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or “ mandible" can be opened and closed. It is regarded as a pora pilosa, the pelagic larva is known as Cyphonautes, and it has modified zooecium, the polypide of which has become vestigial, a structure not unlike that of the larval Pediceliina. The principal although it is commonly represented by a sense-organ, bearing differences are the complication of the ciliated band, the absence of tactile hairs, situated on what may be termed the palate. The the excretory organ, the great lateral compression of the body, operculum of the normal zooecium has become the mandible, the possession of a pair of shells protecting the sides, the presence while the occlusor muscles have become enormous. In the vibra- of an organ known as the "pyriform organ," and the occurrence culum the part representing the zooecium is relatively smaller, of a sucker in a position corresponding with the depression seen and the mandible has become the "seta," an elongated chitinous between (m) and (a) in fig. ii. Fixation takes place by means of lash which projects far beyond the zooecial portion of the structure. this sucker, which is everted for the purpose, part of its epithelium In Caberea, the vibracula are known to move synchronously, but becoming the basal ectoderm of the ancestrula. The pyriform co-ordination of this kind is otherwise unknown in the Polyzoa. organ has probably assisted the larva to find an appropriate place The avicularia and vibracula give valuable aid to the systematic for fixation (cf. Kupelwieser, 18); but, like the alimentary canal study of the Cheilostomata. In its least differentiated form the and most of the other larval organs, it undergoes a process of histoavicálarium occupies the place of an ordinary zooecium (" vicarious lysis, and the larva becomes the ancestrula, containing the primary avicularium "), from which it is distinguished by the greater brown body derived from the purely larval organs. The polypide is development of the operculum and its muscles, while the polypide formed, as in an ordinary zooecium after the loss of its polypide, is normally not functional. Avicularia of this type occur in the

of this type occur in the from a polypide-bud. common Flustra foliacea, in various species of Membrani pora, and | The Cyphonaules type has been shown by Prouho (24) to occur in particular in the Onychocellidae, a remarkable family common in two or three widely different species of Cheilostomata and Ctenoin the Cretaceous period and still existing. In the majority of stomata in which the eggs are laid and develop in the external Cheilostomes, the avicularia are, so to speak, forced out of the water. In most Ectoprocta, however, the development takes place ordinary series of zooecia, with which they are rigidly connected. internally or in an ovicell, and a considerable quantity of yolk is There are comparatively few cases in which, as in Bugula, they are present. The alimentary canal, which may be represented by a mounted on a movable joint. Although at first sight the arrange vestigial structure, is accordingly not functional, and the larva ment of the avicularia in Cheilostomes appears to follow no general does not become pelagic. A pyriform organ is present in most law some method is probably to be made out on closer study. Gymnolaemata as well as the sucker by which fixation is effected. They occur in particular in relation with the orifice of the zooecium, As in the case of Cyphonautes, the larval organs degenerate and and with that of the compensation-sac. This delicate structure the larva becomes the ancestrula from which a polypide is developed is frequently guarded by an avicularium at its entrance, while as a bud. In the Cyclostomata the primary embryo undergoes avicularia are also commonly found on either side of the operculum repeated fission without developing definite organs, and each of or in other positions close to that structure. It can hardly be doubted the numerous pieces so formed becomes a free larva, which possesses that the function of these avicularia is the protection of the ten no alimentary canal. Finally, in the Phylactolaemata, the larva tacles and compensation-sac. The suggestion that they are concerned becomes an ancestrula before it is hatched, and one or several in feeding does not rest on any definite evidence, and is probably polypides may be present when fixation is effected. erroneous. But avicularia or vibracula may also occur in other. The development of the Ectoprocta is intelligible on the hypoplaces on the backs of unilaminar erect forms, along the sutural thesis that the Entoprocta form the starting point of the series, lines of the zooecia and on their frontal surface. These are probably On the view that the Phylactolaemata are nearly related to Phoronis important in checking overgrowth by encrusting organisms, and (see PHORONIDEA), it is extremely difficult to draw any conclusions in particular by preventing larvae from fixing on the zoarium. with regard to the significance of the facts of development. If the Vibracula are of less frequent occurrence than avicularia, with which Phylactolaemata were evolved from the type of structure reprethey may coexist as in Scrupocellaria, where they occur on the sented by Phoronis or the Pterobranchia (q.v.), the Gymnolaemata backs of the unilaminar branches. In the so-called Selenariidae, should be a further modification of this type, and the comparative probably an unnatural association of genera which have assumed study of the embryology of the two orders would appear to be a free discoidal form of zoarium, they may reach a very high degree meaningless. It seems more natural to draw the conclusion that of development, but Busk's suggestion that in this group they the resemblances of the Phylactolaemata to Phoronis are devoid " may be subservient to locomotion " needs verification.

of phylogenetic significance. Development and Affinities. It is generally admitted that the I BIBLIOGRAPHY.-For general accounts of the structure and larva of the Entoprocta (fig. II) has the structure of a Trocho- development of the Polyzoa the reader's attention is specially

sphere. This appears to indicate directed to 12, 14, 6, 25, 1, 2, 17, 26, 18, 23. 3, in the list given below: world bor ( B

o that the Polyzoa are remotely for an historical account to r; for a full bibliography of the group,

allied to other phyla in which to 22; for fresh-water forms, to 1-3, 7-10, 17; for an indispensable OD

this type of larva prevails, and synonymic list of recent marine forms, to 15; for Entoprocta, to babbadus

in particular to the Mollusca and 10, 11, 24; for the classification of Gymnolaemata, to 21, 14, 4.
Chaetopoda, as well as to the | 13, 20; for Palaeontology, to 27, 22.
Rotifera, which are regarded as | References to important works on the species of marine Polyzoa
persistent Trochospheres. The | by Busk, Hincks, Jullien, Levinsen, MacGillivray, Nordgaard,
praeoral portion (lower in fig. 11) Norman, Waters and others are given in the Memoir (22) by Nickles

constitutes the greater part of and Bassler. (1) Allman, “Monogr. Fresh-water Polyzoa," Ray прh

the larva and contains most of Soc. (1856). (2) Braem, “ Bry. d. süssen Wassers," Bibl. Zool. the viscera. It is terminated by Bd. ii. Heft 6 (1890). (3) Braem, “Entwickel. v. Plumatella," a well-developed structure (8) | ibid., Bd. x. Heft 23 (1897). (4) Busk, “ Report on the Polyzoa," corresponding with the apical Challenger " Rep. pt. xxx. (1884), 50 (1886)(5) Caldwell, “ Phorosense-organ of ordinary Trocho nis," Proc. Roy. Soc. (1883), xxxiv. 371. (6) Calvet, "Bry. Ectospheres, and an excretory argan proctes Marins,". Trav. Inst. Montpellier (new series), Mém. (nph) of the type familiar in 8 (1900). (7) Cori, “Nephridien d. Cristalella," Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. these larvae occurs on the ventral (1893), lv. 626. (8) Davenport, Cristatella," Bull. Mus. Harvard side of the stomach. The central (1890-1891), xx. 101. (9) Davenport, Paludicella." ibid. (1891-1892),

nervous system (x) is highly | xxii. 1. (10) Davenport, " Urnatella," ibid. (1893), xxiv. 1. (11) bot a s developed, and in Loxosome bears Ehlers, "Pedicellineen," Abk. Ges. Göllingen (1890), xxxvi. (12)

a pair of eyes. The larva swims Harmer, " Polyzoa," Cambr. Nal. Hist. (1896), ii. 463; art. “Poly(Alter Hatschek.)

by a ring of cilia, which corre zoa," Ency. Brit. (ioth ed., 1902), xxxi. 826. (13) Harmer, Fig. 11.-Larva of Pedicellina. sponds with the praeoral circlet "Morph. Cheilostomata," Quart. Journ. Mic. Sci. (1903), xlvi.

of a Trochosphere. The oral 263. (14) Hincks, “Hist. Brit. Mar. Pol." (1880). (15) Jelly, a, Anus.

surface, on which are situated 18. Apical sense-organ.

Syn. Cat. Recent Mar, Bry." (1889). (16) Jullien and Calvet, Intestine.

the mouth (m) and anus (@), is “Bryozoaires," Rés camp. sci. prince de Monaco (1903), xxiii. (17)

relatively small. The apical sense Kraepelin, Ventral wall of stomach.

Deutsch. Süsswasser-Bry.," Abh. Ver. Hamburg 1,

organ is used for temporary attach (1887), x.; (1892), xii. (18) Kupelwieser, Cyphonaules," Zoologico m, Mouth.

ment to the maternal vestibule in I (1906). Bd. xix. Heft 47. (19) Lankester, art, “Polyzoa," nph, Excretory organ.

which development takes place, | Ency. Brit. (9th ed., 1885). xix. 429. (20) Levinsen, “Bryozoa," X Brain.

but permanent fixation is effected Vid. Medd. Naturh. Foren, (Copenhagen, 1902). (21) MacGillivray. by the oral surface. This is followed by the atrophy of many of the “Cat. Mar. Pol. Victoria," P. Roy. Soc. Victoria (1887), xxiii. 187. larval organs, including the brain, the sense-organ and the ciliated (22) Nickles and Bassler, “Synopsis Amer. Foss. Bry.," Bull. ring. The alimentary canal persists and revolves in the median | U.S. Geol. Survey (1900), No. 173. (23) Pace, “Dev. Flustrella,". plane through an angle of 180°, accompanied by part of the larval Quart. Journ. Mic. Soc. (1906). 50, pt. 3. 435. (24) Prouho, Loxovestibule, the space formed by the retraction of the oral surface. somes," Arch, Zool. Exp. (2) (1891), ix. 91. (25) Prouho, " BryoThe vestibule breaks through to the exterior, and the tentacles, zoaires," ibid. (2) (1892), x. 557. (26) Seeliger, Larven'u. Verwandtwhich have been developed within it, are brought into relation schaít," Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. (1906), Ixxxiv. 1. (27) Ulrich, with the external water.

"Fossil Polyzoa," in Zittel's Text-book of Palaeontology, Eng: ed. , la the common and widely-distributed Cheilostome, Membrani-|(1900), i. 257.



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POMADE, or POMATUM, a scented ointment, used formerly axils of some of which proceed the brilliant scarlet flowers. for softening and beautifying the skin, as a lip-salve, &c., but | These are raised on a short stalk, and consist of a thick fleshy now principally applied to the hair. It was made originally cylindrical or bell-shaped calyx-tube, with five to seven short from the juice of apples (Lat. pomum), whence the name. lobes at the top. From the throat of the calyx proceed five to

POMANDER (from Fr. pomme d'ambre, i.e. apple of amber), a ball made of perfumes, such as ambergris (whence the name), musk, civet, &c., and formerly worn or carried in a case, also known by the same name, as a protection against infection in times of pestilence or merely as a useful article to modify bad smells. The globular cases which contained the “pomanders " were hung from a neck-chain or attached to the girdle, and were usually perforated and made of gold or silver. Sometimes they contained several partitions, in each of which was placed a different perfume. There is an early Spanish pomander set with emeralds, and a fine 16th-century one, dredged from the Thames, in the British Museum.

POMBAL, SEBASTIÃO JOSE DE CARVALHO E MELLO, MARQUESS OF (1699-1782), Portuguese statesman, was born at Soure near Pomba, on the 13th of May 1699. He was the son of Manoel de Carvalho e Athayde, a country gentleman (fidalgo) and of his wife D. Theresa Luiza de Mendonça e Mello. He studied law at Coimbra University, served for a short time as a private in the army, and afterwards lived the life of a man about town in Lisbon, sharing in the diversions of the “Mohocks" who then infested the streets. In 1733 he abducted and married D. Theresa de Noronha, a widow belonging to one of the most distinguished families in Portugal. He then retired to Soure, where, on the recommendation of Cardinal de Motta, King John V. commissioned him to write a series of biographical studies. In 1739 he was sent as Portuguese ambassador to. London, where he remained until 1745. He was then transferred to Vienna, His first wife having died on the 7th of January 1739, he married, on the 18th of December 1745, Leonora Ernestine Daun, daughter of General Count Daun. In 1749 he was recalled to take up the post of secretary of state for foreign affairs and war.

FIG. I.-- Pomegranate, Punica Granatum, flowering branch, The appointment was ratified on the 3rd of August 1750, by King

| 1, Flower cut lengthwise; the Joseph, who had succeeded John V. in that year. Carvalho's

3, Same cut across, showing petals have been removed.

seeds. career from 1750 to 1777 is part of the history of Portugal. 2, Fruit, about one-third natural 4. Seed, Though he came into power only in his 51st year, without size., previous administrative experience, he was able to reorganize seven roundish, crumpled, scarlet or crimson petals, and below Portuguese education, finance, the army and the navy. He also

them very numerous slender stamens. The pistil consists of two built up new industries, promoted the development of Brazil | rows of carpels placed one above another, both rows embedded and Macao, and expelled the Jesuits. His complete ascendancy in, and partially inseparate from, the inner surface of the calyxover the mind of King Joseph dates from the time of the great | tube. The styles are confluent into one slender column. The Lisbon earthquake (Nov. 1, 1755). Though the famous words fruit, which usually attains the size of a large orange, consists “Bury the dead and feed the living” were probably not spoken by him, they summarize his action at this time of calamity. In June 1759 his suppression of the so-called “Tavora plot” gained for him the title of count of Oeyras; and in September 1770 he was made marquess of Pombal. His severe administration had made many enemies, and his life had been attempted in 1769. Soon after the death of King Joseph, in 1777, Pombal was dismissed from office; and he was only saved from impeach

B ment by the death of his bitterest opponent, the queen-mother, (After Eichler, from Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Mariana Victoria, in January 1781. On the 16th of August a

Fischer.) royal decree forbade him to reside within twenty leagues of the

FIG. 2.---Punica Granatum. court. He died at Pombal on the 8th of May 1782. W

A, Floral diagram. B, Longitudinal section of the ovary. See, in addition to the works dealing with the period 1750-1777 of a hard leathery rind, enclosing a quantity of pulp derived and quoted under PORTUGAL: History; S.J.C.M. (Pombal), Relação

from the coats of the numerous seeds. This pulp, filled as it is abreviada, &c. (Paris, 1758); Memoirs of the Court of Portugal, &c. with refreshing acid juice constitutes the chief

with refreshing acid juice, constitutes the chief value of the tree. (London, 1765); Anecdotes du ministère de Pombal (Warsaw, 1781); Administration du marquis de Pombal (4 vols., Amsterdam, 1787): The more highly cultivated forms contain more of it than the Carlis . .. do marques de Pombal (3 vols., Lisbon, 1820-1824): wild or half-wild varieties. The great structural peculiarity J. Smith, Count of Carnota, Memoirs of the Marquess of Pombal, consists in the presence of the two rows of carpels one above &c. (London, 1843); F. L. Gomes, Le Marquis de Pombal, &c.

another (a state of things which occurs exceptionally in apples (Paris, 1869); B. Duhr (S.J.), Pombal, &c. (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1891); C. J. de Menezes, Os Jesuitas e o marques de Pombal (Oporto, and oranges), and in the fact that, while in the lower series the 1893). See also articles in the Revue des deux mondes for September seeds are attached to the inner border or lower angle of the cavity, 1870; the Revue bleue for September 1889, and the Revue historique | they occupy the outer side in the upper series, as if during growth for September 1895 and January 1896.

the upper whorl had become completely bent over. POMEGRANATE. The pomegranate (Punica Granatum) is By Bentham and Hooker the Punica is included as an anomaof exceptional interest by reason of its structure, its history, and lous genus in the order Lythraceae; others consider it more its utility. It forms a tree of small stature, or a bush, with nearly allied to the myrtles; while its peculiarities are so great as, opposite or alternate, shining, lance-shaped leaves, from the l in the opinion of many botanists, to justify its inclusion in a

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separate order, Punicaceae. Not only is the fruit valuable in primitive fashion, and as a rule the livestock is of an inferior hot countries for the sake of its pulp, but the rind and the bark quality, though the breed of horses, of a heavy build and mostly and the outer part of the root (containing the alkaloid pelle- used in agriculture, is held in high esteem. Large flocks of sheep tierine) are valuable as astringents. The bark of the root is are kept, both for their flesh and their wool, and there are in the likewise valued as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worm. province large numbers of horned cattle and of pigs, Geese

The tree is wild in Afghanistan, north-western India, and the and goose feathers form lucrative articles of export. Owing districts south and south-west of the Caspian, but it has been so to the long line of coast and the numerous lakes, fishing forms an long cultivated that it is difficult to say whether it is really important industry, and large quantities of herrings, eels and native in Palestine and the Mediterranean region. It has been lampreys are sent from Pomerania to other parts of Germany. cited as wild in northern Africa, but this appears to be a mistake. With the exception of the almost inexhaustible layers of peat, Professor Bayley Balfour met with a wild species, heretofore un- | the mineral wealth of the province is insignificant. Its industrial known, in the island of Socotra, the flowers of which have only activity is not great, but there are manufactures of machinery, a single row of carpels, which suggests the inference that it may chemicals, paper, tobacco and sugar; these are made chiefly have been the source of the cultivated varieties. But, on the other in or near the large towns, while linen-weaving is practised as a hand, in Afghanistan, where Aitchison mct with the tree truly domestic industry. Ship-building is carried on at Stettin and at wild, a double row of carpels was present as usual. The antiquity several places along the coast. The commerce of Pomerania of the tree as a cultivated plant is evidenced by the Sanskrit is in a flourishing condition, its principal ports being Stettin, name Dädimba, and by the references to the fruit in the Old Stralsund and Swinemünde. Education is provided for by a Testament, and in the Odyssey, where it is spoken of as cultivated university at Greifswald and by numerous schools. The province in the gardens of the kings of Phacacia and Phrygia. The fruit seuds 14 members to the German Reichstag, and 26 to the Prussian is frequently represented on ancient Assyrian and Egyptian house of representatives. The heir to the Prussian crown bears sculptures, and had a religious significance in connexion with the title of governor of Pomerania. several Oriental cults, especially the Phrygian cult of Cybele History.-In prehistoric times the southern coast of the Baltic (Arnob. v. 5 seq.; see also Baudissin, Studien, ii. 207 seq.). It seems to have been occupied by Celts, who afterwards made way was well known to the Greeks and Romans, who were acquainted for tribes of Teutonic stock. These in their turn migrated to with its medicinal properties and its use as a tanning material. other settlements and were replaced, about the end of the sth The name given by the Romans, malum punicum, indicates that century of our era, by Slavonic tribes, the Wilzi and the Pomerani. they received it from Carthage, as indeed is expressly stated | The name of Pomore, or Pommern, meaning “on the sea," was by Pliny; and.this circumstance has given rise to the notion that given to the district by the latter of the tribes about the time of the tree was indigenous in northern Africa. On a review of the Charlemagne, and it has often changed its political and geowhole evidence, botanical, literary and linguistic, Alphonse de graphical significance. Originally it seems to have denoted the Candolle (Origin of Cullivaled Plants) pronounces against its coast district between the Oder and the Vistula, a territory African origin, and decides in favour of its source in Persia and which was at first more or less dependent on Poland, but which, the neighbouring countries. According to Saporta, the pomegra- towards the end of the 12th century, was ruled by two native nate existed in a fossil state in beds of the Pliocene epoch near princes, who took the title of duke about 1170 and admitted the Meximieux in Burgundy. The pomegranate is sometimes met authority of the German king in 1181. Afterwards Pomerania with in cultivation against a wall in England, but it is too tender extended much farther to the west, while being correspondingly to withstand a severe winter. The double-flowered varieties curtailed on the east, and a distinction was made between are specially desirable for the beauty and long duration of their Slavinia, or modern Pomerania, and Pomerellen. The latter, flowers.

corresponding substantially to the present province of West POMERANIA (German, Pommern), a territory of Germany Prussia, remained subject to Poland until 1309, when it was and a maritime province of Prussia, bounded on the N. by the divided between Brandenburg and the Teutonic Order. Baltic, on the W. by Mecklenburg, on the S. by Brandenburg, Christianity was introduced in the 12th century, a bishopric and on the E. by West Prussia. Its area is 11,630 sq. m., and being founded in the Island of Wollin, and its advance went the population in 1905 was 1,684,125, showing a density of 145 rapidly hand in hand with the Germanizing of the district. inhabitants to the square mile. The province is officially divided The history of Pomerania, as distinct from that of Pomerellen, into the three districts of Stralsund, Stettin and Köslin, but more consists mainly of an almost endless succession of divisions of historical interest attaches to the names of Vorpommern and territory among the different lines of the ducal house, and of Hinterpommern, or Hither and Farther Pomerania, the former numerous expansions and contractions of territory through being applicd to the territory to the west, and the latter to that constant hostilities with the elector of Brandenburg, who to the east of the Oder. Pomerania is one of the flattest parts claimed to be the immediate feudal superior of Pomerania, of Germany, although cast of the Oder it is traversed by a range and with other neighbouring rulers. The names of Vorpomof low hills, and there are also a few isolated eminences to the mern and Hinterpommern were at first synonymous with west. Off the west coast, which is very irregular, lie the islands of Pomerania proper, or Slavinia and Pomerellen, but towards Rügen, Usedom and Wollin; the coast of Farther Pomerania is the close of the 14th century they were transferred to the two smooth in outline and is bordered with dunes, or sandbanks. duchies into which the former was divided. In 1625 the Besides the Oder and its affluents, the chief of which are the whole of Pomerania became united under the sway of Duke Peene, the Ucker and the Ihna, there are several smaller rivers Bogislaus XIV., and on his death without issue, in 1637, Brandenflowing into the Baltic; a few of these are navigable for ships, burg claimed the duchy by virtue of a compact made in 1571. but the greater number only carry rafts. Many of them end in In the meantime, however, Pomerania had been devastated small lakes, which are separated from the sea by narrow strips by the Thirty Years' War and occupied by the Swedes, who had of land, through which the water escapes by one or more outlets. taken possession of its towns and fortresses. At the peace of The interior of the province is also thickly sprinkled with lakes. | Westphalia they claimed the duchy. in opposition to the elector the combined area of which is equal to about one-twentieth of of Brandenburg, and the result was that the latter was obliged to the entire surface.

content himself with eastern Pomerania (Hinterpommern), and The soil of Pomerania is for the most part thin and sandy, to see the western part (Vorpommern) awarded to Sweden. In but patches of good land are found here and there. About 55% 1720, by the peace of Stockholm, Swedish Pomerania was curof the whole is under tillage, while 16% consists of meadow and tailed by extensive concessions to Prussia, but the district to the pasture and 21% is covered by forests. The principal crops are west of the Peene remained in the possession of Sweden until the potatoes, rye and oats, but wheat and barley are grown in the general European settlement of 1815. Then Sweden assigned more fertile districts; tobacco, flax, hops and beetroot are also her German possessions to Denmark in exchange for Norway, cultivated. Agriculture is still carried op in a somewhat I whereupon Prussia, partly by purchase and partly by the cession

of the duchy of Lauenburg, finally succeeded in uniting the whole from F below 8 ft. Cto E or F in the bass stave, two octaves in all. of Pomerania under her rule.

The other members of the family were the bass Pommer, from For the history, see J. Bugenhagen, Pomerania, edited by 0.8 ft. C to middle C, corresponding to the modern bassoon or Heinemann (Stettin, 1900); von Bohlen, Die Erwerbung Pommerns fagotto; the tenor or basset Pommer, a fifth higher in pitch; the durch die Hohenzollern (Berlin, 1865); H. Berghaus, Landbuch des alto pommer or nicolo, a fourth or a fifth above the tenor; and Herzogtums Pommern (Berlin, 1865-1876); the Codex Pomeraniae

the high alto, or Klein Alt Pommer, an octave higher than the diplomaticus, edited by K. F. W. Hasselbach and J. G. L. Kosegarten (Greifswald. 1862): the Pommersches Urkundenbuch, edited tenor, corresponding approximately to the cor-anglais. by R. Klempin and others (Stettin, 1868-1896): W. von Sommer For the history of the Pommer family see OBOE and BASSOON. feld. Geschichte der Germanisierung des Herzoglums Pommern

(K. S.) (Leipzig, 1896); F. W. Barthold, Geschichte von Rügen und Pommern

POMONA, an old Italian goddess of fruit and gardens. Ovid (Hamburg, 1839-1845): K. Mass, Pommersche Geschichle (Stettin, 1899): M. Wehrmann, Geschichte von Pommern (Gotha, 1904-1906);

-1906): (Met. xiv. 623) tells the story of her courtship by the silvan and Uecker, Pommern in Wort und Bild (Stettin, 1904). See also deities and how Vertumnus, god of the turning year, wooed

{ the Gesellschaft für Pommersche Geschichle und and won her. Corresponding to Pomona there seems to have Iltertumskunde.

been a male Italian deity, called Pomunus, who was perhaps POMEROY, a village and the county-seat of Meigs county, identical with Vertumnus. Although chiefly worshipped in the Ohio, U.S.A., on the Ohio river, about 85 m. S.S.E. of Columbus. country, Pomona had a special priest at Rome, the flamen PomoPop. (1890) 4726; (1900) 4639, including 453 foreign-born and nalis, and a sacred grove near Ostia, called the Pomonal. She 280 negroes; (1910) 4023. Pomeroy is served by the Hocking | was represented as a beautiful maiden, with fruits in her bosom Valley and (across the river) Baltimore & Ohio railways, by and a pruning-knife in her hand. inter-urban electric railway, and by passenger and freight boats POMONA, a city of Los Angeles county, in southern Calito the leading river ports. It occupies å strip of ground between fornia, U.S.A., about 33 m. E. of the city of Los Angeles. Pop. the river and a range of steep hills. Bituminous coal and salt (1890) 3634; (1900) 5526 (567 foreign-born);(1910) 10,207. It is abound in the district, and there are deposits of building stone, served by the Southern Pacific, the San Pedro, Los Angeles & fireclay and glass sand. The first settlement here was established Salt Lake, and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railways, in 1816, coal mining was begun three years later, and in 1827 a and by an inter-urban electric line. The city is about 850 st. town was laid out and named Nyesville. There was little pro-above sea-level, and has a Carnegie library and several parks, gress, however, until 1833, when Samuel W. Pomeroy (in whose including Ganesha park (45 acres), which commands a fine view. honour the present name was adopted) formed a company, At Claremont, about 3 m. north, is Pomona College (1888, COwhich began mining coal on a large scale. Pomeroy was incor- educational), which in 1908 had 34 instructors and 488 students. porated as a village and was made the county-seat in 1841. In Pomona is in the midst of a prosperous fruit region, devoted 1850 the first of several salt wells, from 1000 to 1200 ft. in especially to the growing of oranges. Orchards of oranges, depth, was operated.

lemons, apricots, peaches and prunes surround the city for miles, POMFRET, JOHN (1667-1702), English poet, son of Thomas and some olives are grown; alfalfa and sugar-bcets are raised in Pomfret, vicar of Luton, was born in 1667. He was educated large quantities in the immediate neighbourhood. Pomona was at Bedford grammar school and at Queens' College, Cambridge. settled by a colony of fruit-growers in 1875, and was chartered He became rector of Maulden, Bedfordshire, in 1695, and of as a city in 1888. Millbrook in the same county in 1702. Dr Johnson says that ! POMONA, or MAINLAND, the central and largest island of the bishop of London refused to sanction preferment for him the Orkneys, Scotland. Pop. (1901), 16,235. It is 25 m. long because in his Choice he declared that he would have no wife, from N.W. to S.E. and 15 m. broad from E. to W.; area, 100 although he expressed a wish for the occasional company of a sq. m.; but where the coast is cut into, on the N. by Kirkwall modest and sprightly young lady. The poet was married in real Bay and on the S. by Scapa Flow, the land is less than 2 m. across. life all the same, and-while waiting to clear up the misunder- Consequently, the portion of the island to the west of the waist standing with the bishop-he died in November 1702. The of Pomona is sometimes described as the West Island, and the Choice or Wish: A Poem written by a Person of Quality (1700) portion to the East as the East Island. The west coast is expresses the epicurcan desires of a cultivated man of Pomfret's almost unbroken, the bays of Birsay and Skaill being the only time. It is smoothly written in the heroic couplet, and was widely bays of any importance. The east and south shores, on the popular. His Miscellany Poems were published in 1702.

other hand, are extensively carved out. Thus on the east POMMEL (through 0. Fr. pomel, from a diminutive pomellus of side are found Eynhallow Sound, Wood Wick, the bays of Lat. pomum, fruit, apple), any rounded object resembling an Isbister, Firth, Kirkwall, and Inganess and Dee Sound, and on apple, e.g. the rounded termination of a saddle-bow; in archi- the south Holm Sound, Scapa Bay, Swanbister Bay and Bay tecture, any round knob, as a boss, finial, &c.; more particularly of Ireland. The highest points of the watershed from Costa the rounded end to the hilt of a sword, dagger or other hand | Head to the Scapa shore are Milldoe (734 ft.) to the north-east weapon, used to prevent the hand from slipping, and as a balance of Isbister and Wideford Hill (740 ft.) to the west of Kirkwall. to the blade. “ Pommel" is also a term used of a piece of There are also a grooved wood used in graining leather. This word may be Hill (880 ft.) in the parish of Orpliir being the highest peak in the same in origin, or more probably from Fr. paumelle, from the island. There are numerous lakes, some of considerable paume, the hand, palm.

size and most of them abounding with trout. Loch Harray is POMMER, or BOUBARD (Fr. hautbois; Ital. bombardo, bombar- | 41 m. long by from $ m. to about 2 m. wide, and Loch Stenness done), the alto, tenor and basses of the shawm or Schalmey 35 m. long by from } to 2 m. wide. Lochs Swannay, Boardfamily, and the forerunners respectively of the cor-anglais, house and Hundland are situated in the extreme north, while bassoon or fagotto, and double bassoon or contrafagotto. The Loch Kirbister lies near the south coast and Loch Tankerness main difference to the casual observer between the medicvaladjoins Deer Sound. Off the east coast lie the islands of Rousa y instruments and those of our orchestra which were evolved from Egilshay, Viera, Eynhallow, Gairsay and Shapinshay, and off them would be one of size. In the Pommers no attempt had the south Copinshay and Lamb Holm. The hilly country is been made to bend the tube, and its length, equal to that of an mostly moorland, and peat-mosses are met with in some of the open organ pipe of the same pitch, was outstretched in all its low-lying land, but many of the valleys contain fertile soil, and unwieldiness in an oblique position in front of the performer. there are productive tracts on the eastern and northern seaboard. The great contrabass Pommer was 9 ft. long without the Kirkwall, the capital of the Orkneys, and Stromness are the only crook and reed, which, however, were bent downwards. It ha towns. five open fingerholes and five keys working inside a perforated In Harray, the only parish in the Orkneys not trenched at case; in order to bring the holes within reach of the finger, they some point by the sea, Norse customs have survived longer than were cut obliquely through the tube. The compass extended I elsewhere in the group save in North Ronaldshay. In Deerness

the most easterly parish in Pomona, were buried 200 Covenanters; was suspected, as well as her brother, aíterwards marquis of taken prisoners at the battle of Bothwell Brig. They were | Marigny, to be the child of a very wealthy financier and farmercarried to Barbados, to be sold as slaves for the plantations, general of the revenues, Le Normant de Tournehem. He at when the ship foundered in Deer Sound, and all were drowned. any rate took upon him.sell the charge of her education; and, as In Sandside Bay, in the same parish, the fleet of Malcolm from the beauty and wit she showed from childhood she seemed Canmore was defeated by that of Jarl Thorfinn; and at to be born for some uncommon destiny, he declared her " un Summersdale, towards the northern base of the hills of Orphir, morceau de roi," and specially educated her to be a king's Sir James Sinclair, governor of Kirkwall, vanquished Lord mistress. This idea was confirmed in her childish mind by the Sinclair and 500 Caithness men in 1529.

prophecy of an old woman, whom in alter days she pensioned Phe antiquities of Pomona are of great interest. The examples for the correctness of her prediction. In 1741 she was married of Pictish remains include brochs or round towers, chambered l to a nephew of her protector and guardian. Le Normant d'Etioles. mounds, or buildings of stone covered in with earth, and weems, who was passionately in love with her, and she soon became a or underground dwellings afterwards roofed in. At Saverock, queen of lashion. Yet the world of the financiers at Paris was on the west wing of Kirkwall Bay, a good specimen of an earth far apart from the court world, where she wished to reign; house will be found, and at Quanterness, 1 m. to the west of it, a she could get no introduction at court, and could only try to chambered mound, containing seven rooms with beehive roofs.catch the king's eye when he went out hunting. But Louis XV. Farther west and s m. by road north-east of Stromness, and was then under the influence of Mme de Mailly, who carefully

of Stenness, stands the great prevented any further intimacy with “la petite Etioles," and barrow or chambered mound of Maeshowe. The tumulus has it was not until after her death that the king met the fair queen the form of a blunted cone, is 36 ft. high, 300 ft. in circum- of the financial world of Paris at a ball given by the city to the ference and 92 ft. in diameter, and at a distance of go ft. from dauphin in 1744, and he was immediately subjugated. She at its base is encircled by a moat 40 ft. wide and from 4 st. to 8 it. once gave up her husband, and in 1745 was established at deep. The ground-plan shows that it was entered from the west Versailles as “maîtresse en titre.” Louis XV. bought her the by a passage, 54 ft. long, from 2 st. to 3 ft. wide and from 24 ft. estate of Pompadour, from which she took her title of marquise to 43 ft. high, which led to a central apartment about is l.(raised in 1752 to that of duchess). She was hardly established square, the walls of which ended in a beehive roof, the spring firmly in power before she showed that ambition rather than of which began at a height of 13 st. from the floor. This room love had guided her, and began to mix in politics. Knowing and the passage are built of undressed blocks and slabs of sand that the French people of that time were ruled by the literary stone. About the middle of each side of the chamber, at a kings of the time, she paid court to them, and tried to play the height of 3 ft. from the floor, there is an entrance to a small part of a Maecenas. Voltaire was her poet in chief, and the cell, 3 ft. high, 4. ft. wide and from s} ft. to 7 ft. long. Mr founder of the physiocrats, Quesnay, was her physician. In the James Farrcr explored the mound in 1861, and discovered on the arts she was even more su walls and certain stones rude drawings of crosses, a winged and engraver, and she encouraged and protected Vanloo, Boucher, dragon, and a serpent curled round a pole, besides a variety of Vien, Greuze, and the engraver Jacques Guay. Yet this policy Runic inscriptions. One of these inscriptions stated that the did not prevent her from being lampooned, and the famous tumulus had been rifled by Norse pilgrims (possibly crusaders) poissardes against her contributed to the ruin of many wits on their way to Jerusalem under Jarl Rognvald in the 12th suspected of being among the authors, and notably of the Comte centory. There can be little doubt but that it was a de Maurepas. The command of the political situation passed sepulchral chamber. Joseph Anderson ascribes it to the Stone entirely into her hands; she it was who brought Belle-Isle into Age (that is, to the Picts), and James Fergusson to Norsemen of office with his vigorous policy; she corresponded regularly with the roth century.

the generals of the armies in the field, as her letters to the Comte The most interesting of all those links with a remote past are de Clermont prove; and she introduced the Abbé de Bernis into the stone circles forming the Ring of Brogar and the Ring of the ministry in order to effect a very great alteration of French Stenness, often inaccurately described as the Stones of Stenness. politics in 1756. The continuous policy of France since the days The Ring of Brogar is situated to the north-west and the Ring of of Richelieu had been to weaken the house of Austria by alliances Stenness to the south-east of the Bridge of Brogar, as the narrow in Germany; but Mme de Pompadour changed this hereditary causeway of stone slabs is called which separates Loch Harray policy because Frederick the Great wrote scandalous verscs on from Loch Stenness. The district ljes some 41 m. north-east her; and because Maria Theresa wrote her a friendly letter she of Stromness. The Ring of Brogar, once known as the Temple entered into an alliance with Austria. This alliance brought on of the Sun, stands on a raised circular platform of turf, 340 ft. the Seven Years' War, with all its disasters, the battle of Rosbach in diameter, surrounded by a moat about 6 ft. deep, which in and the loss of Canada; but Mme de Pompadour persisted turn is invested by a grassy rampart. The ring originally in her policy, and, when Bernis failed her, brought Choiseul comprised 60 stones, set up at intervals of 17 ft. Only 13 are

of 17 ft. Only 13 are into office and supported him in all his great plans, the now erect. Ten, still entire, lie prostrate, while the stumps of Pacte de Famille, the suppression of the Jesuits, and the 13 others can yet be recognized. The height of the stones peace of Versailles. But it was to internal politics that varies from 9 ft. to 14 ft. The Ring of Stenness--the Temple this remarkable woman paid most attention; no one obtained of the Moon of local tradition-is of similar construction to the office except through her; in imitation of Mme de Maintenon, larger circle, except that its round platform is only 104 ft. in she prepared all business for the king's eye with the diameter. The stones are believed to have numbered 12, ministers, and contrived that they should meet in her room; varying in height from 15 ft. to 17 ft. but only two remain up- and she daily examined the letters sent through the post right. In the middle of the ring may be seen the relic of what office with Janelle, the director of the post office. By this was probably the sacrificial altar. The Stone of Odin, the continuous labour she made herself indispensable to Louis. great monolith, pierced by a hole at a height of 5 st. from the Yet, when after a year or two she had lost the heart ground, which figures so prominently in Scott's Pirate, stood of her lover, she had a difficult task before her; to maintain 150 yds. to the north of the Ring of Stenness. The stones of her influence she had not only to save the king as much trouble both rings are of the native Old Red Sandstone.

as possible, but to find him fresh pleasures. When he first POMPADOUR, JEANNE ANTOINETTE POISSON LE NOR began to weary of her she remembered her talent for acting MANT D'ÉTIOLES, MARQUISE DE (1721-1764), mistress of and her private theatricals at Etioles, and established the Louis XV., was born in Paris on the 29th of December 1721, and “théâtre des petits cabinets," in which she acted with the greatest baptized as the legitimate daughter of François Poisson, an lords about the court for the king's pleasure in tragedies and officer in the household of the duke of Orleans, and his wife, / comedies, operas and ballets. By this means and the “concerts Madeleine de la Motte, in the church of St Eustache; but she spirituels" she kept in favour for a time; but at last she found a XXIt 2


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