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of the Church, particularly in Berlin. Attempts more or less founded in 1701, through the efforts of the Rev. Thomas Bray, a successful have been made from the first to exclude clergymen missionary in Maryland. These churches scattered throughout and professors identified with it from the pulpits and chairs of the different colonies up to the American War of Independence Berlin and elsewhere, though membership in it involves no legal were missions of the Church of England. They were under the disqualification for either. One of the objects of the association jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, there being no bishop in was to some extent obtained by their organization of the Prussian America. The Bishop of London superintended these distant Church when Dr Falk was cultus minister, on the basis of paro- parishes by means of commissaries. Many of the clergy came chial and synodal representation, which came into full operation from England; and when young men in America desired to be in 1879. But the election for the general synod turned out very ordained, it was necessary for them to go to England for this unfavourable to the liberal party, and the large orthodox majority purpose. The Church during the colonial period was incomplete endeavoured to use their power against the principles and the in organization, and without the power of expansion. It was members of the association. In 1882 the position of the associa-confined principally to the more settled parts of the tion was rendered still more difficult by the agitation in Berlin I though it had extended itself in
ifficult by the agitation in Berlin though it had extended itself into all the colonies. During this of Dr Kalthoff and other members of it in favour of a “people's period a few educational institutions were founded: the College church " on purely dissenting and extremely advanced theologi- of William and Mary in 1693, in Virginia; the Public Academy cal principles. This difficulty has continued, and the extreme of Philadelphia, in 1749, now the university of Pennsylvania; rationalist position taken up by some leaders has alienated the and King's College, in 1754, in New York, now Columbia Univer. sympathy not only of the obscurantists but of those who were sity. The clergy also frequently taught in parochial schools, prepared to go some distance in the direction of a liberal theology and trained boys and girls in their homes. There are now about 25.000 members in the 20 branches of the When the war broke out and independence was declared, a Verein.
number of the clergy went back to England, leaving their See D. Schenkel. Der deutsche Protestantenverein und seine Bedeu
parishes vacant, but many, especially in the southern states, tung für die Gegenwart (Wiesbaden, 1868, 2nd ed. 1871); Der deutsche
remained and upheld the American cause. A large majority Protestantenverein in scinen Statuten und den. Thesen seiner Hauptversammlungen 1865-1882 (Berlin, 1883); P. Wehlhorn in Herzog of the laymen were patriots. Two-thirds of the signers of the Hauck's Realencyk. für prot. Theol. u. Kirche; H. Weinel, “Religious Declaration of Independence were Episcopalians. The churches, Lile and Thought in Germany To-day," Hibbert Journal (July 1909). having their support largely withdrawn by the Venerable Society,
PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH, in the United States, became very weak. In Massachusetts during the war only two a part of the Anglican Communion, organized after the War of churches were kept open. Independence by the scattered parishes of the Church of Eng. After the war it was very soon recognized that if the Church land which survived the war. It inherits from the Church of was to survive, there must be organization and co-operation England, with which it is in communion, its liturgy, polity among the fragments left. Rev. William White (1748-1836) and spiritual traditions, though it has entire independence in of Philadelphia, who had been chaplain of the Continental legislation. While the clergy of both Churches are cordially Congress, was a leader in the plan of organization. Rev. Samuel
| Seabury (1729-1796) of Connecticut was also an important nexion between them except in fellowship and in advisory council factor in continuing the life of the Church. He was elected as at the Lambeth Conference. The Church in the United | bishop by the clergy of Connecticut, and after being refused in States is therefore an independent national Church which has England, was consecrated bishop of Connecticut by the Scotch adapted itself to the conditions of American life.
non-juror bishops in Aberdeen on the 14th of November 1784. With many likenesses, the Protestant Episcopal Church is Later, William White of Pennsylvania and Samuel Provoost different from the Church of England in its organization and (1742-1815) of New York were consecrated bishops in the chapel representative form of government. It has the three orders at Lambeth Palace on the 4th of February 1787, by the archof bishops, priests and deacons, and uses an almost identical | bishops of Canterbury and York and others. Rev. James liturgy; but it is a democratic institution in which the laity have Madison (1749-1812) of Virginia was also consecrated bishop in practically as much power as the clergy, and they are represented England, on the 19th of September 1790. An important meeting in all legislative bodies. The constitution of the Church follows or general convention of laymen, clergy and bishops was in many particulars the constitution of the United States. As held in 1784, and another in 1789, for the purpose of cunsolidathe separate states of the Union are made up of different town- ting and uniting the Church. Certain fundamental principles
re adopted which were the basis of organization: that the the nation is a union of the states, so the Church is a union of the Episcopal Church be independent of all foreign authority; that dioceses. The American plan of representative government is it have full and exclusive power to regulate the concerns of consistently adhered to. The Church in America is thus a part its own communion; that the doctrines be maintained as in of the Catholic Church of Christ, with its roots deep in the past the Church of England; that bishops, priests and deacons and yet a living body with a life of its own, standing for the be required; that the canons and laws be made by a more truth of the Christian religion in the great Republic. It is now representative body of clergy and laity conjointly. At the firmly established in every state and Territory of the United general convention of 1789 a constitution and canons were States, and in all the dependencies, with also vigorous missions finally adopted, and the book of Common Prayer was set forth. in foreign lands.
I The Church thus being fully organized, it was prepared to · Services of the Church of England were held by the chaplains develop and extend. There was a long period, however, when of exploring expeditions in various parts of North America little was done save retain what had already been gained. History.
before a settlement was established: on Hudson Bay, Owing in a measure to the popular prejudice against anything or in 1578, and on the shores of the Pacific with Drake that savoured of England, and to the difficulty of adapting the in 1579; but the first permanent foothold of the Church was i newly formed institution to the conditions of American life, the Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, when a colony was founded and Church hardly held its own from 1789 to 1811. The general a church built. This fact is recognized in the proposed preamble convention of 1811 was attended by only five clergymen and to the constitution, in which it is stated that this American four laymen more than that of 1789. The Church in Virginia Church was “ first planted in Virginia in the year of Our Lord especially suffered a decline, but in the North it maintained 1607, by representatives of the ancient Church of England." itself. After 1811 a new spirit manifested itself in the consecraParishes were later founded in Maryland in 1676; in Massachu-tion of three important men to the episcopate. John Henry setts in 1686: in New York about 1603; in Connecticut in 1706; I Hobart, a man of great zeal and devotion, became bishop of New and in the other colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries. York in 1811; Alexander Viets Griswold (1766-1843), a man of The growth of these colonial churches was largely promoted by piety and force, became bishop of the eastern diocese of New the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1 England in 1811; and Richard Channing Moore (1762-1841), a
strong preacher and vigorous personality, was consecrated Cathedrals have been built or were in process of construction in bishop of Virginia in 1814. Both Hobart and Moore became 1910 in many cities. . Among them are: All Saints Cathedral,
Milwaukee: the Cathedral of All Saints, Albany; the Cathedral of interested in theological education; and their efforts to train the Incarnation, Garden City, Long Island; the Cathedral Church clergymen resulted in the establishment of the General Theoof St Luke, Portland, Maine; St John the Divine, New York; logical Seminary in New York in 1819, and the Theological and also those in Dallas, Texas, Washington, D.C., Davenport, Seminary in Virginia, opened in Alexandria in 1824. The
lowa, and Cleveland, Ohio.
The institutional life of the Church is constantly increasing. Churchman's Magazine was started. Another evidence of Among the numerous organizations founded for distinct purposes expansion was the consecration in 1819 of Philander Chase are: the Woman's Auxiliary to the Board of Missions; the American (1775-1852), who became pioneer bishop of the West, first in | Church Building Fund Commission; the American Church Missionary Ohio where he laid the foundations (1824) of the “ Theological
Society; the General Clergy Relief Fund; the Assyrian Mission Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of hood of St Andrew: the Girls' Friendly Society: the Church Students'
Committee; the American Church Institute for Negroes; the Brother. Ohio," afterward called Kenyon College, at Gambier, and then Missionary Association; the Church Laymen's Union; the Seabury in Illinois where he organized a church and founded Jubilee Society of New York; the Church Mission to Deaf Mutes; the Con. College. The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society was
ference of Church Workers among the Colored People; the Society
for the Increase of the Ministry; the Church Association for the started in 1821. This centralized the mission work, and became
| Advancement of the Interests of Labor; the Church Temperance the great agency in the growth and extension of the Church. Society; the Church Unity Society; the Confraternity of the Blessed Bishop Jackson Kemper (1789-1870) in the North-west, and Sacrament; the Guild of the Holy Cross; the Guild of St Barnabas Bishop James Hervey Oley (1800-1863) in the South-west,
for Nurses; the Church Congress in the United States. In addition
there are Sunday School commissions and institutes in almost did important pioneer work.
every diocese. Among the religious orders may be mentioned The period between 1835 and 1865 was characterized by the Society of Mission Priests of St John the Evangelist; the Order further expansion of the episcopate and the formation of new of the Holy Cross: the Community of St Mary; the Sisterhood of dioceses. Bishop William Ingraham Kip (1811-1893) went to
St Margaret; the All Saints Sisters of the Poor; the Sisterhood of the miners of California in 1853.
St John Baptist; and others. There are also training schools
The dioceses of Oregon and for deaconesses, including the New York Training School for Iowa were founded in 1854; and Bishop Henry Benjamin Deaconesses; and the Church Training and Deaconess House of Whipple (1822-1901) was sent to Minnesota in 1859. The the Diocese of Pennsylvania. Church found its way into Indiana, Texas, Arkansas, Florida, Nebraska and Colorado. In 1835 there were 763 clergymen; The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States is in 1850 the number had increased 101558; and even in 1865 there governed according to the constitutions and canons adopted in were 2450. The number of communicants also grew from 1835, 1789, and from time to time amended by the General Govera. when there were 36,000; 10 1850, when there were 80,000; and to Convention, which meets every three years. The menu 1865, when there were 150,000. During this period some General Convention consists of the House of Bishops, having as beautiful church buildings were erected, notably Trinity church members all the bishops of the Church, and a House of Depu. and Grace church, New York. The services were richer;stained ties, composed of four presbyters and four laymen elected by glass was used; stalls for the clergy and choir were introduced, | cach diocese in union with the Convention; also one clerical and and the lectern was substituted for the old-time reading-desk. one lay deputy from each missionary district within the Other educational institutions were founded: Nashotah, Wiscon- boundaries of the United States, and one clerical and one sin, in 1842; Bexley Hall at Gambier in 1839; Racine College, lay deputy chosen by the Convocation of the American at Racine, Wisconsin; and Griswold College in lowa.
Churches in Europe. The voting is by both houses acting When the Civil War broke out in 1861 the Church in the South separately and concurring. In the House of Deputies the vote inet and formed a separate organization called " The Protestant is taken by orders, the clerical and lay deputies voting separately; Episcopal Church in the Confederate States," but the Church in and they must concur for a resolution to pass. This representathe North did not recognize the sccession; at the meeting of the tive body legislates for the whole Church. Each diocese also has general convention in New York in 1862, the roll of the Southern iis own constitution and canons, by which it regulates its internal dioceses was called, and though absent, they were still considered affairs, having also an annual diocesan convention, in which the a part of the Church in the United States. This brotherliness clergy and laity are represented. A bishop is elected by the was an important factor in bringing about a complete union diocese, subject to confirmation by a majority of the bishops between the Northern and Southern Churches after the Civil and standing committees of the different dioceses. Missionary War; so the Church in the Confederate States had but a bishops are elected by the House of Bishops and confirmed by temporary existence.
the House of Deputies if the General Convention is in session; Since the Civil War the Church has grown with the expansion if not in session, by a majority of the standing committees. of national life. It has become strong in great centres, and has The presiding bishop of the Church was the senior bishop in reached out into every part of the United States and its depen order of consecration, until 1910, when an amendment to the dencies, and has maintained missionary stations in foreign lands. constitution was adopted providing for his election by the There are bishops and missionary diocescs in Alaska, Hawaii, the General Convention. A special feature of the government of Philippine Islands, Porto Rico and Cuba; two bishops in China the Church is the power given to the laymen. In the parishes and two in Japan; and bishops in Liberia, Haiti, and Brazil. they elect their own clergyman; and they have votes in the Institutions of Icarning, schools, colleges and thcological semi
diocesan convention and in the General Convention, and are naries, have been founded. Prominent among the schools are St
thus an integral part of the legislative machinery of the Paul's, at Concord, New Hampshire; St Mark's, at Southboro, Massa
Church. chusetts; Groton School, at Groton, Massachusetts; St Mary's, at The worship of the Church is conducted in accordance with Garden City, Long Island; St Agnes's, at Albany, New York; St the Book of Common Praver, set forth in 1780. but changed from Mary's, at Burlington, New Jersey; the Cathedral School, at Washington D.C.; and St. George's School, at Newport, Rhode Island.
time to time as need has arisen. The preface states that “this In addition to the colleges already referred to, there should be in Church is far from intending to depart from the Church of cluded: Trinity College, at Hartford, Connecticut; St Stephen's, England in any essential part of doctrine, discipline or worship. at Annandale, New York: the University of the South, at Sewance, I or further than local circumstances require." This pri nciple Tennessee; and Hobart College, at Geneva, New York. The theological seminaries, besides the general seminary in New York and the
guided the Church in the early days, and continues in force. Virginia Seminary, are: the Divinity School, in Philadelphia; the However, changes have been made in the direction of omission Berkeley Divinity School, at Middletown, Connecticut; the Seabury and addition. The Athanasian Creed is omitted, as well as all Divinity School, at Faribault, Minnesota; Western Theological reference to the king and royal family. The Commination Serninary, in Chicago; Nashotah House, at Nashotah, Wisconsin; Bexley Hall, Gambier, Ohio; the Church Divinity School of the Paci.
Service bas been dropped. In the Te Deum, in place of “ Thou fic, San Mateo, California; and the Episcopal Theological School
didst not abhor the Virgin's womb," is substituted “Thou in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
didst humble Thyself to be born of a Virgin." Many verbal
changes have been made. “Our Father which art in Heaven" | red; the jaws and palate are toothed. This extraordinary is changed to “Who art in Heaven "; "Them that trespass " Batrachian has been found in a great number of different caves, is changed to “Those who trespass." The Ornaments Rubric but rather sporadically, and it is believed that its real home is and the Black Rubric are omitted. The Communion Office is in deeper subterranean waters, whence it is expelled at times more like the Scottish office, having the Oblation and Invocation of floods. It is often kept in aquariums, where it may turn Instead of the Commandments may be said our Lord's summary almost black, and has bred in of the law. Special prayers and thanksgiving have been added, Necturus (Menobranchus) the family Proteidae. The second to be used upon several occasions. A form of the consecration of genus, which is widely distributed in castern North America, is a church has been introduced, as well as an office for the more generalized in its structure, having better developed limbs, institution of a minister and an office for the visitation of with four digits, and is adapted to live in the light. But the prisoners. The last revision of the American Prayer Book was two are closely allied, and Necturus gives us a very exact idea in 1892; gospels for the Festival of the Transfiguration and of what sort of a type Proteus must be derived from. for the early celebration of the Holy Communion on Christmas In 1896 a Proteus-like Batrachian was discovered in Texas Day and Easter Day were added; and a greater flexibility in during the operation of boring an artesian well 188 st. deep, the use of the Prayer Book was permitted.
when it was shot out with a number of The statistics as reported by the General Convention of 1907 are as
remarkable and unknown Crustaceans. follows: the whole number of clergy. 5329; deacons ordained, 483: | Typhlomolge rathbuni (sce fig.), as this priests ordained. 471;candidates for holy orders, 469: postulants, 323; creature was called, agrees with Proicus in lay readers, 2464; baptisms, 197,203; persons confirmed, 158,931; the shape of the head. in the absence of communicants, 871,862; Sunday School officers and teachers, 47.871; pupils, 446,367: parishes and missions, 7615: church edifices, 7028; | functional eyes, in the presence of external rectories, 2530; church hospitals, 72; orphan asylums, 57: homes, gills, and in the unpigmented skin. It difiers 84; academic institutions, 22; collegiate, 17; theological, 23; other in the very short body and the long slender institutions, 79; total contributions for all purposes, $52.257.519; limbs with four to five digits. It was first episcopal fund, $3,499,838; hospitals and other institutions, $17.509,085.
placed in the same family as Proteus, but AUTHORITIES.-J.S. M. Anderson, History of the Church of England | the anatomical investigations of Ellen J. in the Colonies (3 vols., 2nd ed., London, 1856); Leighton Coleman. Emerson have led this author to believe The Church in America (New York, 1895); A. L. Cross, The Anglican I that the real affinities are with the larval Episcopale and the American Colonies (New York, 1902); H. W. Foote,
American Colonies (New York, 1902); H. W. Foote, form of the lungless salamander Spelcr pes.
not with Necturus and Proteus. Whilst (Philadelphia, 1906): W. S. Perry, History of the American Episcopal Proteus has lungs in addition to the gills, Church, 1587-1883, with Monographs (2 vols., Boston, 1885); W. S. Typhlomolge lacks the lungs, and with them Perry, Historical Collections Relating to the Episcopal Colonial Church,
arch, the trachea and larnyx. It is therefore covering Virginia, Pennsylvania, Massachuseils, Maryland and Delaware (4 vols., Hartford, 1870); S. D. McConnell, History of the probable that yphlomolge is a permanent American Episcopal Church (New York, 1890); D. D. Addison, larva derived from
s, whilst we are The Episcopalians (New York, 1902): C. C. Tiffany, A History of the quite unable to assign any direct ancestor Proleslant Episcopal Church (New York, 1905). (D. D. A.) to Necturus.
PROTEUS, in Greek mythology, a prophetic old man of the Another blind Urodele has recently been sea. According to Homer, his resting-place was the island of described as Typhlotrilon spelacus, from Typhlomolge
rathbuni. Pharos, near the mouth of the Nile; in Virgil his home is the caves in the Mississippi Valley. It has island of Carpathus, between Crete and Rhodes. He knew all neither gills nor lungs in the adult, and is found under rocks things past, present and future, but was loth to tell what he in or out of the water. It is not allied to Proteus. The eyes are knew. Those who would consult him had first to surprise and apparently normal in the larva, but in the adult they have bind him during his noonday slumber in a cave by the sea, where undergone marked degeneration. he was wont to pass the heat of the day surrounded by his seals. See P. Configliachi and M. Rusconi, Del Proleo anguino (Pavia, Even when caught he would try to escape by assuming all sorts | 1819), 4; J. de Bedriaga, Lurchfauna Europas (1897), ii. 28; E. of shapes: now he was a lion, now a serpent, a leopard, a boar, a ze
Zeller, Über die Fortpflansung des Proleus anguinus., Jahresb. ver.
Nal. Württemb. (1889). p. 131; L. Steineger," New Genus and Species tree, fire, water. But if his captor held him fast the god at last
of Blind Cave Salamanders from North America," P.U.S. Nal. returned to his proper shape, gave the wished-for answer, and Mus. (1892), xv. 115: idem," New Genus and Species of Blind, Tailed then plunged into the sea. He was subject to Poscidon, and Batrachians from the Subterranean Waters of Texas," op. cit. acted as shepherd to his " flocks." In post-Homeric times the (1896), xviii. 619: Ellen J. Emerson, "General Anatomy of story ran that Proteus was the son of Poseidon and a king of
Typhlomolge rathbuni," P. Boston Soc. N.H. (1905), xxxii. 43. Egypt, to whose court Helen was taken by Hermes after she PROTHESIS (Gr. #póleous, a setting forth, from potidéval, had been carried off, Paris being accompanied to Troy by a to set forward or before), in the liturgy of the Orthodox phantom substituted for her. This is the story followed by Eastern Church, the name given to the act of “setting forth " Herodotus (ii. 112, 118), who got it from Egyptian priests, and the oblation, i.e. the arranging of the bread on the paten, the by Euripides in the Hclena. From his power of assuming what signing of the cross (o payis elv) on the bread with the sacred ever shape he pleased Proteus came to be regarded, especially by spear, the mixing of the chalice, and the veiling of the paten and the Orphic mystics, as a symbol of the original matter from chalice (see F. E. Brightman, Lilurgies Eastern and Western, which the world was created. · Rather he is typical of the 1896). The term is also used, architecturally, for the place in ever-changing aspect of the sea (Homer, Odyssey, iv. 351; Virgil, which this ceremony takes place, a chamber on the north side of Georgics, iv. 386).
the central apse in a Greek church, with a small table. During PROTEUS (Proleus anguinus), in zoology, a blind perenni- the reign of Justin II. (565-574) this chamber was located in an branchiate tailed Batrachian, inhabiting the subterranean apse, and another apse was added on the south side for the waters of the limestone caves to the east of the Adriatic from diaconicon (q.v.), so that from his time the Greek church was Carniola to Herzegovina. It was long supposed to be the sole triapsal. In the churches in central Syria the ritual was representative of the Batrachians in the cave fauna, but other apparently not the same, as both prothesis and diaconica are examples have been added in recent years. It is a small eel-like generally rectangular, and the former, according to De Vogué, animal, with minute limbs, the anterior of which are tridactyle, constituted a chamber for the deposit of offerings by the the posterior didactyle, with a strongly compressed tail, a faithful. Consequently it is sometimes placed on the south side, narrow head, with flat truncate snout, minute rudimentary if when so placed it was more accessible to the pilgrims. There eyes hidden under the skin, which is usually colourless, or rather is always a much wider doorway to the prothesis than to the fesb-coloured, with the short, plume-like external gills blood- | diaconicon, and there are cases where a side doorway from the central apse leads direct to the diaconicon, but never to the saying that it was wanting in charm. On one picture, the prothesis.
“lalysus," he spent seven years; on another, the “Satyr," he PROTISTA, a name invented by Ernst Haeckel (Generelle worked continuously during the siege of Rhodes by Demetrius Morphologie der Organismen, 1866) to denote a group of organisms Poliorcetes (305-304 B.C.) notwithstanding that the garden in supposed to be intermediate between the animal and vegetable which he painted was in the middle of the enemy's camp. kingdoms. As knowledge advanced the precise limits of the Demetrius, unsolicited, took measures for his safety; more than group shisted, and Haeckel himself, in successive publications, that, when told that the“ Ialysus "just mentioned was in a part of ferent sets of organisms within it, at one time proposing the town exposed to assault. Demetrius changed his plano
operato include all unicellular animals and plants, making it a third tions. Ialysus was a local hero, the founder of the town of the same kingdom equivalent to the animal and vegetable kingdoms. name in the island of Rhodes, and probably he was represented Partly because the term represented an interpretation rather as a huntsman. This picture was still in Rhodes in the time of than an objective set of facts, the word Protista has not been Cicero, but was afterwards removed to Rome, where it perished generally accepted for use in classification, and, whilst recogniz- in the burning of the Temple of Peace. The picture painted ing that the limits of the animal and plant kingdoms are not during the siege of Rhodes consisted of a satyr leaning idly sharply defined, modern systematists refrain from associating against a pillar on which was a figure of a partridge, so life-like these doubtfully placed organisms simply because of the dubiety that ordinary spectators saw nothing but it. Enraged on this of their position. (See PROTOZOA.)
account, the painter wiped out the partridge. The“ Satyr" must PROTOCOL (Fr. protocole, Late Lat. protocollum, from Gr. have been one of his last works. He would then be about TpWTOs, first, and kollav, to glue, i.e. originally the first sheet seventy years of age, and had enjoyed for about twenty years of a papyrus roll), in diplomacy, the name given to a variety of a reputation next only to that of Apelles, his friend and bene. written instruments. The protocollum was under the late Roman factor. Both were finished colourists so far as the frescoEmpire a volume of leaves, bound together with glue, in which painting of their day permitted, and both were laborious in the public acts were recorded, so as to guard against fraud or error practice of drawing, doubtless with the view to obtaining bold on the part of those responsible for preparing them; and in later effects of perspective as well as fineness of outline. It was an usage it came to be applied to the original drafts of such acts. | illustration of this practice when Apelles, finding in the house of Thus, too, the word prothocollare was devised for the process Protogenes a large panel ready prepared for a picture, drew upon of drawing up public acts in authentic form (Du Cange, Glos- it with a brush a very fine line which he said would tell sufficiently sarium lal. s.v. Protocollum). The use of the word protocollum who had called. Protogenes on his return home took a brush for the introductory and other formulac in the medieval diploma with a disícrent colour and drew a still finer line along that of (see DIPLOMATIC) thus explains itself as implying a recorded | Apelles dividing it in two. Apelles called again; and, thus usage in such matters.
challenged, drew with a third colour another line within that of In the language of modern diplomacy the name of “protocol” Protogenes, who then admitted himself surpassed. This panel is given to the minutes (procès-verba ur) of the several sittings was seen by Pliny (N.H. xxxv. 83) in Rome, where it was much of a conference or congress; these, though signed by the pleni- / admired, and where it perished by fire. In the gallery of the potentiaries present, have only the force of verbal engagements Propylaea at Athens was to be seen a panel by Protogenes. (sce CONGRESS). The name of “protocols" is also given to The subject consisted of two figures representing personificacertain diplomatic instruments in which, without the form of tions of the coast of Attica, Paralus and Hammonias. For the a treaty or convention being adopted, are recorded the principles council chamber at Athens he painted figures of the Thesmoor the matters of detail on which an agreement has been reached, thetae, but in what form or character is not known. Probably e.g. making special arrangements for carrying out the objects these works were executed in Athens, and it may have been then of previous treaties, defining these objects more clcarly, interpre- that he met Aristotle, who recommended him to take for subjects ting the exact sense of a doubtful clause in a trcaty (protocoles the deeds of Alexander the Great. In his “ Alexander and interpretatifs) and the like. Thus the famous Troppau protocol, Pan” he may have followed that advice in the idealizing spirit which annunciated the right and duty of the European powers to which he was accustomed. To this spirit must be traced also to intervene in the internal affairs of a state threatened with his “Cydippe” and “ Tlepolemus," legendary personages of revolution, was from the point of view of its signatories merely Rhodes. Among his portraits are mentioned those of the a logical application of the principles contained in the treaty of mother of Aristotle, Philiscus the tragic poet, and King the 20th of November 1815 (see TROPPAU). Occasionally also Antigonus. But Protogenes was also a sculptor to some an agreement between two or more powers takes the form of al extent, and made several bronze statues of athletes, armed protocol, rather than a treaty, when the intention is to proclaim figures, huntsmen and persons in the act of offering sacrifices. a community of views or aims without binding them to PROTOGENES (E. Haeckel), a little-known genus of Foramieventual common action in support of those views or aims; nisera (9.v.), marine organisms, forming a naked flat disk with thus the settlement of the question of the Danish succession numerous long radiating pseudopodia: nucleus and contractile was recognized by the powers in conference at London, by the vacuole not seen, and reproduction unknown. protocol of 1852 (see SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN QUESTION).
PROTOMYXA (E. Haeckel), a genus of Foraminifera (9.0.), Finally, “ the protocol ” (protocolo diplomalique, protocole de marine organisms, of orange colour, naked and reproducing in chancellerie) is the body of ceremonial rules to be observed in all a broad-cyst which liberates 1-flagellate zoospores. written or personal official intercourse between the heads of PROTOPLASM, the name given in modern biology to a subdifferent states or their ministers. Thus the protocol lays down stance composing, wholly or in part, all living cells, tissues or in great detail the styles and titles to be given to states, their organisms of any kind, and hence regarded as the primary heads, and their public ministers, and the honours to be paid to living substance, the physical and material basis of life. them; it also indicates the forms and customary courtesies to be The term “protoplasma," from ap@TOS, first, and mágua, observed in all international acts. “It is," says M. Pradier formed substance, was coined by the botanist Hugo von Fodéré, “the code of international politeness."
Mohl, in 1846, for the “tough, slimy, granular, semi-Nuid" Sce P. Pradier-Fodéré, Cours de droit diplomatique (Paris, 1899). constituent of plant cells, which he distinguished from the cellii. 499.
wall, nucleus and cell-sap. This was not, however, the first PROTOGENES, a Greek painter, born in Caunus, on the coast recognition of the true living substance as such, since this step of Caria, but resident in Rhodes during the latter half of the 4th had been achieved in 1835 by the French naturalist F. Dujardin, century B.C. He was celebrated for the minute and laborious who in his studies on Foraminifera had proposed the term finish which he bestowed on his pictures, both in drawing and “ sarcode" for the living material of their bodies in the following in colour. Apelles, his great rival, standing astonished in words: “ Je propose de nommer ainsi ce que d'autres observa. presence of one of these works, could only console himself by lteurs ont appelé une gelée vivante, cette substance glutineuse, diaphane, insoluble dans l'eau, se contractant en masses globu. | medium and oxidation of carbon atoms to form carbonic acid leuses,
achant aux aiguilles de dissection, et se laissant étirer gas and other simple chemical compounds; in ordinary plant comme du mucus, enfin se trouvant dans tous les animaux and animal protoplasm the process of respiration seems to be of inférieurs interposée aux autres éléments de structure.” To the universal occurrence, but some Bacteria constitute apparently French naturalist belongs, therefore, the real credit of the an exception to the rule. Metabolism results not only in the discovery of protoplasm, or rather, to be more accurate, of generation of energy, but also, if anabolism be in excess of the first recognition of its true nature as the material basis of katabolism, in increase of bulk, and consequent growth and vital phenomena. Neither Dujardin nor von Mohl, however, reproduction. had any conception of the universal occurrence and fundamental Living protoplasm is, therefore, considered from a chemical similarity of protoplasm in all living things, whether animal or standpoint, in a state of continual flux and instability, and it vegetable, and it was not till 1861 that the identity of animal follows that if protoplasm be a definite chemical substance or sarcode and vegetable protoplasm was proclaimed by Max mixture of substances (see below), a given sample of protoplasm Schultze, whose name stands out as the framer, is not the founder, cannot be pure, or at least cannot remain so for any length of of the modern notions concerning the nature of the living sub-time so long as its power of metabolism is being exerted, but stance. From this time onwards the term “protoplasm ” was will contain particles either about to be built up by anabolism used for the living substance of all classes of organisms, into its substance, or resulting from katabolic disintegration of although it would have been more in accordance with the its complex molecules. Hence it is convenient to distinguish custom of priority in nomenclature to have made use of
use of the living substance from its mela plastic products of anabolism Dujardin's term "sarcode.”
and katabolism. Such products are to be recognized invariably A living organism, of any kind whatsoever, may be regarded in protoplasm and take the form generally of granules and as composed of (1) protoplasm, (2) substances or structures pro- vacuoles. Granules vary in size from very minute to relatively duced by the protoplasm, either by difíerentiation or modifica large, coarse grains of matter, usually of a firm and solid nature. tion of the protoplasm itself, or by the excretory or secretory | To the presence of innumerable granules is due the greyish, activity of the living substance. The protoplasm of a given semi-transparent appearance of protoplasm, which in parts
nay be in a single individual mass, or may be aggre- / free from granules appears hyaline and transparent. Difier gated into a number of masses or units, discontinuous but not samples of protoplasm may vary greatly in the number and disconnected, termed cells (see CYTOLOGY). Thus living organ- coarseness of the granulations. Vacuoles are fluid drops of more isms may be distinguished, in a general way, as unicellular or watery consistence, which, when relatively small, assume a multicellular. An instance of a unicellular organism is well spherical form, as the result of surface tension acting upon a sccn in an Amoeba, or in one of the Foraminisera, classic examples drop of fluid suspended in another fluid. When vacuoles are for the study of undifferentiated protoplasm, which here com- numerous and large, however, they may assume various forms poses the greater part of the body, while products of the forma- | from mutual pressure, like air-bubbles in a foam. A good example tive activity of the protoplasm are seen in the external shell and of frothy protoplasm, due to the presence of numerous vacuoles, in various internal granules and structures. As an example of is seen in the common “sun-animalcule” (Actinosphaerium). a multicellular organism we may take the human body, built up Or when the cell is confined by an envelope, and becomes very of an immense number of living cells which produce, singly or vacuolated, the vacuoles may become confluent to form a cellin co-operation, a variety of substances and structures, each sap contained in a protoplasmic lining or “primordial utricle," contributing to the functions of the body. This, without attemp- and traversed by strands of protoplasm, as in the ordinary cells ting to enter into details, the horny epidermis covering the body, of plant-tissues. In many unicellular organisms, so-called the hairs, nails, teeth, skeleton, connective tissue, &c., are all contractile vacuoles are continually being formed as an act of of them products formed by the metabolic activity of the living excretion and expelled from the body when they reach a certain substance and existing in intimate connexion with it, though size. not themselves to be regarded as living. In addition to meia- While the majority of protoplasmic granules are probably bolic products of this kind, special modifications of the living to be regarded as metaplastic in nature, there is one class of substance itself are connected with specializations or exaggcra- granulations of which this is certainly not true, namely the grains tions, as it were, of a particular vital function, such are the of chromatin, so named from their peculiar afiinity for certain contractile substance of muscular tissue, and the various mechan-dyes, such as carmine, logwood and various aniline stains. isms secn in nervous and sensory tissue. It is necessary, there. These grains may occur as chromidia, scattered through the fore, in a living body of any kind, to distinguish clearly between protoplasm, or they may be concentrated at one or more spots simple protoplasm, its differentiations and its products.
to form a definite nucleus or nuclei, which may or may not be Protoplasm from whatever source, whether studied in a cell limited from the remaining protoplasm by a definite memof the human body, in an Amoeba or Foraminifer, or in a veget brane, and may undergo further differentiations of structure able organism, is essentially uniform and similar in appearance which cannot be considered further here (sce CYTOLOGY). The and properties. Its appearance, graphically described by protoplasm of an ordinary cell is thus specialized into Dujardin in the passage quoted above, is that of a greyish, nucleus and cytoplasm. It was formerly thought that the most viscid, slimy, semi-transparent and semi-Nuid substance. Its pro- primitive forms of life, the Monera of E. Haeckel, consisted of perties are those of living things generally, and the most salient pure protoplasm without a nucleus. It must be borne in mind, and obvious manifestation of life is the power of automatic however, that chromatin can be present without being conmovement exhibited by living protoplasm. When free and not centrated to form a definite nucleus, and that with imperfect limited by firm envelopes, the movements take the character technique the chromatin may easily escape observation. It known generally as amoeboid, well shown in the common
non seems justifiable at present to believe, until the contrary has Amoeba or in the white corpuscles of the blood. When confined been proved, that all organisms, however primitive, contain by rigid envelopes, as in plant-cells, the protoplasm exhibits chromatin in some form: first, because this substance has streaming movements of various kinds. Even more essentially always been found when suitable methods for its detection have characteristic of the living matter than the power of movement been employed; secondly, because it has been shown experiis the property of metabolism--that is to say, the capacity of mentally, by cutting up small organisms, such as Amoeba, assimilating substances different from itself, of building them up that enucleated fragments of protoplasm are unable to maintain into its own substance anabolism), and of again decomposing their continued existence as livi
ng l their continued existence as living bodies; and, thirdly, because these complex molecules into simpler ones (katabolism) with modern research has shown the chromatin to be of very great, production of energy in the form of heat, movement and clectri- perhaps fundamental, importance in regulating the vital procal phenomena. An important part of the metabolic process cesses of the cell and so determining the specific characters of is respiration, i.e. the absorption of oxygen from the surrounding the organism, a property which enables the chromatin to act