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by S. Lloyd, London, 1904): A. M. Low, Protection in the United, The Romans drew a distinction between foedero deque and Stales (London, 1904); H. O. Meredith, Protection in France (London, focdere injoua. The latter created a form 1904); S. N. Patten, Economic Basis of Protection (Philadelphia,
of protectorate. 1890); Uyo Rabbeno, American Commercial Policy (London, 1895); But the protected state remained free. This is explained in a Ellis H. Roberts, Government Revenue, especially the American System, passage of the Digest 49. 15. 7: “Liber autem populus est is, an argument for industrial freedom against the fallacies of free trade qui nullius alterius populi potestati est subjcctus, sive is foedera(Boston, 1884); R. E. Thompson, Protection to Home Industries
tus est; item sive aequo foedere in amicitiam venit, sive foedere (New York, 1886); E. E. Williams, The Case for Protection (London, 1899): J. P. Young. Protection and Progress: a Study of the Economic
comprehensum est, ut is populus alterius populi majestatem Bases of the American Proteclive System (Chicago, 1900).
comiter conservaret. Hoc enim adjicitur, ut intelligatur alterum PROTECTOR, a Latin word (formed from prolegere, to cover
populum superiorem esse: non ut intelligatur alterum non esse in front) adopted into English. In post-classical Latin the
liberum ” (Marquardt, Römische Staatsverwaltung, 2nd ed., vol. i. protectores were the body-guards of the emperors, and of the p. 46, Mommsen, Römisches Staatsrecht, vol. iii. pt. 1, p. 645, Praetorian prefects until, under Constantine the Great (306-97), and the instances collected by Pufendorf, 8 c. 9. 4). they ceased to exercise military functions. The protectores. .ith In medieval times this relation existed, and the term “prothe domestici, continued to form the body-guard and householdtection " was in use. But the relation of subordination of one troops of the emperor. They were veterans selected from the state to another was generally expressed in terms of feudal law. legions, and were capable of being appointed to high commands. One state was deemed the vassal of another; the ruler of one In the Roman curia the protectores regnorum are cardinals who did homage to the ruler of another. In his book De la Répubtake charge of the affairs of the “ province" to which they are lique Bodin treats of ceux qui sont en protection (1. c. 7), or, as named which come before the Sacred College, and to present the Latin text has it, de patrocinio el clientela. In Bodin's view them for consideration. In England “protector " was used such states retain their sovereignty (1. c. 8). Discussing the first for the regent during a minority (e.g. the Protector question whether a prince who becomes a cliens of another Somerset, and then by Oliver Cromwell when he assumed the
loses his majestas, he concludes that, unlike the truc vassal, government in 1653). The name thus acquired a revolutionary
the cliens is not deprived of sovereignty: “Nihilominus in significance, and has not since been officially used in England. | foederibus et pacis actionibus, quae inter principes aut populos In Spanish America the bishops were officially protectors of the
societate et amicitia conjunctissimos sancientur; eam vim habet Indians. The title is convenient for a ruler who wishes to ut nec alter alteri pareat, nec imperet: sed ut alter alterius majesexercise control outside the limits of his direct sovereignty.
tatem observare, sine ulla majestatis minutione teneatur. Thus Napoleon called himself protector of the Confederation Itaque jus illud clientelare seu protectionis omnium maximum of the Rhine. The kings of France, and the governments
ac pulcherrimum inter principes censetur ” (1 c. 7). Elsewhere which have arisen out of the Revolution, were protectors of
Bodin remarks,“ le mot de protection est special et n'emporte the Latin Christians in the Turkish Empire, while the tsars of aucune subjection de celuy qui est en protection.” He disRussia have claimed the same position towards the Orthodox
tinguishes the relation of seigneur and vassal from that of Christians.
protecteur and adherent. As to whether the protected state or See App. B. to vol. ii. of Bury's edition of the Decline and Fall prince is sovereign, he remarks,“ je tiens qu'il demeure soverain, (London, 1896): Du Cange, Glossarium lat.; Sorel, L'Europe et la et n'est point subject.” He makes clear this conception of révolution française, vol. vii. (Paris, 1904).
protection by adding “ l'advoué ou adherent doit estre exemple PROTECTORATE, in international law, now a common term de la puissance du protecteur s'il contrevient aux traictes de to describe the relation between two states, one of which exer- protection. Voila donc la plus grande seureté de la protection, cises control, great or small, direct or indirect, over the other. c'est empescher s'il est possible que les protecteurs ne soyent It is significant of the rare use of the term until recent times saisis des fortresses” &c. (p. 549, ed. 1580). Sometimes letters of that the word does not occur in Sir G. C. Lewis's book on The protection were granted by a prince to a weak state, as e.g. by Government of Dependencies. Yet the relation is very ancient. Louis XIII. in 1641 to the prince of Monaco (Gairal, p. 81). There have always been states which dominated their neigh- Reverting to the distinction in Roman law, Grotius and bours, but which did not think fit to annex them formally. It | Pufendorf, with many others, treat protection as an instance of has always been politic for powerful states to facilitate and hide unequal treaties; that is, “ when either the promises are unequal, schemes of aggrandizement under euphemistic expressions; to or when either of the parties is obliged to harder conditions" cloak subjection or dependence by describing it in words in- (De jure belli et pacis, I c. 13. 21; De jure naturae, 8. c. 9). offensive or strictly applicable to other relations. A common problem has been how to reduce a state to submission or sub The following are some definitions of " protectorate": " Principis ordination while ostensibly preserving its independence or exist
privilegium, quo ne alicui vis inferatur, cavetur, eumque in pro
tectionem suscipit." Du Cange: “La situation d'un ence; to obtain power while escaping responsibility and the éiat à l'egard d'un autre moins puissant auquel il a
Defialtioas expenditure attending the establishment of a regular adminis. promis son appui d'une manière permanent" (Gairal.
of Protec tration. Engelhardt (Les Protectorals anciens et modernes) and p. 52); a definition applicable only to certain simple forale. other writers on the subject have collected a large number of
forms of this relation." Pour le protégé, une condition de mi.
souveraineté substituée à la pleine indépendance que comporte le instances in antiquity in which a true protectorate existed, even
régime de simple protection " (p. 58). “La situation respective de e name was not used. Thus the Hegemony of Athens deux états de puissance inégale, dont l'un contracte l'obligation peras it existed about 467 B.C., was a form of protectorate; though
manente de défendre l'autre, et en outre de le diriger" (p. 62). the subject states were termed allies, the so-called “allies "
“ Unter einem Protektorat versteht man ein Schutzverhältniss
zwischen zwei Staaten des Inhalt dass der eine Staat, der Oberstaat in all inportant legal matters had to resort to Athens (Meyer,
r, oder schutzherrliche Staat, zum dauernden Schutze des anderen Geschichte des Alterthums, vol. üi. $ 274).
Staates-des Schutzstaates oder Unterstaates-verpflichtet ist; In dealing with dependent nations Rome used terms which wofür ihr. ein mehr oder weniger' weitgehender Einfluss auf die veiled subjection (Gairal, Les Protectorals internationaux, p.
auswärtigen Angelegenheiten desselben und theilweise auch auf
dessen innere Verhältnisse eingeraümt ist (von Stengel, Die 26). Thus the relationship of subject or dependent cities to deutschen Schutzgebiete, 11). "Das Verhältniss von zwei (oder the dominant power was described as that of clientes to the mehreren) Staaten, das in materieller Beziehung auf dem dauernden patronus (Marquardt, Römische Staatsverwaltung, 2nd ed., vol. i.
Bedürfniss des Schutzes eines schwächeren Staates durch einen
stärkeren beruht " (Ullmann, s. 26) p. 80) Such cities might also be described as civitates foederatae
| “The one common element in Protectorates is the prohibition or civitates liberae. Another expression of the same fact was
of all foreign relations except those permitted by the protecting that certain communities had come under the power of the state. What the idea of a protectorate excludes, and the idea of Roman people; in deditionem or in fidem popidi romani venire annexation, on the other hand, would include, is that absolute (Marquardt, Römische Slaalsverwaltung, i. 73, 81). The king.
ownership which was signified by the word doininium in Roman
law, and which, though not quite satisfactorily, is sometimes doms of Numidia, Macedonia, Syria and Pergamum were ex-l described as territorial sovereignty,' The protected country amples of protected states, their rulers being termed inservientes. ' semains, in regard to the protecting state, a foreign country; and
this being so, the inhabitants of the protectorate, whether native directly affecting the British agent; (7) they receive advice, born or immigrant settlers, do not by virtue of the relationship which may be akin to commands. (See also Ilbert's Governbetween the protecting and the protected state become subjects of the protecting state" (Lord Justice Kennedy, Rex v. Crewe,
ment of India, 2nd ed. p. 140). . 1910, 79, L.J., p. 802). "The mark of a protected state or people, Among the chief British protectorates are: The African groups, whether civilized or uncivilized, is that it cannot maintain political consisting of the western group-Gambia; Sierra Leone; Ashanti intercourse with foreign powers except through or by permission of (northern territory); Northern Nigeria, Southern Nigeria (with the protecting state" (Hall, Foreign Jurisdiction of the Brilish which is amalgamated Lagos). The southern group-Bechuanaland; Crown, p. 218). "A British protectorate is a country which is not Southern Rhodesia; Swaziland. The central group-North-east within British dominions, but as regards its foreign relations is Rhodesia and North-west Rhodesia ; Nyasaland. The eastern group under the exclusive control of the King. so that its government – British East Africa; Uganda; Zanzibar and Pemba (sometimes cannot hold direct communication with any other foreign power, I described as "a sphere of influence "); Somaliland; and the Sudan. nor a foreign power with that Government" (Jenkyns, British Rule There is a group of protectorates near Aden, including the island and Jurisdiction beyond the Seas, p. 165: Reinsch, Colonial Govern. I of Sokotra. There are also the Bahrein Islands in the Persian Gulf. meni, p. 109; Payne, Colonies and Colonial Federalions, p. 194). Jurisdiction over these protectorates is, generally speak. The term is used very loosely. Often it designates a relationing, exercised under orders in council made under the
e. which it is deemed politic to leave indefinite: a state desires to Foreign Jurisdiction Act 1890 (Burge's Colonial and
Protece obtain the reality of conquest without the responsibilities attaching Forcign Low, 2nd ed., p. 320). There is also the Malay
torates. thereto. Protectorate may mean no more than what it says: group, consisting of the Malay States in the Borneo peninsula and "One state agrees to protect or guarantee the safety of another." in Borneo, the protectorates of North Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak. The term is also employed to describe any relation of a political Protectorates also exist in the Western Pacific group of islands superior to an inferior state. It is also used as the equivalent of (including the Friendly Islands, the Ellice and Gilbert group, and suzerainty. As appears from the article SUZERAINTY, the terms the British Solomon Islands). are distinguishable. But both imply a desire to carry out changes There is the interesting case of Papua (formerly British New without friction and not to break up ancient forms; both proceed Guinca), over which a protectorate was established in 1884, but on the plan of securing to the stronger state the substance of power which became in 1906 a territory of the Australian Commonwealth. while allowing the weaker state a semblance of its old constitution. There are also dependencies, or protectorates, attached to India, It is a form of empire or state building which appears when a powers | Baluchistan, Sikkim and Andaman Islands. ful, expanding state comes in contact with feebler political organi | France possesses several protectorates, of which the chief are zations, or when a state falls into decay, and disintegration sets in. Tunis, Annam and Tongking. Her policy has been until lately to The creation of a protectorate is convenient for the superior and the transform them into French territory. Such change has taken inferior; it relieves the former from the full responsibilities incident place as to Tahiti and Madagascar, and such in effect is the posito annexation; it spares to some extent the feelings of the latter. tion of the Indo-China protectorates (Devaulx, Les Protectorals de
Certain protectorates originate in treaties; others have been la France; Report by Mr Lister, Parl. Papers 1908, Cd. 3883). imposed by force. Some are accompanied by occupation, in
The chief German protectorates are South-west Africa, Togoland
and Cameroon, Germán East Africa, Kaiser Wilhelm Land, Bismarck which case it is difficult to distinguish them from annexation.
Archipelago, Solomon Islands, and Kiaochow-under lease from Thus the treaty of May 1881, art. 2, between France and Tunis, China-(Zeitschrif! für Kolonialrecht, 1907, p. 311). Russia has the provides for the occupation of strategical points by the protecting protectorates of Khiva and Bokhara; and China exercises or claims statc (A. Devaulx, Les Protectorals de la France, p. 21).
rights as protector of certain dependencies. The establishment of a protectorate may be akin to a guar There are two principal classes of protectorates; the first antee. Generally, however, the former implies a closer relation being those exercised generally by treaty over civilized countries. than a guarantee; and the two relations may be widely different, Of the first, the chief are: (a) that of Cracow, which as may be seen by comparing ticaties of guarantee with the cognized by the Treaty of Vienna as an independent state, treaty establishing the protectorate of Tunis.
and placed under the protection of Russia: it was incorporStrictly speaking, a protectorate cannot exist over a domain ated with Austria in 1846; (b) Andorra, protected by Spain uninhabited or ruled by no organized state; in such cases the and France as successors of the counts of Foix (See ANDORRA); elements of the true protectorates are wanting. But the (c) the Ionian Islands, placed under the protection of Great distinction is not adhered to. The difficulty of defining the Britain by the Treaty of Paris of 1815.
ad the protecting states is The second class of protectorates consists of those exergreater, because a protectorate may imply a condition of transi- cised by one civilized state over an uncivilized people, sometion: a contractual or limited relation of state to state, more times called a “Colonial Protectorate ” or “pseudo-protecor less rapidly changing into true union.
torate," and usually the preparatory step to annexation. It has been the policy of the British government in India to These have become common, especially in Africa, since establish on the frontiers, as elsewhere, protectorates. The 1878. The second class may be subdivided into two groups: political advantages of the system are pointed out in Sir A. (a) protectorates exercised over countries with organized governLyall's Rise and Expansion of the British Dominion in India.ments and under recognized sovercigns, such as the Malay It is a system “whereby the great conquering or coinmercial | Slates; and (b) those exercised over countries possessing no peoples masked, so to speak, their irresistible advance"; it stable or definite governments and rulers. The territories of
was much practised by the Romans in Africa and chartered companies, when not within the dominion of the ladlao Pro tectorates.
Asia; it has been chiefly applied in modern times protecting state, may also for some purposes be regarded as
in India (p. 326). The Indian states are some protectorates. times described as “ Feudatory States," sometimes “ Indepen Attempts have been made to define the reciprocal rights dent and Protected States ” (Twiss), sometimes “Mediatized and duties of protecting and protected states. Sometimes States” (Chesney), sometimes “ Half-Sovereign," sometimes the treaty creating the relation defines the obliga- pi
Rights and as in a position of "subordinate alliance" (Lord Salisbury, tions. Thus in the treaty, with respect to Sarawak Duties of Parliamentary Papers, 1897 (c. 8700). $ 27). The Inter the latter is described as an “independent state Protecting pretation Act, 1889 (52 & 53 Vic. c. 63, s. 18), refers to the under the protection of Great Britain.” “Such and
e Protected Indian native princes as under the “suzerainty" of the British protection shall confer no right on his Majesty's
States. Crown. These states are really sui generis,and their precise position government to interfore with the internal adcan be understood only by a private examination of the treaties ministration of that state further than is hercin provided." affecting them. The following are the chief points as to which The British consular officers are to receive exequaturs in the Indian states are subject to English law: (1) the governor-name of the government of Sarawak. Foreign relations are general is empowered to make laws for servants of the British to be conducted by that government, and the raja cannot government and European and native Indian subjects of his cede or alienate any part of the territory without the consent majesty; (2) British laws are in force in certain parts of the native of the British government (Hertslet, 18. 227). In the treaty states e.g. in cantonments; (3) native princes have adopted certain creating a protectorate over the territories of the king and British laws, e.g. the Indian Penal Code; (4) they have no ex-chief of Opopo (Hertslet, 17. 130) the sovereign undertakes to ternal relations with foreign states; (5) the king is the donor extend to them, and to the territory under their authority and of honours; (6) acts of parliament affect them indirectly by 'jurisdiction, his favour and protection. They promise not to enter into "any correspondence, agreement or treaty with any represented that effective occupation should be a condition to foreign nation or power, except with the knowledge and sanction the creation of a protectorate on the coast of Africa. But this of his Majesty's government.” Some treaties establishing was opposed by England, and was not adopted (Laband, ii. 680). proiectorates provide for direct interference with internal | Many writers adhere to the doctrine that there is no impairaffairs; for example, the treaty of 1847 creating a French pro- ment of sovereignty of the weaker state by the establishment tectorate over Tahiti, and that of 1883 as to Tunis. Sometimes of a protectorate. They also allege that it is res inler alios acto, the Oberstaal--lo use a convenient expression-is content to an arrangement which concerns only parties to it. But the insist upon the presence of a resident, who guides the policy of trend of recent policy and purport of much recent legislation the native ruler. In the case of protectorates over uncivilized are against this view. The distinct lendency, especially as to countries it is usual to stipulate against alicnation of territory protectorates over uncivilized countries, is to treat, for purposes without consent of the Oberslaal.
of international law, the territory of a protectorate as if it The legal position of protectorates is still somewhat unde- belonged to the protecting state. If France, for example, per. termined; there are an old view and also a new view of their milied in Tunis or other protectorates operations of an
w nature. The relation may be one of international unfriendly character to any power, the injured power would no Protector ates and law, two states having entered into obligations doubt look to France for redress. This view would probably be Inter by treaty. Or the relation may be one of public strongly pressed in the case of protectorates over countries having national law; one of two states has become subordinate to, no well-defined or stable government. The probability is that Law.
and incorporated with, the other. The general in such cases governments and courts applying international rule is that the protected state does not cease to be a law would probably be guided not by technical facts--such, to sovereign state, if such was its previous status. Its head is take the case of British possessions, as the fact that an order in still entitled to the immunities and dignity of a sovereign council permitted appeals to the Judicial Committee--but would ruler. Further, the establishment of a protectorate does not look to the facts of the case. " Any state which undertakes to necessarily rescind treaties made between the protected state protect another assumes towards the rest of the world responsiand other states, at all events when it is not in reality bility for its good behaviour-he more complete protection conquest or cession, or when any modification would be the more extensive the responsibility and this responsibility to the injury of third parties (Parl. Papers, Madagascar, involves a duty to interfere if need be " (Coolidge, United States 1897 (c. 87001; Trione, 187). Nor does the new relation as a World Power," p. 167; and to the same effect Liszt, Völkermake any change as to the nationality of the subjects | recht, p. 31; and Zorn, Völkerrechl, P. 45). The tendency is for of the two states, though in some countries facilities are protecting states to assert jurisdiction over foreigners within afforded to the subjects of the Unterslaal to transfer their the territories of the protected states (Westlake, 187; Jenkyns, allegiance; and they owe a certain ill-defined degree of obedience p. 176; Ilbert, 2nd ed.. 303. A 34). Mr Hall remarks (International to the protecting state. Nor, speaking generally, does the terri-Law, 6th ed., p. 126 n.) that “all the states represented at the tory of the protected state become part of the territory of the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, with the exception of Great Oberstaat; in this respect is it unlike a colony, which may be Britain, maintained that the normal jurisdiction of a protectorregarded as an extension or outlying province of the country. ate includes the right of administering justice over the subjects At the same time, the question whether a particular protec- of other civilized states." The General Act contemplated torate forms part of the "dominion” or “territory " of the measures which are scarcely compatible with the exemption of Crown for any purposes or within the meaning of any statute European traders and adventurers from the local civilized cannot be regarded as wholly free from doubt; its terms and jurisdiction. He points out that Great Britain-which until intention must be examined. In Rex v. Crewe (1910, 79, L. J. lately took the view that a protected state possesses only dele874) the Court of Appeal decided that the Bechuanaland Pro- gated powers, and that an Eastern state cannot grant jurisdiction tectorate was not part of the dominion of the Crown, but was over persons who are neither its own subjects nor subjects of the foreign territory. Several writers propose this distinction--| country to which the powers are delegated-bad by the Pacific the protected country is to be considered a part of the territory Order in Council of 1893 and the South African Orders in Council as to certain important sovereign rights, and as to other matters of 1891-1894 asserted jurisdiction over natives and foreign not. In one view, for the purpose of municipal law, the terri- subjects. “ The Orders show a gradual increase of the assumptory of a protectorate is not, but for the purposes of internationaltion of internal sovereignty” (Jenkyns, 193). A similar process law is, within the territory of the protecting state. In another is observable in the German protectorates, which are treated view, such territory is foreign only in the sense that it is not for some purposes as “inland," and not foreign territory (Der within the purview of the majority of statutes (see Hall's koloniale Inlands- und Auslands-begriff, Zeitschrift für KoloInternational Law, 6th ed., 126, Heilborn, 535; Tupper's Indian nialrecht, 1907, p. 311). The fact is that in the case of proProtectorates, 336; Laband, 2,8 70).
tectorates over uncivilized or semi-civilized countries a developThe older view of the position of a protectorate according to ment is inevitable: control quickly hardens into conquest, and international law is contained in the decision of Dr Lushington
international law more and more takes nole of this fact. in the case of the "Leucade" (8 S.T., N.S., 432), to the effect that, the declaration of war by Great Britain against Russia not with AUTHORITIES.-Bodin, Les Six livres de la République (Lyons, standing, the Ionian Islands, which were then under the protectorate | 1580); De republica libri sex (Paris, 1586): Stengel, 'Die Staats. of Great Britain, remained neutral. The king of Great Britain und völkerrechtliche Stellung der deutschen Colonien (1886); Heim. had the right of declaring peace and war. "Such a right is insepara. burger, Der Erwerb der Gebictshoheit (1888); D'Orgeval, Les Pro. ble from protection." But the Ionian states did not become neces. tectorals allemands; annales de l'Ecole des Sciences Politiques (1890): sarily enemies of the state with which Great Britain was at war. Wilhelm, Théorie juridique des protectorals (1890); Despagnet, Essai According to one view, the protected state is implicated in the wars sur les protectorals (1896): Heilborn, Das völkerrechtliche Protectorat to which the protecting state is a party only when the latter has (1891); Hall, The Foreign Jurisdiction of the British Crown (1894): acquired a right of military occupation over the territory of the Stengel, Die deutschen Schulsgebiete (1895); Gairal, Les Protectorals former. “Cette solution a été reconnue par la France en 1870, à internationaux; léze, Elude théorique, &C., sur l'occupation, &c. propos de la guerre contre l'Allemagne pour les iles Taiti alors (1896): Trione, Gli stati civili nei loro rapporti giuridici coi soumises à notre protectorat; elle s'imposerait pour la Tunisie, popoli barbari e semibarbari (1889); Ilbert, The Government of India l'Annam et Tonkin, et pour le Cambodge, où les traités nous conférent 171898): Jenkyns, British Rule and Jurisdiction beyond the Seas (1902); le droit d'occupation militaire" (M. Despagnet). In the event of Laband. Das Staatsrecht des deutschen Reiches (1876-1882), Revue hostilities between the protecting and protected states, such I de droit international, civilisés, el barbares, xvii. 1, xviii. 188; hostilities would be regarded not as of the nature of an insurrection, Stengel, Die Rechtsverhältnisse der deutschen Schutzgebiete (1901); but as a regular war (Trione, 149).
Devaulx, Les Protectorats de la France (1903) article "Protectorates' By the General Act of the Berlin Conference it was agreed that
in the Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England, 2nd ed., vol. xi.; Baty, a protectorate should be notified to the signa
International Law (1909): Ullmann, Völkerrecht, $ 26 (1908); Rex v. the acquisition o
| Crewe (1910) 79, LII. 874; Von Stengel in Zeitschrift für Kolotories to the agreement (art. 34), and it has been the practice nialrecht (1909), p. 258; Sir W. Lee-Warner, Protected State of to give such notice. It was proposed by some of the powers | India (1910).
PROTEOMYXA, a name given by E. Ray Lankester (Ency. "Monera " of Haeckel, supposed (erroneously in most if not all
but more frequently by multiple fission in a brood-cyst whose
never leading to the formation of a massive fructification: other b ozb
syngamic processes unknown, and probably non-existent.
Encystment, or at least a resting stage at full growth, is very D
no longa characteristic, and frequently an excretion of granules takes al
place into the first-formed cyst, whereupon a second inner cyst is formed which may be followed by a third. These brood-cysts, in which multiple fission takes place, may be of two kinds. ordinary and resting, the latter being distinguished by a firm, and usually ornamented and cuticularized cell-wall, and only producing its zoospores after an interval. Besides, an individual at any age may under unfavourable conditions surround itself with a "hypnocyst," to pass the time until matters are more suitable to active life, when it emerges unchanged.
From the initial character of the brood-cell on leaving the sporocyst the dividing character of the two orders is taken.
1. Zoosporeae, Zopf. The brood-cells leave the cyst as " Monads" (with one or two flagella). Genera: Pseudospora, Cienk.; Prolomonas, Cienk.; Diplophysalis, Zopf.; Gymnococcus, Z.; Aphelidium, Z.; Pseudosporidium, Z.; Plasniodiophora, Woronin; Tetramyxa, Goebel.
2. Azoosporeae, Zopf. Genera: End yonema, Z.; Vampyrella, Cienk. (figs. 1,2,3); Leptophrys, Hertw, and Less.; Bursulla, Sorokin; Protogenes, Hacck. (fig. 8); Archerina, Lank. (figs. 4-7); Serosporidium, L. Pfeiffer; Lymphosporidium, Calkins.
Many of the species are endoparasites in living cells, mostly of Algae or Fungi, but not exclusively. At least two species of Pseudospora have been taken for reproductive stages in the life history of their hosts-whence indeed the generic name Plasmodiophora brassicae gives rise to the disease known as "Hanburies" or "fingers and toes' in Cruciferae; Lymphosporidium causes a virulent epidemic among the American brook-trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Archerina bolloni is remarkable for containing a pair of chlorophyll corpuscles in each cell; no nucleus has been made out, but the chlorophyll bodies divide previous to fission. It is a fresh-water form. The cells of this species form loose aggregates or filoplasmodia, like those of Mikrogromia (Foraminifera, q.v.) or Leydenia (Labyrinthuloidea, 9.v.), &c.
Vampyrella (figs. 1-3) and Enteromyxa also form a compact plasmodium which separates into I-nucleate cells, which then encyst and divide into a brood of four.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-F. Cienkowski in Archiv für mikroskopische Anatomie (1865): Haeckel, “ Die Moneren," in Jenaische Zeilschr, (1868), vol. iv.: W. Zopf. "Die Monadineen," in Schenk's Handbuch der Botanik (1887), vol. iii. pt. ii., and Beiträge zur Physiologie und
Morphologie niederer Organismen (1890): Delage and E. Hérouard, 8
Traité de zoologie concrète, vol. i.: La Cellule et les prolocoaires (1896); Marcus Hartog, Cambridge Natural History (1906), vol. i.
PROTESILAUS, in Greek legend, son of Iphiclus, and husband 1, Vampyrella spirogyrae, Cienk., amoeba phase penetrating a cell of Laodameia. In command of the Greek contingent from of Spirogyra b, by a process of its protoplasm c, and taking up the Phylace in Thessaly, he was the first to spring ashore on Trojan substance of the Spirogyra cell, some of which is seen within the soil, although he knew it meant instant death. His wife beVampyrella a. 2. Large individual of Vampyrella, showing pseudopodia e, and
sought the gods below that he might be permitted to return to food particles a. The nucleus (though present) is not shown in earth for the space of three hours. Her prayer was granted, this drawing.
and on the expiration of the time allotted she returned with him 3. Cyst phase of Vampyrella. The contents of the cyst have to the nether world. According to Hyginus (Fab. 103, 104), divided into four equal parts, of which three are visible. One is
Laodameia made a waxen image of her husband. A slave, commencing to break its way through the cyst-wall fia, food particles. Un
having detected her in the act of embracing it and supposing 4. Archerina boltoni, Lankester, showing lobose and filamentous it to be a lover, informed her father, who ordered her to burn protoplasm, and three groups of chlorophyll corpuscles. The pro- the image; whereupon she threw herself with it into the flames. toplasm g is engulphing a Bacterium i. 5. Cyst phase of Archerina: a, spinous cyst-wall; b, green-coloured
In another account (Conon, Narrationes, 13) Protesilaus survived
the fall of Troy and carried off Aethilla, the sister of Priam, contents.
6, Chlorophyll corpuscle of Archerina showing tetraschistic During a halt on the peninsula of Pallene, Aethilla and the other division.
captive women set fire to the ships. Protesilaus, unable to 7. Actinophryd form of Archerina: b. chlorophyll corpuscles. it
continue his voyage, remained and built the city of Scione. His 8, Protogenes primordialis, Haeckel (Amoeba porrecta, M. Schultze), from Schultze's figure.
tomb and temple were to be seen near Eleus in the Thracian
Chersonese. Nymphs had planted elm-trees, facing towards the former; but as this name had been usually applied to Flagel-Troy, which withered away as soon as they had grown high lates and even the zoospores are not always provided with enough to see the captured city. Protesilaus was the subject fiagella, Lankester's name has become more suitable, and has of a tragedy by Euripides, of which some fragments remain. been adopted by Delage and Hérouard (1896) and by Hartog Iliad, ii. 698; Lucian, Dial mort. xxiii. 1; Ovid, Heroides, xij.; 6006). The group entered to a considerable extent into the Philostratus, Heroica, i.
PROTESTANT, the generic name for an adherent of those the clergy and laity, and is even sometimes used by them in a Churches which base their teaching on the principles of the derogatory sense as applied to their fellow churchmen who still Reformation (9.v.). The name is derived from the formal uphold in their integrity the principles of the Reformation. Protestatio handed in by the evangelical states of the empire, Among the latter, on the other hand, “ Protestantism " is used including some of the more important princes and 14 imperial as exclusive of a good many of the doctrines and practices which cities, against the recess of the diet of Spires (1529), which decreed in the Lutheran Church were at one time “ Protestant” as that the religious status quo was to be preserved, that no innova- opposed to “ Reformed,” e.g. the doctrine of the real Presence, tions were to be introduced in those states which had not hither- auricular confession, the use of ceremonial lights and vestments. to made them, and that the mass was everywhere to be tolerated. By many churchmen, too, the name of " Protestant " is accepted The name Protestant seems to have been first applied to the in what they take to be the old sense as implying repudiation protesting princes by their opponents, and it soon came to be used of the claims of Rome, but as not necessarily involving a denial indiscriminately of all the adherents of the reformed religion. of “Catholic" doctrine or any confusion of the Church of Its use appears to have spread more rapidly outside Germany England with non-episcopal churches at home or abroad. than in Germany itself, one cause of its popularity being that In contradistinction to all these somewhat refined meanings, it was negative and colourless, and could thus be applied by the term “ Protestant ” is in common parlance applied to ali adherents of the “old religion " to those of the " new religion," | Christians who do not belong to the Roman Catholic Church, without giving offence, on occasions when it was expedient to or to one or other of the ancient Churches of the East. avoid abusive language. The designation was moreover grate- PROTESTANTENVEREIN is the name of a society in Germany ful to the Reformers as connoting a certain boldness of attitude; the general object of which is to promote the union (l'erein) and and Professor Kattenbusch (Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie, progress of the various established Protestant Churches of the 3rd ed., xvi. p. 136, 15) points out with great truth how, from country in harmony with the advance of culture and on the this point of view, the name " Protestantism " has survived as basis of Christianity. It was founded at Frankfort-on-theembodying for many the conception of liberty, of the right of Main in 1863 by a number of distinguished clergymen and layprivate judgment, of toleration for every progressive idea in men of liberal tendencies, representing the freer parties of the religion, as opposed to the Roman Catholic principles of Lutheran and Reformed Churches of the various German authority and tradition; so that many even of those who do states, amongst whom were the statesmen Bluntschli and l'on not "profess and call themselves Christians " yet glory in the Bennigsen and the professors R. Rothe, H. Ewald, D. Schenkel, name of “ Protestant."
A. Hilgenfeld and F. Hitzig. The more special objects of the As the designation of a Church, " Protestant" was unknown association are the following: the development of the Churches during the Reformation period and for a long while after. In on the basis of a representative parochial and synodal system of Germany the Reformers called themselves usually evangelici, government in which the laity shall enjoy their full rights; the and avoided special designations for their communities, which promotion of a federation of all the Churches in one national they conceived only as part of the true Catholic Church; “ Cal-Church; resistance to all hierarchical tendencies both within and vinists," " Lutherans," * Zwinglians" were, in the main, terms of without the Protestant Churches; the promotion of Christian abuse intended to stamp them as followers of one or other toleration and mutual respect amongst the various confessions; heretical leader, like Arians or Hussites. It was not until the the rousing and nurture of the Christian life and of all Christian period of the Thirty Years' War that the two main schools of works necessary for the moral strength and prosperity of the the reformed or evangelical Churches marked their definitive nation. These objects include opposition to the claims of Rome
eparation: the Calvinists describing themselves as the “ Re- and to autocratic interference with the Church formed Church," the Lutherans as the “Lutheran Church." either political or ecclesiastical authorities, efforts to induce the In France, in England, in Holland the evangelicals continued laity to claim and exercise their privileges as members of the to describe their churches as ecclesiae reformatae, without the Church, the assertion of the right of the clergy, laity and both lay arrière pensée which in Germany had confined the designation and clerical professors to search for and proclaim freely the “Reformed ” to the followers of a particular church order and truth in independence of the creeds and the letter of Scripture. doctrine. As to the word “ Protestant," it was never applied Membership in the association is open to all Germans who are to the Church of England or to any other, save unofficially and Protestants and declare their willingness to co-operate in proin the wide sense above indicated, until the style “Protestant moting its objects. The means used to promote these objects Episcopal Church " (see below) was assumed by the Anglican are mainly (1) the formation of local branch associations throughcommunion in the United States. Even in the Bill of Rights out the country, the duty of which is by lectures, meetings and the phrase " Protestant religion” occurs, but not “ Protestant the distribution of suitable literature to make known and Church," and it was reserved for the Liberal government, in advocate its principles, and (2) the holding of great annual or the original draft (afterwards changed) of the Accession Declara- biennial meetings of the whole association, at which its objects tion Bill introduced in 1910, to suggest “ Protestant Reformed and principles are expounded and applied to the circumstances Church of England” as a new title for the Established Church. I of the Church at the moment. The " theses " accepted by the
The style “ Protestant” had, however, during the 19th cen- general meetings of the association as the result of the discustury assumed a variety of new shades of meaning which neces- sions on the papers read indicate the theological position of its sarily made its particular application a somewhat hazardous members. The following may serve as illustrations: proceeding. In Germany it had, for a while, been assumed by | The creeds of the Protestant Church shut the doors on the past the Lutherans as against the Calvinists, and when in 1817 King only, but open them for advance in the future; it is immoral and Frederick William III. of Prussia forcibly amalgamated the contrary to true Protestantism to require subscription to them. Lutheran and Reformed Churches in the new “Evangelical
The limits of the freedom of teaching are not prescribed by the letter
of Scripture, but a fundamental requirement of Protestantism is free Church "its public use was forbidden in the Prussian dominions.
inquiry in and about the Scriptures. The attempt to limit the It survived, however, in spite of royal decrees, but in an altered | freedom of theological inquiry and teaching in the universities is a sense. It became-to quote Professor Kattenbusch-the violation of the vital principle of Protestantism. Only such concep. “secular" designation of the adherents of the Reformation,
tions of the person of Jesus can satisfy the religious necessities of
this age as fully recognize the idea of his humanity and place in the shibboleth of the “ liberal " ecclesiastical and theological
history. The higher reason only has unconditional authority, and tendencies. Finally, in opposition to the ultramontane move- the Bible must justify itself before its tribunal; we find the history ment in the Roman Catholic Church, it came once more into
of divine revelation and its fulfilment in the Bible alone, and reason fashion in something of its original sense among the evangelicals.
bids us regard the Bible as the only authority and canon in matters
of religious belief. In the Church of England, on the other hand, the name “ Protestant " has, under the influence of the High Church The formation of the association at once provoked fierce reaction, been repudiated by an increasingly large number of I and determined opposition on the part of the orthodox sections