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surer way, by encouraging the king in his debaucheries, and Louis, with a considerable population. Two events only are recorded wept over her kindness to his various mistresses. Only once, of its history during this period. In A.D. 59 a tumult took place when the king was wounded by Damiens in 1757, did she receive in the amphitheatre between the citizens and visitors from the a serious shock, and momentarily left the court; but on his neighbouring colony of Nuceria. Many were killed and wounded recovery she returned more powerful than ever. She even on both sides. The Pompeians were punished for this violent ingratiated herself with the queen, after the example of outbreak by the prohibition of all theatrical exhibitions for Mme de Maintenon, and was made a lady-in-waiting; but the ten years (Tacitus, Ann. xiv. 17). A characteristic, though end was soon to come. “Ma vie est un combat," she said, rude, painting, found on the walls of one of the houses gives a and so it was, with business and pleasure she gradually grow representation of this event. weaker and weaker, and when told that death was at hand she Four years afterwards (A.D. 63) an earthquake, which affected dressed herself in full court costume, and met it bravely on the all the neighbouring towns, vented its force especially upon 15th of April 1764, at the age of forty-two.

Pompeii, a large part of which, including most of the public See Capefigue, Madame la marquise de Pompadour (1858); buildings, was either destroyed or so seriously damaged as' to E. and J. de Goncourt, Les Maitresses de Louis XV., vol. ii. (1860); require to be rebuilt (Tac. Ann. xv. 22; Seneca, Q.N. vi. 1). and Campardon, Madame de Pompadour et la cour de Louis XV. From the existing remains it is clear that the inhabitants were au milieu du dix-huitième siède (1867). Far more valuable are Malassis'stwo volumes of correspondence, Correspondance de Madame still actively engaged in repairing and restoring the ruined edifices de Pompadour avec son père M. Poisson, et son frère M. de Vandières, when the whole city was overwhelmed by the great eruption &c. (1878), and Bonhomme, Madame de Pompadour, général d'armée of A.D. 79. Vesuvius (9.v.), the volcanic forces of which had been (1880), containing her letters to the Comte de Clermont. For her I slumbering for unknown ages. suddenly burst into violent artistic and theatrical tastes see particularly J. F. Leturca, Notice sur Jacques Guay, graveur sur pierres fines du roi Louis XV.: eruption, which, while it carried devastation all around the Documents inédits emanant de Guay el noles sur les auores de gravure beautiful gulf, buried the two cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii en laillc douce el en pierres durs de la marquise de Pompadour (1873); under dense beds of cinders and ashes. It is singular that, while and Adolphe Jullien, Histoire du théâlre de Madame de Pompadour, dit Théâtre des Petits Cabinets (1874). See also P. de Nolhac, La

| we possess a detailed description of this famous eruption in two Marquise de Pompadour (1903).

letters of the younger Pliny (Episó. vi. 16, 20), he does not even POMPEII,' an ancient town of Campania, Italy, situated near

notice the destruction of Pompeii or Herculaneum, though his the river Sarnus, nearly 2 m. from the shore of the Bay of

uncle perished in the immediate neighbourhood of the former Naples, almost at the foot of Mt Vesuvius. Of its history before

city. But their fate is noticed by Dio Cassius, and its circum79 B.C. comparatively little is recorded; but it appears that it

stances may be gathered with certainty from the condition in had a population of a very mixed character, and passed succes

which the city has been found. These were such as to conduce to sively into the hands of several different peoples, each of which

its preservation and interest as a relic of antiquity. Pompeii was contributed an element to its composition. Its foundation was

merely covered with a bed of lighter substances, cinders, small ascribed by Greek tradition to Heracles, in common with the

stones and ashes, which fell in a dry state, while at Herculaneum neighbouring city of Herculaneum, but it is certain that it was

the same substances, being drenched with water, hardened into not a Greek colony, in the proper sense of the term, as we know

a sort of tufa, which in places is 65 ft. deep. The whole of this to have been the case with the more important cities of

superincumbent mass, attaining to an average thickness of from and Neapolis. Strabo (v. 4, 8), in whose time it was a populous

18 to 20 ft., was the product of one eruption, though the materials and flourishing place, tells us that it was first occupied by the

may be divided generally into two distinct strata, the one Oscans? (to whom we must attribute the Doric temple in the

consisting principally of cinders and small volcanic stones Foro Triangolare), afterwards by the Tyrrhenians (i.e. Etruscans)

(called in Italian la pilli), and the other and uppermost layer of and Pelasgians, and lastly, by the Samnites. The conquest of

fine white ash, often consolidated by the action of water from Campania by the last-mentioned people is an undoubted historical

above so as to take the moulds of objects contained in it (such lact, and there can be no doubt that Pompeii shared the fate of

as dead bodies, woodwork, &c.), like clay or plaster of Paris.

| It was found impossible to rebuild the town, and its territory the neighbouring cities on this occasion, and afterwards passed

bined to t at of Nola. But the survivors returned to the in common with them under the yoke of Rome. But its name is only once mentioned during the wars of the Romans with

spot, and by digging down and tunnelling were able to remove the Samnites and Campanians in this region of Italy, and then

all the objects of value, even the marble facing slabs of the large only incidentally (Liv. ix. 38), when a Roman feet landed near

buildings. Pompeii in 309 B.C. and made an unsuccessful marauding

In the middle ages, however, the very site was forgotten. expedition up the river valley as far as Nuceria. At a later

Two inscriptions were found in making an underground aqueduct period, however, it took a prominent part in the outbreak of the

across the site in 1594-1600, but it was not until 1748 that a more

careful inspection of this channel revealed the fact that bencath nations of central Italy, known as the Social War (91-89 B.c.), when it withstood a long sicge by Sulla, and was one of the last

the vineyards and mulberry grounds which covered the site cities of Campania that were reduced by the Roman arms. The

there lay entombed ruins far more accessible, if not more intera inhabitants were admitted to the Roman franchise, but a military

esting, than those of Herculaneum. It was not till 1763 that colony was settled in their territory in 80 B.c. by Sulla (Colonia

systematic excavations were begun; and, though they were Cornelia Veneris Pompeianorum), and the whole population

carried on during the rest of the 18th century, it was only in was rapidly Romanized. The municipal administration here,

the beginning of the 19th that they assumed a regular character; as elsewhere, was in the hands of two duoviri iure dicundo and

the work, which had received a vigorous stimulus during the two acdiles, the supreme body being the city council (decuriones).

period of the French government (1806-1814), was prosecuted, Before the close of the republic it became a resort of the Roman

though in a less methodical manner, under the rule of the Bour. nobles, many of whom acquired villas in the neighbourhood.

bon kings (1815-1861). Since 1861 it has been carried on under Among them was Cicero, whose letters abound with allusions / the Italian government in a more scientific manner, on a system to his Pompeian villa. The same fashion continued under the

devised by G. Fiorelli (d. 1896), according to which the town is

for convenience divided into nine regions--though this rests empire, and there can be no doubt that, during the first century of the Christian era, Pompeii had become a flourishing place

on a misconception, for there is really no street between the

Capua and the Nocera gates-and the results have been of the "The etymology of the name is uncertain; the ancients derived it from pompa or riunw (Gr. send), in allusion to the journey of

highest interest, though the rate of progress has been very Heracles with the oxen of Geryon, but modern authorities rcfer | slow, it to the Oscan pompa (five).

The town was situated on rising ground less than a mile from . For the Oscan incriptions found in Pompeii see below ad fin.

the foot of Vesuvius. This eminence is itself due to an outflow Pompeii was attacked as a member of the Nucerine League. Ste Conway, Italic Dialects, p. 51; J. Beloch, Campanien, 2nd ed.,

of lava from that mountain, during some previous eruption in p. 239.

prehistoric times, for we know from Strabo that Vesuvius had

been quiescent ever since the first records of the Greek settle the street; while the windows were generally to be found only ments in this part of Italy. Pompeii in ancient times was a in the upper storey, and were in all cases small and insignificant, prosperous seaport town situated close to the seashore, from without any attempt at architectural effect. In some instances which it is now nearly a m. distant, and adjoining the mouth indeed the monotony of their external appearance was broken of the river Sarnus or Sarno, which now enters the sea by small shops, occupying the front of the principal houses, nearly 2 m. from its site. The present course of this stream is and let off separately; these were in some cases numerous enough due in part to modern alteration of its channel, as well as to the to form a continuous façade to the street. This is seen especially effects of the great eruption. The prosperity of Pompeii was in the case of the street from the Porta Ercolanese to the forum due partly to its commerce, as the port of the neighbouring and the Strada Stabiana (or Cardo), both of which were among towns, partly to the fertility of its territory, which produced the most frequented thoroughfares. The streets were also strong wine, olive oil (a comparatively small quantity), and diversified by fountains, small water-towers and reservoirs vegetablos; fish sauces were made here. Millstones and pumice (of which an especially interesting example was found in 1902 were also exported, but for the former the more gritty lava of close to the Porta del Vesuvio) and street shrines. The source Rocca Monfina was later on preferred.

of the water-supply is unknown. The area occupied by the ancient city was of an irregular The first-mentioned of the two principal streets was crossed, a oval form, and about 2 m. in circumference. It was sur-| little before it reached the forum, by the street which led directly rounded by a wall, which is still preserved for more than to the gate of Nola (Strada delle Terme, della Fortuna, and di two-thirds of its extent, but no traces of this are found on the Nola). Parallel to this last to the south is a street which runs side towards the sea, and there is no doubt that on this side from the Porta Marina through the forum, and then, with a it had been already demolished in ancient times, so as to give

give slight turn, to the Sarno gate, thus traversing the whole area of room for the free extension of houses and other buildings in the city from east to west (Via Marina, Strada dell' Abbondanza, that direction. These walls are strengthened at intervals by Strada dei Diadumeni). These two east and west streets are numerous towers, occupying the full width of the wall, which the two decumani. occur in some parts at a distance of only about 100 yds., but in The population of Pompeii at the time of its destruction general much less frequently. They are, however, of a different cannot be fixed with certainty, but it may very likely have exstyle of construction from the walls, and appear to have been ccedcd 20,000. It was of a mixed character; both Oscan added at a later period. probably that of the Social War. Similar and Greek inscriptions are still found up to the last, and, though evidences of the addition of subsequent defences are to be traced there is no trace whatever of Christianity, evidences of the also in the case of the gates, of which no less than eight are found presence of Jews are not lacking-such are a wall-painting, in the existing circuit of the walls. Some of these present a probably representing the Judgment of Solomon, and a scratched very elaborate system of defence, but it is evident from the inscription on a wall,“ Sodoma, Gomora.” It has been estimated, decayed condition of others, as well as of parts of the walls and from the number of skeletons discovered, that about 2000 towers, that they had ceased to be maintained for the purposes persons perished in the city itself in the eruption of A.D. 79. of fortification long before the destruction of the city. The Almost the whole portion of the city which lies to the west of names by which the gates and streets are known are entirely of the Strada Stabiana, towards the forum and the sea, has been modern origin.

more or less completely excavated. It is over one-half of the The general plan of the town is very regular, the streets being whole extent, and that the most important portion, inasmuch as generally straight, and crossing one another at right angles it includes the forum, with the temples and public buildings or nearly so. But exceptions are found on the west in the street adjacent to it, the thermae, theatres, amphitheatre, &c. The leading from the Porta Ercolanese (gate of Herculaneum) to greater part of that on the other side of the Strada Stabiana the forum, which, though it must have been one of the principal remains still unexplored, with the exception of the amphithoroughfares in the city, was crooked and irregular, as well as theatre, and a small space in its immediate neighbourhood. very narrow, in some parts not exceeding 12 to 14 ft. in width, The forum at Pompcü was, as at Rome itself and in all including the raised footpaths on each side, which occupy a other Italian cities, the focus and centre of all the life and considerable part of the space, so that the carriage-way could movement of the city. Hence it was surrounded on all sides only have admitted of the passage of one vehicle at a time. by public buildings or edifices of a commanding character. Tho explanation is that it follows the line of the demolished | It was not, however, of large size, as compared to the open

wall. Another exception is to be found in the Strada / spaces in modern towns, being only 467 ft. in len Stabiana (Stabian Street) or Cardo, which, owing to the existence breadth (excluding the colonnades). Nor was it accessible to of a natural depression which affects also the line of the street any description of wheeled carriages, and the nature of its just east of it, is not parallel to the other north and south streets. pavement, composed of broad flags of travertine, shows that it The other main streets are in some cases broader, but rarely was only intended for foot-passengers. It was adorned with exceed 20 ft. in width, and the broadest yet found is about 32, numerous statues, some of the imperial family, others of diswhile the back strects running parallel to the main lines are only tinguished citizens. Some of the inscribed pedestals of the latter about u ft. (It is to be remembered, however, that the standard I have been found. It was surrounded on three sides by a series width of a Roman highroad in the neighbourhood of Rome itself of porticos supported on columns; and these porticos were is about 14 ft.) They are uniformly paved with large poly- originally surmounted by a gallery or upper storcy, traces of the genal blocks of hard basaltic lava, fitted very closely together, staircases Icading to which still remain, though the gallery though now in many cases marked with deep ruts from the passage itself has altogether disappeared. It is, however, certain of vehicles in ancient times. They are also in all cascs bordered from the existing remains that both this portico and the adjacent by raised footways on both sides, paved in a similar manner; | buildings had suffered severely from the earthquake 3, and and for the convenience of foot-passengers, which was evidently that they were undergoing a process of restoration, involving a more important consideration than the obstacle which the material changes in the original arrangements, which was arrangement presented to the passage of vehicles, which indeed still incomplete at the time of their final destruction. The were probably only allowed for goods traffic, these are connected north end of the forum, where alone the portico is wanting, is from place to place by stepping-stones raised above the level of occupied in great part by the imposing temple of Jupiter, Juno the carriage-way. In other respects they must have resembled and Minerva being also worshipped here. It was raised on a those of Oriental citics--the living apartments all opening podium 10 ft. high, and had a portico with six Corinthian towards the interior, and showing only blank walls towards columns in front. This magnificent edifice had, however, been

1 It consisted of two parallel stone walls with buttresses, about evidently overthrown by the earthquake of 63, and is in its #5 ft. apart and 28 in. thick, the intervening space being filled present condition a mere ruin, the rebuilding of which had not with earth, and there being an embankment on the inner side. I been begun at the time of she eruption, so that the cult of

the three Capitoline divinities was then carried on in the so- and Q. Catulus (78 B.c.), and therefore belongs to the Oscan called temple of Zeus Milichius. On each side of it were two period of the city, before the introduction of the Roman colony. arches, affording an entrance into the forum, but capable of It was an oblong edifice divided by columns into a central hall being closed by gates. On the east side of the forum were four and a corridor running round all the four sides with a tribunal edifices; all of them are of a public character, but their names and opposite the main entrance; and, unlike the usual basilicae, it attribution have been the subject of much controversy. The had, instead of a clerestory, openings in the walls of the corridor first (proceeding from the north), once known as the Pantheon, through which light was admitted, it being almost as lofty as is generally regarded as a macellum or meat-market, consisting the nave. The temple was an extensive edifice, having a comof a rectangular court surrounded by a colonnade, with a twelve- paratively small cella, raised upon a podium, and standing in sided roofed building (tholus) in the centre On the south side the midst of a wide space surrounded by a portico of columns,

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15. Great Theatre 16. Small Theatre 17. Banacks of Gladiators Il Palaestra 19. Thermae near the

Forum 20. Stabian Baths 21. Central Betha 22. House of Sallust 23. House of the Veltli 124. House of the Golden Cupid's 25. Water Reservoir 26. House ef Pansa J27. House of the Faun 28. House of Jucundus 29. House of the Silver Wedding 30. House of the Figured Capitals 31. House of Ariadne 32. House of Holconius 33. House of Cornelius Rufus 34. House of the Citharist

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were shops, and in the centre of the cast side a chapel for the outside which again is a wall, bounding the sacred enclosure. worship of the imperial house. Next to this comes the sanctuary Between this temple and the basilica the Via Marina leads off of the Lares of the city, a square room with a large apse; and direct to the Porta Marina, beyond this, as Mau proves, the small temple of Vespasian. Besides the temples which surrounded the forum, the remains Beyond this again, bounded on the south by the street known of five others have been discovered, three of which are situated as the Strada dell' Abbondanza, is a large and spacious edifice, in the immediate neighbourhood of the theatres. Of these by which, as we learn from an extant inscription, was erected by a far the most interesting, though the least perfect, is one which priestess named Eumachia. Its purpose is uncertain-possibly J is commonly known as the temple of Hercules (an appellation a cloth-exchange, as the fullers set up a statue to Eumachia here. wholly without foundation), and which is not only by far the It is an open court, oblong, surrounded on all four sides by a most ancieni edifice in Pompeii, but presents us with all the colonnade; in front is a portico facing the forum, and on the characters of a true Greek temple, resembling in its proportions other three sides there is a corridor behind the colonnade with that of the earliest temple of Selinus, and probably of as remote windows opening on it. On the south side of the Strada dell' antiquity (6th century B.c.). Unfortunately only the foundation Abbondanza was a building which Mau conjectures to have been and a few Doric capitals and other architectural fragments the Comitium. At the south end of the forum are three halls remain; they were coated with stucco which was brightly painted. side by side, similar in plan with a common façade—the central In front of the temple is a monument which seems to have been one, the curia or council chamber, the others the offices respec- the tomb of the founder or founders of the city; so that for a time tively of the duumvirs and acdiles, the principal officials of the this must have been the most important temple. The period city; while the greater part of the west side is occupied by two of its destruction is unknown, for it appears certain that it cannot large buildings-a basilica, which is the largest edifice in be ascribed wholly to the earthquake of 63. On the other hand Pompeii, and the temple of Apollo, which presents its side to the reverence attached to it in the later periods of the city is the forum, and hence fills up a large portion of the surrounding evidenced by its being left standing in the midst of a triangular space. The former, as we learn from an inscription scratched space adjoining the great theatre, which is surrounded by a on its walls, was anterior in date to the consulship of M. Lepidus portico, so as to constitute a kind of forum (the so-called Foro

Triangolare), Not far off, and to the north of the great theatre, smaller theatre is computed to have been capable of containing stood a small temple, which, as we learn from the inscription fifteen hundred spectators, while the larger could accommodate still remaining, was dedicated to Isis, and was rebuilt by a certain five thousand. Popidius Celsinus at the age of six (really of course by his parents), | Adjoining the theatres is a large rectangular enclosure, surafter the original edifice had been reduced to ruin by ihe great rounded by a portico, at first the colonnade connected with the earthquake of 63. Though of small size, and by no means re-theatres, and converted, about the time of Nero, into the barracks markable in point of architecture, it is interesting as the only of the gladiators, who were permanently maintained in the city temple that has come down to us in a good state of preservation with a view to the shows in the amphitheatre. This explains of those dedicated to the Egyptian goddess, whose worship became why it is so far from that building, which is situated at the so popular under the Roman Empire. The decorations were of south-eastern angle of the town, about 500 yds. from the somewhat gaudy stucco. The plan is curious, and deviates theatres. Remains of gladiators' armour and weapons were much from the ordinary type; the internal arrangements are found in some of the rooms, and in one, traces of the stocks used adapted for the performance of the peculiar rites of this deity. to confine insubordinate gladiators. The amphitheatre was Close to this temple was another, of very small size, commonly erected by the same two magistrates who built the smaller known as the temple of Aesculapius, but probably dedicated to theatre, C. Quinctius Valgusand M. Porcius (the former the fatherZeus Milichius. More considerable and important was a temple in-law of that P. Servilius Rullus, in opposition to whose bill which stood at no great distance from the forum at the point relating to the distribution of the public lands Cicero made his where the so-called Strada di Mercurio was crossed by the wide speech, De lege agraria), at a period when no permanent edifice line of thoroughfare (Strada della Fortuna) leading to the gate of a similar kind had yet been erected in Rome itself, and is of Nola. We learn from an inscription that this was dedicated indeed the oldest structure of the kind known to us. But apart to the Fortune of Augustus (Fortuna Augusta), and was erected, from its early date it has no special interest, and is wholly wanting wholly at his own cost, by a citizen of the name of M. Tullius. in the external architectural decorations that give such grandeur This temple appears to have suffered very severely from the of character to similar edifices in other instances. Being in earthquake, and at present affords little evidence of its original great part excavated in the surface of the hill, instead of the architectural ornament; but we learn from existing remains seats being raised on arches, it is wanting also in the picturesque that its walls were covered with slabs of marble, and that the arched corridors which contribute so much to the effect of those columns of the portico were of the same material. The fifth other ruins. Nor are its dimensions (460 by 345 ft.) such as to temple, that of Venus Pompeiana, lay to the west of the basilica; place it in the first rank of structures of this class, nor are there traces of two earlier periods underlie the extant temple, which any underground chambers below the arena, with devices for was in progress of rebuilding at the time of the eruption. Before raising wild beasts, &c. But, as we learn from the case of their the earthquake of 63 it must have been the largest and most squabble with the people of Nuceria, the games celebrated in splendid temple of the whole city.' It was surrounded by a the amphitheatre on grand occasions would be visited by large large colonnade, and the number of marble columns in the whole numbers from the neighbouring towns. The seating capacity block has been reckoned at 296.

was about 20,000 (for illustration see AMPHITHEATRE). All the temples above described, except that ascribed to Her Adjoining the amphitheatre was found a large open space, cules, which was approached by steps on all four sides, agree in nearly square in form, which has been supposed to be a forum being raised on an elevated podium or basement-an arrange-boarium or cattle-market, but, no buildings of interest being ment usual with all similar buildings of Roman date. Neither discovered around it, the excavation was filled up again, and in materials nor in style does their architecture exceed what this part of the city has not been since examined. Between might reasonably be expected in a second-rate provincial town; the entrance to the triangular forum (so-called) and the temple and the same may be said in general of the other public buildings. of Isis is the Palaestra, an area surrounded by a colonnade; Among these the most conspicuous are the theatres, of which there it is a structure of the pre-Roman period, intended for boys, not were two, placed, as was usual in Greek towns, in close juxta-men. position with one another. The largest of these which was partly Among the more important public buildings of Pompeii excavated in the side of the hill, was a building of considerable were the public baths (thermae). Three different establishments magnificence, being in great part cased with marble, and fur of this character have been discovered, of which the first, excanished with seats of the same material, which have, however, vated in 1824, the baths near the forum, built about 80 B.C., was been almost wholly removed. Its internal construction and for a long time the only one known. Though the smallest of arrangements rescmble those of the Roman theatres in general, the three, it is in some respects the most complete and interesting; though with some peculiarities that show Greek influence, and and it was until of late years the principal source from which we we learn from an inscription that it was erected in Roman times derived our knowledge of this important branch of the economy by two members of the same family, M. Holconius Rufus and of Roman life. At Pompeii the baths are so well preserved as M. Holconius Celer, both of whom held important municipal to show at a glance the purpose of all the different parts—while offices at Pompeii during the reign of Augustus. It appears, they are among the most richly decorated of all the buildings however, from a careful examination of the remains that their in the city. We trace without difficulty all the separate apartwork was only a reconstruction of a more ancient edifice, the date ments that are described to us by Roman authors-the apodyof the original form of which cannot be fixed; while its first lerium, frigidarium, tepidarium, caldarium, &c. together with the alteration belongs to the" tufa" period, and three other periodsapparatus for supplying both water and heal, the places for de in its history can be tracert. Recent investigations in regard to positing the bather's clothes, and other minor details (see Baths). the vexed question of the position of the actors in the Greek The greater thermae (the so-called “Stabian" baths), which theatre bave as yet not led to any certain solution. The smaller were originally built in the 2nd century B.C., and repaired about theatre, which was erected, as we learn from an inscription, by 80 B.C., are on a much more extensive scale than the others, two magistrates specially appointed for the purpose by the and combine with the special purposes of the building a palaestra decuriones of the city, was of older date than the large one, and in the centre and other apartments for exercise or recreation. must have been constructed a little before the amphitheatre, soon The arrangements of the baths themselves are, however, almost after the establishment of the Roman colony under Sulla. We similar to those of the lesser thermae. In this case an inscription learn also that it was permanently covered, and it was probably records the repair and restoration of the edifice after the used for musical entertainments, but in the case of the larger 'The interest taken by the Pompeians in the sports of the theatre also the arrangements for the occasional extension of an amphitheatre is shown by the contents of the numerous painted

and scratched inscriptions relating to them which have been found awning (vclarium) over the whole are distinctly found. The

in Pompeii-notices of combats, laudatory inscriptions, including " See A Mau, Pompeii in Leben und Kunst (Leipzig, 1908), pp. 150 even references to the admiration which gladiators won from the SQ9.

I fair sex, &c.

earthquake of 63. It appears, however, that these two establish- perfect model of a complete Roman house of a superior class. ments were found inadequate to supply the wants of the in. But the general similarity in their plan and arrangement is very

hird edifice of the same character, the so-striking, and in all those that rise above a very humble class the called central baths, at the corner of the Strada Stabiana and the leading divisions of the interior, the atrium, iablinum, peristyle, Strada di Nola, but on a still more extensive scale, intended &c. may be traced with unfailing regularity. Another peculifor men only, while the other two had separate accommodation arity that is found in all the more considerable houses in Pompeii for both sexes, was in course of construction when the town was is that of the front, where it faces one of the principal streets, overwhelmed.

being occupied with shops, usually of small size, and without Great as is the interest attached to the various public buildings any communication with the interior of the mansion. In a few of Pompeii, and valuable as is the light that they have in some instances indeed such a communication is found, but in these instances thrown upon similar edifices in other ruined cities, cases it is probable that the shop was used for the sale of articles far more curious and interesting is the insight afforded us by grown upon the estate of the proprietor, such as wine, fruit, oil, the numerous private houses and shops into the ordinary life &c., a practice that is still common in Italy. In general the and habits of the population of an ancient town. The houses shop had a very small apartment behind it, and probably in at Pompeii are generally low, rarely exceeding two storeys in most cases a sleeping chamber above it, though of this the only height, and it appears certain that the upper storey was generally

erally remaining evidence is usually a portion of the staircase that led of a slight construction, and occupied by small rooms, serving to this upper room. The front of the shop was open to the as garrets, or sleeping places for slaves, and perhaps for the street, but was capable of being closed with wooden shutters, females of the family. From the mode of destruction of the city the remains of which have in a few instances been preserved. these upper floors were in most cases crushed in and destroyed, Not only have the shops of silversmiths been recognized by the and hence it was long believed that the houses for the most precious objects of that metal found in them, but large quantities part had but one storey; but recent researches have in many fruits of various kinds preserved in glass vessels, various decases brought to light incontestable evidence of the existence of scriptions of corn and pulse, loaves of bread, moulds for pastry, an upper floor, and the frequent occurrence of a small staircase fishing-nets and many other objects too numerous to mention, is in itself sufficient proof of the fact. The windows, as already have been found in such a condition as to be identified without mentioned, were generally small and insignificant, and contri- difficulty. Inns and wine-shops appear to have been numerous; buted nothing to the external decoration or effect of the houses, one of the latter we can see to have been a thermopolium, where which took both light and air from the inside, not from the hot drinks were sold. Bakers' shops are also frequent, though outside. In some cases they were undoubtedly closed with arrangements for grinding and baking appear to have formed glass, but its use appears to have been by no means general. part of every large family establishment. In other cases, howThe principal living rooms, as well as those intended for the ever, these were on a larger scale, provided with numerous reception of guests or clients, were all on the ground floor, the querns or hand-mills of the well-known form, evidently intended centre being formed by the atrium, or hall, which was almost for public supply. Another establishment on a large scale was always open above to the air, and in the larger houses was gener- a fullonica (fuller's shop), where all the details of the business ally surrounded with columns. Into this opened other rooms, were illustrated by paintings still visible on the walls. Dyers' the entrances to which seem to have been rarely protected by shops, a tannery and a shop where colours were ground and doors, and could only have been closed by curtains. At the manufactured an important business where almost all the back was a garden. Later, under Greek influences, a peristyle rooms of every house were painted-are of special interest, as with rooms round it was added in place of the garden. We notice is also the house of a surgeon, where numerous surgical instruthat, as in modern Italy until quite recent years, elaborate ments were found, some of them of a very ingenious and elaborate precautions were taken against heat, but none against cold, description, but all made of bronze. Another curious discovery which was patiently endured. Hypocausts are only found in was that of the abode of a sculptor, containing his tools, as well connexion with bathrooms.

as blocks of marble and half-finished statues. The number All the apartments and arrangements described by Vitruvius of utensils of various kinds found in the houses and shops is and other ancient writers may be readily traced in the houses almost endless, and, as these are in most cases of bronze, they are of Pompeii, and in many instances these have for the first time generally in perfect preservation. enabled us to understand the technical terms and details trans. Of the numerous works of art discovered in the course of the mitted to us by Latin authors. We must not, however, hastily excavations the statues and large works of sculpture, whether assume that the examples thus preserved to us by a singular in marble or bronze, are inferior to those found at Herculaneum, accident are to be taken as representing the style of building but some of the bronze statuettes are of exquisite workmanship, in all the Roman and Italian towns. We know from Cicero while the profusion of ornamental works and objects in bronze that Capua was remarkable for its broad streets and widespread and the elegance of their design, as well as the finished beauty buildings, and it is probable that the Campanian towns in

n of their execution, are such as to excite the utmost admirationgeneral partook of the same character. At Pompeii indeed more especially when it is considered that these are the casual the streets were not wide, but they were straight and regular, results of the examination of a second-rate provincial town, and the houses of the better class occupied considerable spaces, which had, further, been ransacked for valuables (as Hercupresenting in this respect no doubt a striking contrast, not only laneum had not) after the eruption of 79. The same impression with those of Rome itself, but with those of many other Italian is produced in a still higher degree by the paintings with which towns, where the buildings would necessarily be huddled to the walls of the private houses, as well as those of the temples gether from the circumstances of their position. Even at and other public buildings, are adorned, and which are not merely Pompeii itself, on the west side of the city, where the ground of a decorative character, but in many instances present us with slopes somewhat steeply towards the sea, houses are found which elaborate compositions of figures, historical and mythological consisted of three storeys or more.

sarnes, as well as representations of the ordinary life and manners The excavations have provided examples of houses of every of the people, which are full of interest to us, though often of description, from the humble dwelling-place of the artisan or inferior artistic execution. It has until lately been the practice proletarian, with only three or four small rooms, to the stately to remove these to the museum at Naples; but the present mansions of Sallust, of the Faun, of the Golden Cupids, of the tendency is to leave them (and even the movable objects Silver Wedding, of the Vettii, of Pansa,' &c.—the last of which found in the houses) in situ with all due precautions as to is among the most regular in plan, and may be taken as an almost their preservation (as in the house of the Vettü, of the 1 It may be observed that the names given in most cases to the

Silver Wedding, of the Golden Cupids, &c.), which adds imhouses are either arbitrary or founded in the first instance upon

mensely to the interest of the houses; indeed, with the help erroneous inferences.

of judicious restoration, their original condition is in large

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