfortunately it has not been found possible to get from tion of psalms (books II. and III.), containing as it does an Elohistic recension of a psalm occurring in book I. in a Jehovistic form, must
these accounts any clear picture of the ritual of any certainty have been compiled for use in some other district. Since the last as to the technical terms used. In Egypt by the translators of collection (books IV. and V.) which may reasonably be assigned to | the Septuagint these terms were not understood. the Temple at Jerusalem uses freely the name on, it may be in. The music of the temple attracted the attention of Theolerred that the district where an objection was felt to writing the Tetragrammaton was some distance from Jerusalem, and probably phrastus (ap. Porph. De abst. ii. 26), who was perhaps the first not in such close touch with it as most of the country districts of of the Greeks to make observations on the Jews. His descripJudaea would be. Such a district we may find in southern Galilee, tion of the Temple ritual is not strictly accurate, but he speaks * the land of Zebulon and the land of Naphtali," apparently the only portion of Palestine north of Samaria where the worshippers of
of the worshippers as passing the night in gazing at the stars Jehovah existed in any considerable numbers. It is at least remark and calling on God in prayer; his words, if they do not exactly able that the names Zebulon and Naphtali in Isaiah ix. I (a passage fit anything in the later ritual, are well fitted to illustrate the which, as has been already noted, is probably Maccabacan) denote original liturgical use of Ps. viii., cxxxiv. Some of the Jewish the region which had felt the brunt of the persecution of the heathen, I traditions as to the use of particular psalms have been already while in Ps. Ixviii. 27 (a poem of which every translatable verse is explicable if it refers to the great procession at the rededication of
fcited; it may be added that the Mishna (Tamid) assigns to the the Temple in 164 B.C.) the same two tribes are joined with Judah service of the continual burnt-offerings the following weekly and Benjamin (sc. Judaea) as celebrating the Lord's victory. The cycle of psalms.-(1) xxiv., (2) xlvii., (3) lxxxii., (4) xciv., dissenting inhabitants of Samaria are naturally absent from such a (s) lxxxi.. (6) xciii.. (Sabbath) xcii.. as in the title. Many other festival. It is not improbable that the Elohistic redaction of the second collection of psalms is due not so much to any lewish | details are given in the treatise Soferim, but these for the most scruples about writing the Tetragrammaton as to the fear that it part refer primarily to the synagogue service after the destruction might fall into the hands of the heathen who were trying to destroy of the Temple. For details on the liturgical use of the Psalter the Hebrew Scriptures, and might thus be desecrated (cf. i Macc. i.
c. i. in Christendom the reader may refer to Smith's Dict. Chr. Ant., 56, 57).
s.o. “ Psalmody." We may thus suppose that about the time of Jonathan the Maccabaean High Priest (if our explanation of Ps. xlv. is correct), at all Ancient Versions.-(A) The oldest version, the LXX., follows events not earlier than 150 B.C., a south Galilaean synagogue a text generally closely corresponding to the Massoretic Hebrew. made a collection of the various religious poems current among its the main variations being in the titles and in the addition (lacking members. Perhaps those which were to be sung according to the old Davidic mode formed the nucleus of the collection, and to these
in some MSS.) of an apocryphal psalm ascribed to David when he were added other poems to be sung according to the more intricate fought with Goliath. Ps. ix, and x. are rightly taken as one Korahite and Asaphic modes. The appendix to this collection (Ps. psalm, but conversely Ps. cxlvii. is divided into two. The Ixxxiv.-lxxxix.) being non-Elohistic presumably was collected else- | LXX. text has many “ daughters." of which may be noticed where. It is possible that these last-mentioned psalms were originally an appendix to the Judaean collection and have been
(a) the Memphitic (ed. Lagarde, 1875); (b) the old Latin, which removed from their original place to after the other Levitical as revised by Jerome in 383 after the current Greek text forms psalms.
the Psalterium romanum, long read in the Roman Church and In books IV. and V. we have a collection probably made originally still used in St Peter's; (c) various Arabic versions, including that for use in the Temple, consisting in the main of recent hymns, but embodying, at least to some extent, older traditional hymns of the
printed in the polyglots of Le Jay and Walton, and two others Temple. On this hypothesis we are able to explain the presence of of the four exhibited together in Lagarde's Psalterium, Job, certain poetical pieces both in the book of Chronicles and in the Proverbia, arabice, 1876; on the relations and history of these Psalter.' We need not suppose that the Chronicler quotes from the versions see G. Hoffmann, in Jenaer Literaturz., 1876, art. 539; Psalter or vice versa, the matter which they have in common being probably derived from certain traditional songs current among the
the fourth of Lagarde's versions is from the Peshito. The Levitical singers. Since this last collection includes a psalm (cx.) Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater which can scarcely refer to any one earlier than Simon the Maccabee, conformity with the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek and cannot well be later than his time, we are justified in assigning versions, was further the mother (d) of the Psalterium gallicanum the compilation of this collection to about the year 140 B.C. But by this time a great change had taken place in the aims and aspira
-that is, of Jerome's second revision of the Psalter (385) by tions of the Jews. The earlier Maccabacan policy of concentration the aid of the Hexaplar text; this edition became current in had given place to one of expansion. The Jews in Jerusalem could Gaul and ultimately was taken into the Vulgate; (e) of the Syronot ignore the Jews of Galilee or even of the Dispersion. The hymns Hexaplar version (published by Bugati, 1820, and in facsimile which had brought comfort to the faithful in the time of their distress had become an integral part of their religion which could not be given
from the famous Ambrosian MS. by Ceriani, Milan, 1874). (B). up. Jerusalem was now the religious metropolis of a great nation,
The Christian Aramaic version or Peshito (P'shittā) is largely and accordingly it was felt desirable that the hymn-books of the influenced by the LXX., compare Baethgen, Untersuchungen several parts of the nation should be combined into a hymn-book über die Psalmen nach der Peschita, Kiel, 1878 (unfinished). for the whole. The synagogue collections, since they contained psalms which at this time were probably considered to be the work of David, were placed first, and the Temple collection added to them. Of the various explanations that have been given of Selah the There was then prefixed to the whole collection a hymn (Ps. ji.) only one which possesses any probability is that given independently describing the hoped for greatness of Simon's kingdom, and finally by Baethgen and others, viz. that it is a mispronunciation of an Pharisaic sentiment prefaced the whole by a psalm in praise of the original =falde. The word, which was probably derived from law. In the final compilation, or perhaps in a subsequent redaction, some Greek bandmaster, was presumably an instruction for a musical some alterations were made in the original order, some notes were interlude. The LXX. translators who render it by diáfanya added describing the circumstances in which various psalms had though not recognizing the derivation of the word, knew its meaning. been composed, and lastly, in order to assimilate the outward form -R. H. K. of the Psalter to that of the Pentateuch, the three collections were * Compare the similar way of citing melodies with the prep. divided into five books. The final redaction is probably to be dated I'al or 'al kālā, &c., in Syriac (Land, Anecd, iv.; Ephr. syr. hymui, between the years 140 and 130 B.C.
This version has peculiar titles taken from Eusebius and Theodore | Origin of the Psalter, Bampton Lectures (1891), and the article
Psalms (in Ency. Bib., 1902): Bickell, Die Dichtungen der Hebräer of Mopsuestia (see Nestle, in Theol. Literaturz., 1876, p. 283).
(3 der Psalter, 1883), from a revised and metrically arranged text; (C) The Jewish Aramaic version or Targum is probably a late Baethgen, in Nowack's Hand-Komm. (1892): Wellhausen, in Sacred work. The most convenient edition is in Lagarde, Hagiographa Books of the Old Test. (Eng. trans. by Furness, J. Taylor and Paterson, chaldaice, 1873. (D) The best of all the old versions is that made
1898); Duhm, in Marti's Kurzer Hand.Comm. (1899); Kirkpatrick, by Jerome after the Hebrew in 105. It did not, however, obtain In Cambridge Bible for Schools (1893-1895); W. 1. Davison, in
Hastings's Dicl. Bible (1902); Driver, The Parallel Psalter (1904); ecclesiastical currency--the old versions holding their ground, C. A. and E. G. Briggs," Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the just as English churchmen still read the Psalms in the version Psalms," vol. i. (1906), vol. ii. (1907), in International Critical Comof the “Great Bible " printed in their Prayer Book. Thismenlary.
(R. H. K.) important version was first published in a good text by Lagarde, PSALTERY, PSALTERION, or SAWTRIE (Fr. psaltérion, salteire; Psalterium juxta hebraeos hieronymi (Leipzig, 1874).
Ger. Psalterium; Ital. solterio, istrumento di porco), an ancient Exegetical Works. While some works of patristic writers are still stringed instrument twanged by fingers or plectrum, and menof value for text criticism and for the history of early exegetical tioned many times in the English Bible; a favourite instrument tradition, the treatment of the Psalms by ancient and medieval
also during the middle ages in England, France and Italy. It is Christian writers is as a whole such as to throw light on the ideas of the commentators and their times rather than on the sense of a
excecdingly doubtful whether the word was ever applied during text which most of them knew only through translations. For the the classic Greek period to any individual instrument; there is, Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of moreover, no trace in the monuments of that time of the psalterion the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the
in any of the forms in which it afterwards became known Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages. In the latter class Kimhi
during the middle ages. It is also puzzling to find no fewer than stands pre-eminent; to the editions of his commentary on the Psalms four different instruments translated psalterion in the Septuagint, enumerated in the article Ķimul must now be added the admirable | i.e. Nebel, Psanterin, Ugab (organ) and Toph (Job xxi. 12). On edition of Dr Schiller-Szinessy (Cambridge, 1883), containing, un- the other hand the Aramaic word Pisantir or Psanterin (Dan, üi. fortunately, only the first book of his longer commentary. Among the works of older Christian scholars since the revival of letters, the
5, 10, 15) generally translated psalterion, and by some scholars commentary of Calvin (1557) full of religious insight and sound claimed as a loan word from the Greck, corresponds to the thought-and the laborious work of M. Geier (1668, 1681 et saepius) Santir, a stringed instrument represented on Assyrian monumay still be consulted with advantage, but for most purposes ments of the 8th century B.C. (when as yet the word had not Rosenmüller's Scholia in Psalms (2nd ed., 1831-1822) supersedes the
been used in Greek for a musical instrument) and still in use in necessity of frequent refcrence to the predecessors of that industrious compiler. Of more recent works the freshest and most indispensable Persia at the present day by the same name. The instrument are Ewald's, in the first two half-volumes of his Dichter des alten Bundes itself, moreover, a dulcimer, which in its earlier forms difiered (2nd ed., Göttingen, 1866; Eng. trans., 1880), and Olshausen's (1853): | irom the psalterion mainly in that its strings were struck by To these may be added (excluding general commentaries on the Old
curved sticks instead of being plucked, must in the absence of Testament) the two acute but wayward commentaries of Ilitzig (1836, 1863-1865), that of Delitzsch (1859-1860, then in shorter form contrary evidence be considered as the prototype of the medieval in several editions since 1867; Eng. trans., 1871), and that of Hupfeld | psalterion or psaltery. Early mcdicval writers generally connect (2nd ed. by Richm, 1867, 2 vols.). The last-named work, though the psalterium and the cithara, probably because the strings of lacking in original power and clearness of judgment, is extremely l both were set in vibration in the same manner. by plucking or convenient and useful, and has had an influence perhaps disproportionate to its real exegetical merits. The question of the text was | lwanging. first properly raised by Olshausen, and has since received special
The medieval psaltery consisted of a shallow box-soundchest over attention from among others, Lagarde (Prophetae chald., 1872, which strings varying in number were stretched, being fastened at P. 46 seq.), Dyserinck (in the “ scholia " to his Dutch translation of
one side to pegs and at the other to wrest pins. In the early the Psalms, Theol. Tijdschr., 1878, p. 279 seq.), and Bickell (Carmina
rectangular form the strings, numbering 10 or 12, were, as in the V. T. metrice, &c., Innsbruck, 1882), whose critical services are not cithara, of uniform length, the pitch being varied by the thickness to be judged merely by the measure of assent which his mctrical
and tension of the strings. When the triangular form succeeded theories may command. In English we have, among others, the the rectangular, the stringing was that of the harp, pitch being useful work of Perowne (5th ed., 1883), that of Lowe and Jennings, dependent on the length. The trapeze form, clearly borrowed from (2nd ed., 1885), and the valuable translation of Cheyne (1884). The the oriental Kanon, and the curious Italian istrumento di porco, mass of litcrature on the Psalms is so cnormous that no full list
were the latest types to survive. In these later forms the vibrating even of recent commentaries can be here attempted, much less an
length of the strings was regulated by means of two wooden bridges, enumeration of treatises on individual psalms and special critical
converging as the strings became shorter. The psaltery was heid questions. For the latter Kuenen's Onderzoek, vol. iii., is, up to its
in an upright position against the chest of the performer, until, owing date (1865), the most complete and the new edition now in prepara. Ito the increa
to the increasing number of strings, it grew too cumbersome, and was tion will doubtless prove the standard work of reference. As
I placed flat on a table or on the knee, The German zither is the sole regards the dates and historical interpretation o! the Psalms, all | European survivor of the medicval psaltery.
(K. S.) older discussions, even those of Ewald, are in great measure antiquated by recent progress in Pentateuch criticism and the history of PSAMMETICHUS (Egypt... Psammolk), the name of three the canon, and an entirely fresh treatment of the Psalter by a sober kings of the Saite, XXVIth Dynasty, called by Herodotus critical commentator is urgently necded.
the article The bibliography up to this point is taken from
respectively Psammetichus, Psammis and Psammenitus. The PSALMS by the late Professor W. Robertson Smith (Ency. Brit.. first of these is generally considered to be the founder of the 1886), large portions of which are incorporated in the present article. I dynasty; Manetho, however, carries it back through three or It was the belief of Professor Robertson Smith that the second four predecessors who ruled at Sais as petty kings under the (Elohistic) collection of psalms originated in a time of persecution earlier than the time of Antiochus Epiphanes which he referred to the
XXVth, Ethiopian, Dynasty. The name is frankly writion reign of Artaxerxes III. Ochus. This theory, which he set forth with
so as to mean “ the man of mothek," i.e.“ mixed drink," whether all his accustomed learning and force, is still accepted in many as a tippler or as a vendor of strong drink. The Egyptian quarters, many other passages of the Old Testament being likewise scribes do not conceal the opprobrious elements, but it has been assigned to the same date. In the judgment of the present writer il however, the results of Old Testament study (particularly in the
suggested that the name may be due to false etymology of a Prophets since Professor Robertson Smith's death have shown that foreign name (though all the names throughout the dynasty this theory is untenable. Notwithstanding his reverence, therefore, appear to be Egyptian), or that Methck may have been an unfor the great scholar with whose name it is associated, and to l known deity. The story in Herodotus of the Dodecarchy and whose memory he would pay both grateful and humble tribute,
ite; the rise of Psammctichus is fanciful. It is known from cuneiform he has ventured to omit or rewrite all those portic as of the original article which be considers no longer tenable, while retaining every
texts that twenty local princelings were appointed by Esarhaddon word which is still valuable.
and confirmed by Assur-bani-pal to govern Egypt. Niku Of the works on the Psalms which have appcared since the first (Necho), father of Psammelichus, was the chief of these kinglets, publication of Professor W. Robertson Smith's article the following
following but they seem to have been quite unable to hold the Egyptians
but may be specially noticed: Cheyne, The Book of Psalms (1888), The
to the hated Assyrians against the more sympathetic Ethiopian. 1 It contains, however, elements which are as early as the time of The labyrinth built by a king of the XIIth Dynasty is ascribed the New Testament. CI. Ps. Ixviii. 18 with Ephes. iv. 8.
by Herodotus to the Dodecarchy, or rule of 12, which must