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restrained, his self-respect is carefully developed; the family project largely out of the mouth, and are of an elongated conical form benefits, the home is not broken up, the wages still come in,
and generally curved, these are composed mainly of solid dentine, and if the prisoner is a mother and a wife, it is, of course, most as " ivory " for commerce and the arts. A peculiarity of the dentine
the fine elastic quality and large mass of which renders it invaluable important that she should retain her place in the home; the of the Proboscidea is that it shows, in transverse fractures or prisoner does not “ lose his job " nor his mechanical skill if he sections, fine lines proceeding in the arc of a circle from the centre is a skilled workman. Lastly, the system is far cheaper than imprisonment. The prisoner. keeps himself and his family, and one officer can attend to from 60 to 80 prisoners.
In the United Kingdom the probation system has been applied to young offenders by the Prevention of Crime Act 1908. That act empowered the prison commissioners to place offenders on licence from the Borstal Institution (see JUVENILE OFFENDERS) at any time after six months (in the case of a female, three months), is satisfied that there was a reasonable probability of their abstaining from crime and leading a useful and industrious life. The condition of their release is that they be placed unde the supervision or authority of some society or person (named in the licence) willing to take charge of the case. This is, of course, only a limited application of the system of probation, for those detained in a Borstal Institution are offenders between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one who have been convicted of an indictable offence. It does not apply to those of full age, nor to those under twenty-one years of age who have been committed to prison for minor offences. It has been long held by English prison reformers that young persons under the age of twenty-one should not be committed to prison, unless for serious offences, but that they should be put under some system of probation. Legislation to this effect was foreshadowed by the
FIG. 1.--Longitudinal Sections of the Crowns of Molar Teeth of home secretary in his speech on prison reform in the House of
various Proboscideans, showing stages in the gradual modification Commons on the 20th of July 1910.
from the simple to the complex form. The dentine is indicated PROBOSCIDEA (animals " with a proboscis "), the scientific by transverse lines, the cement by a dotted surface, and the name of the group of mammals represented at the present day
enamel is black.
I, Mastodon americanus; only by the two species of elephant. Although here regarded
II1, , Elephas africanus;
II, Elephas (Stegodon) insignis; IV, Elephas primigenius. as a sub-order of UNCULATA (9.0.), the group is sometimes accorded the rank of an order by itself.' The existing elephants to the circumference in opposite directions, and forming by their are widely sundered from all other living mammals, and for decussations curvilinear lozenges, as in the "engine-turning" of a long time palaeontology afforded but little clue as to their
the case of a watch. The enamel-covering in existing species is
confined to the extreme apex, and very soon wears off, but in some ancestry. Discoveries made during the first few years of the
extinct species it forms persistent longitudinal bands of limited 20th century in the Lower Tertiary deposits of the Fayum breadth. The tusks have small milk-predecessors, shed at an early district of Egypt have, however, brought to light the existence | age. of several kinds of primitive proboscideans which serve to
As regards the cheek-teeth, these are composed in the mastodons
of a variable number of enamel-covered transverse ridges, often link the group with other ungulates, and likewise apparently
divided into inner and outer columns, which may partially alternate, indicate affinity with the Sirenia.
and complicated by smaller additional columns; but in the unworn The following are some of the leading characteristics of existing tooth they stand out freely on the surface of the crown, with deep elephants. The combined upper lips and nose are produced
valleys between (fig. 1, 1). In the elephants the ridges are increased
in number, and consequently become narrower from before backinto a long muscular, flexible and prehensile proboscis, or trunk,
wards, while they are greatly extended in vertical height. In order with the nostrils at its tip. The teeth consist of a pair of large to give solidity to what would otherwise be a comb-like tooth, the upper permanently growing incisors or tusks; and a set of cheek-whole structure is enveloped and united in a large mass of cement, teeth having their crowns composed of a series of tall transverse
which completely fills the valleys, and gives a general smooth appcar
ance to the unworn tooth; but as the wear consequent upon the vertical plates gradually increasing in number from the first
masticating process proceeds, the alternate layers of tissue of to the last of the series; and only portions of two of these teeth different hardness-cement, dentine and enamel-which are being in use at any one time. There are no clavicles; and the disclosed upon the surface form a fine and efficient grinding instrulimbs are stout. with their component segments placed nearly | ment. The intermediate stages between the molar of a modern
clephant and that of a mastodon are so fully known that it is not in a vertical line, and the upper segment, especially in the hind
possible to draw a definite line between the two types of toothlimb, the longest; the radius and ulna are distinct, the latter Structure (see fig. I, II, III, IV). articulating extensively with the carpus; the fibula and tibia As regards the mode of succession, that of modern elephants also distinct the astragalus very flat on both surfaces and is very peculiar. During the complete lifetime of the animal there are
but six check-teeth, which it will be convenient to allude to as both front and hind feet short, broad and massive, with five
molars, on each side of each jaw, with occasionally a rudimentary toes (though the outer pair may be more or less rudimentary),
8 the outer pair may be more or less rudimentary), one in front, completing the typical number of seven. The last all encased in a common integument, though with distinct, broad, three represent the molars of ordinary mammals, those in front short hoofs; third digit the largest. Two anterior venae cavae
are milk-molars, which are never replaced by permanent successors, entering the right auricle. Stomach simple. A capacious
the whole series gradually moving forwards in the jaw, and the teeth
becoming word away and their remnants cast out in front, while caecum. Testes permanently abdominal. Uterus bicornuate.
development of others proceeds behind. The individual teeth Placenta deciduate and zonary. Teats two, pectoral.
are so large, and the processes of growth and destruction by wear In order to understand the peculiar nature of the dentition, it is take place so slowly, that not more than one, or portions of two, necessary to discuss to some extent those of the immediate ancestors
teeth are ever in place and in use on each side of each jaw at one time, of the true elephants, such as the mastodons (see
and the whole series of changes coincides with the usual duration Deatiliod. MASTODON). As regards the incisors, or tusks, which
of the animal's life. On the other hand, the earlier representations
of the proboscidean series referred to bclow have the whole i Cuvier's order Pachydermata (Gr. Taxis, thick and dépua, skin), of the cheek-teeth in place and use at one time, and the milk-molars containing the elephants, hippopotami, rhinoceros, swine, tapirs, vertically displaced by premolars in the ordinary fashion. Among hyraxes, &c., is now abandoned, its members now forming the mastodons transitional forms occur in the mode of succession as orders Proboscidea and Hyracoidea and the sub-order Parissa well as in structure, many species showing a vertical displacement dactyla. A few Artiodactyla are also included.
of one or more of the milk-molars, and the same has been observed
in one extinct species of true elephant (Elephas planifrons) assole. The hind foot is smaller and narrower than the front. The regards some of these teeth.
liver is small and simple, and there is no gall-bladder. In form the Most proboscideans are animals of large dimensions, and some are brain resembles that of the lower orders of mammals in that the the most colossal of land mammals. The head is of great proportionate cerebellum is entirely behind and uncovered by the cerebrum, but
size; and, as the brain-case increases but little in bulk the hemispheres of the latter are richly convoluted. Physical Character during growth, while the exterior wall of the skull is required to be of great superficial extent to support
Elephants are exclusively vegetable-feeders, living chiefly Istics.
the trunk and the ponderous tusks, and to afford space on leaves and young branches of forest trees and various kinds for the attachment of muscles of sufficient size and strength to of herbage, or roots, which they gather and convey to their
mouth by a very mobile proboscis, an organ which combines in a marvellous manner strength with dexterity of application, and is a necessary compensation for the shortness and inflexibility of the neck, as it is by this that many of the functions of the lips of other animals are performed. By its means elephants are enabled to drink without bending the head or limbs. The end of the trunk being dipped, for instance, into a stream or pool, a forcible inspiration fills the two capacious air-passages in its interior with water, which, on the tip of the trunk being turned upwards and inserted into the mouth, is ejected by a blowing action, and swallowed. Or if the animal wishes to refresh and cool its skin, it can throw the water in a copious stream over any part of its surface. Elephants can also throw dust and sand over their bodies by the same means and for the same purpose, and they have frequently been observed fänning themselves with boughs held in the trunk.
The following are the distinctive features of the genus Elephe pn
the type of the family Elephantidae: Dentition: ;. . c. 8, m. = 26. lower's Osteology of Mammalia.)
The incisors variable, but usually of very large size, especially in FIG. 2. -Section of the Skull of the African Eiephant (Elephas the male sex, directed somewhat outwards, and curved upwards, africanus) taken to the left of the middle line, and including the without enamel except on the apex before it is worn; preceded by vomer (Vo) and the mesethmoid (ME).
small milk-incisors. The molars succeed each other by horizontal an, Anterior, pn, Posterior nasal aperture., Anterior Posterior al anut.me
replacement from before backwards, never more than one or part
of two being in use on each side of each jaw at the same time; each wield the skull thus heavily weighted, an extraordinary develop composed of numerous flattened enamel-covered plates or ridges of ment of air-cells takes place in the cancellous tissue of nearly all the dentine, projecting from a common many-rooted base, surrounded bones of the cranium. These cells are not only formed in the walls and united together by cement. The number of plates increases of the cranium proper, but are also largely developed in the nasal from the anterior to the posterior molar in regular succession, bones and upper part of the premaxillae and maxillae, the bones varying in the different species, but the third and fourth (or the forming the palate and the basi-cranial axis, and even extend into last milk-molar and the first true molar), and these only, have the interior of the ossified mesethmoid and vomer. Where two the same number of ridges, which always exceeds five. Skull of originally distinct bones come into contact, the cells pass freely adult very high and globular. Lower jaw ending in front in a from one to the other, and almost all the sutures become obliterated deflected, spout-like symphysiş. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 19-21, L. 3-4, in old animals. The intercellular lamellae in the great mass which S. 4, C. 26-33. surrounds the brain-cavity superiorly and laterally mostly radiate
The two existing species of elephant are the Indian or Asiatic from the inner to the outer table, but in the other bones their direction is more irregular. Like the similar but less developed air
ir (Elephas maximus), and the African (E. africanus), the distinctive cells in the skulls of many other mammals, they all communicate characteristics of which are given under ELEPHANT. See also with the nasal passages, and they are entirely secondary to the MAMMOTH and MASTODON. original growth of the bones, their development having scarcely commenced in the new-born animal, and gradually enlarge as the
EXTINCT PROBOSCIDEA growth of the creature proceeds. The nasal bones are very short, Elephas.-The extinct representatives of the Proboscidea are and the anterior nasal aperture situated high in the face. The zygomatic arch is slender and straight, the jugal bone being small, the greatest importance and interest, since they serve to and forming only the middle part of the arch, the anterior part connect the modern elephants with ungulates of more ordinary of which (unlike that of true Ungulates) is formed only by the type. The MAMMOTH (Elephas primigenius) is treated in a maxilla. The maxillo-turbinals are rudimentary, the elongated
separate article. Nearly allied is E, armeniacus of Asia Minor; proboscis supplying their place functionally in warming and
but E. antiquus, of which the remains are abundant in many of clearing from dust the inspired air. . The neck is very short. The limbs, as already mentioned, are
the superficial formations of England and Europe generally, r the great length of the upper nd stout, and remarkable for the grea segment (especially the femur) as compared with the lower segment, elephant. It is represented in the Pleistocene of India by the
approximates in the structure of its molar teeth to the African as represented by the foot. It is owing to this and the vertical
closely allied or identical E. namadicus. Affinity with the position of the femur that the knee-joint in the hind-leg is placed much lower, and is more conspicuous externally than in most African species is strongly marked in the case of the dwarf quadrupedal mammals; and this having been erroneously compared elephants of Malta (E. melitensis) and Cyprus (E. cyprioles); With the hock-joint or ankle of the more ordinary ungulates, gave and the gigantic E. meridionalis, of the “ forest-bed" of the rise to the popular fallacy that the joints of the elephant's leg bend
east coast of England and the Upper Pliocene of the Val D'Arno, in a contrary direction to that of other mammals. There is no mod licement in the hip-joint, or third trochanter to the femur. has likewise molars showing the broad Jozenges of enamel. The radius and ulna are distinct, though fixed in a crossed or prone bordered dentine characteristic of the African type. These and position; and the fibula also is quite separated from the tibia. other species indicate, however, that, so far as dental characters The feet are short and broad, the carpal and tarsal bones being
are concerned, generic separation of the African from the very square, with flattened surfaces for articulation; the astragalus especially differs from that of the more typical ungulates in its
Asiatic elephant is impossible. In North America the mammoth flatness, in the absence of distinct pulley-like articular surface at occurs in the far north, E. columbi, more akin to E. antiquus either extremity, and in having no articular saçet for the cuboid.
chiefly in the Central United States, and E. imperalor (allied to The fibula articulates with the calcaneum, as in the artiodactyle
E. meridionalis) in the south. The oldest representatives of sub-order of Ungulata. Of the five toes present on each foot, the middle one is somewhat the largest, while the lateral ones are the
this group are E. kysudricus and E. planifrons of the Lower smallest, and generally lack (especially in the hind-foot) the Pliocene of Northern India; the latter of which developed complete number of phalanges. The terminal phalanges are all premolars vertically replacing the anterior teeth of the molar small, irregular in form, and late in ossification. The whole are
series. . encased in a common integument, with a flat, subcircular, truncated sole, the only external indication of the toes being the broad oval From E. planifrons there is an almost complete transition nails or hoofs arranged in a semicircle around the front edge of the I to the ridge-toothed elephants, such as E. gonesa, E. insignis,
e. bombifrons and E. clisti, typically from the Lower Pliocene of fig. 3) were in use at once, and there was a comparatively full India and Burma, but some of which extend eastwards to Java, series of teeth in the front of the jaws; while the premolars were Borneo, China and Japan. These constitute the group (or preceded by milk-molars in the normal manner. Very significant genus) Slegodon, and are characterized by the lowness of the is the enlargement of the second pair of incisors in each jaw, crowns of the molar teeth, in which the tall plates of the more thereby foreshadowing the tusks of Tetrabelodon. There was, typical elephants are reduced to low ridges with more or less however, no lengthening of the chin, so that the muzzle was completely open valleys between them; the number of ridges in each tooth is always much lower than in the corresponding teeth of the typical elephants. Premolars, vertically replacing the anterior molars, were often developed. These stegodont elephants appear to have been confined to India and the countries farther east, and exhibit an almost complete transition, so far as dental characters are concerned, to the mastodons of the same region.
Ben Mastodon.-The connexion between the stegodont elephants and the mastodons (see MASTODON) is formed by the Indian and Burmese Mastodon latidens and M. cauleyi. In fact the main distinction between these animals and the stegodont elephants is the smaller number of ridges in the third, fourth and fifth molars, which is usually four, and never exceeds five, whereas in the stegodonts it is at least six and the numbers are not the same in each of the three teeth. In the two species named the transverse ridges are more or less continuous. Many other species, such as the European M. arvernensis (see fig. 2 in art. MASTODON) and the Indian M. sivalensis, have, however, the ridges broken up into columns, or cones,
(From the Geological Magasine.) more or less alternately arranged, and thus blocking
FIG. 3.-Dentition of Moeritherium lyonsi. the intermediate valleys. In these species, which
A, Upper teeth, are of Pliocene age, there are four ridges in molars 3,
B, Front of snout, showing the tusk-like second incisors. 4 and 5; but in the. Pleistocene North American
C, Left ramus of mandible from outer side. M. americanus (as well as in many other species) these are probably of normal proportions. This animal was not larger reduced to three in each of the aforesaid teeth. The lower than a tapir. jaw of the latter species frequently shows small tusks, which Dinotherium.-The huge proboscidean from the Lower Pliocene are, however, generally shed in mature age. Premolars, which and Middle Miocene strata of Europe and India, known as vertically replace some of the anterior molars (milk-molars), are Dinotherium, indicates a type off the line of descent of the developed in many species, although not in M. americanus. elephants. Upper tusks were apparently wanting, but the Species of the genus are found over the greater part of the world, inclusive of Europe, Asia and North and South America; M. kumboldli being the best known South American species. A single tooth referable to this or the next genus has been obtained from South Africa.
Telrabelodon.-The more primitive mastodons constitute the genus Tetrabelodon, and are characterized by the presence of a pair of short chisel-shaped tusks in the lower jaw, which is prolonged into a trough-like chin for their support; tusks being also present in the upper jaw. These animals were provided with a snout-like muzzle instead of a trunk (see MASTODON). Their birthplace was Africa; the Miocene European M. anguslidens having been discovered in Egypt in strata overlying those from which were obtained the remains of the under-mentioned more primitive genera. Tetrabelodont mastodons were, however, by no means confided to the Miocene, Telrabelodon longiros. Iris occurring in the Lower Pliocene of Europe, and T. pandionis in that of India. Most of these four-tusked mastodons were smaller animals than modern elephants.
Palaeoma slodon.- No proboscidean earlier than Tetrabelodon occurs in Europe, but the group is represented in the Upper Eocene of Egypt by a smaller and more primitive type known as Palaeoma slodon. This genus resembles Telrabelodon in having four pairs of tusks, but differs in the less elephant-like skull, and the simpler character of the molar teeth, of which five pairs were in use at one time, whereas in Tetrabelodon and Mastodon Fig. 4.-Skull of Dinotherium giganteum (Lower Pliocene. there were never more than two pairs and a portion of a third
Eppelsheim, Hesse-Darmstadt). in simultaneous wear.
lower jaws carried a pair of large tusks bent downwards in a Moeritherium.-The earliest representative of the proboscidean peculiar manner (fig. 4). The cheek-teeth formed five pairs, all stock at present known is Moeritherium, from the Middle Eocene in use at one time, and premolars vertically replacing milkof Egypt, which includes still smaller animals, whose relation molars in the ordinary fashion, The ridge-formula of the ship to Elephas would scarcely be realized were it not for the permanent teeth of the cheek series was 220.127.116.11.2. intermediate links. All six pairs of cheek-teeth (om. 2-m. 3,' Barytherium and Pyrotherium.- Very, problematical arc the
affinities of Barytherium of the Egyptian Eocene and Pyro- | notes or by signs, after the manner of the Alexandrine gramtherium, of the Lower Tertiaries of Patagonia; although it is marians. In this way he treated Horace, Lucretius, Terence and possible that they may both be offshoots from the primitive Persius, the biography of the last-named being probably taken oroboscidean stock. Pyrotherium had a pair of upwardly from Probus's introduction to his edition of the poet. With directed tusks in the lower jaw. The cheek-teeth are five in the exception of these texts, he published little, but his lectures number and carry transverse ridges similar to those on the were preserved in the notes taken by his pupils. Some of his molars of Dinotherium, although there are only two to each criticisms on Virgil may be preserved in the commentary on the tooth. If really related to the Proboscidea, Pyrotherium may Bucolics and Georgics which goes under his name. We possess be derived from the African ancestral stock of that group which by him part of a treatise De notis, probably an excerpt from reached South America by way of a former land-connexion a larger work. It contains a list of abbreviations used in official between that continent and Africa. So far as can be determined, and historical writings (especially proper names), în laws, legal Barytherium approximates in many respects to Dinotherium, but pleadings and edicts. in others seems to approach Uintalherium of the North American The following works have been wrongly attributed to him. Tertiaries (see AMBLYPODA).
(1) Catholica Probi, on the declension of nouns, the conjugation
of verbs, and the rhythmic endings of sentences. This is now See C. W. Andrews, Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata
generally regarded as the work of the grammarian Marius Plotius of the Fayum, British Museum, 1906.
Sacerdos (3rd century). (2) Instituta artium, on the eight parts of PROBOSCIS, the trunk of an elephant (Gr. Apoßookis, apó, speech, also called Ars vaticana from its having been found in a
Vatican MS. As mention is made in it of the baths of Diocletian, before, Boo Kelv, to secd), the long flexible snout of the order of
it cannot be earlier than the 4th century. It is possibly by a Mammalia called Proboscidea (q.v.), which embraces the elephant later Probus, whose existence is, however, problematical. (3) and its extinct allies the mammoths and mastodons. The term Appendix Probi, treating of the noun, the use of cases, rules of is also applied to the snout of the tapir and of the “ kahan" or orthography (valuable in reference to the pronunciation of Latin at proboscis-monkey (Nasalis larvatus), and more particularly
the time), and a tahle of Differentiae. As the author has evidently
used the Instituta, it also must be assigned to a late date. (4) De to the elongated parts of the mouth of various insects, such as
nomine excerpta, a compilation from various grammatical works... the rostrum or beak of a rhynchophorus beetle, the antlia of See J. Steup, De Probis grammalicis (1871); Teuffel-Schwabe, Lepidoptera, the sucking mouth of the house-fly, &c. Various | Hist. of Roman Literature (Eng. trans.). 301. worms possess a tubular structure which can be extended at PROCEDURE (Fr. procedure, from Lat. procedere, to go forthe anterior portion of the body, and some gastropods a sucking ward), in general, a method or course of action. In law, procedure tongue, to both of which the name “proboscis ” is applied. may be defined as the mode in which the successive steps in
PROBOSCIS-MONKEY, a large, long-tailed, red Bornean litigation are taken. As a term in English law it dates only species characterized by the extraordinary prolongation of the from the passing of the Common Law Procedure Acts 1852–1860: nose of the adult male, which hangs, however, down in front it is usually coupled with, or more often replaced by, the word of the upper lip and does not stand straight out from the face practice." The procedure of the High Court of Justice in in the manner commonly represented in pictures. From this England is governed by the rules of the supreme court, which feature the species, which is the only representative of its genus, I are published in the Annual Practice. Procedure has been derives its name of Nasalis larvatus. In females and young the defined (per Lush, L.J., Poyser v. Minors, L. R. O.B.D. 320), nose is much less developed, with a tendency to turn upwards as “the mode of proceeding by which a legal right is enforced in the latter. This monkey is a leaf-eater, nearly allied to as distinguished from the law which gives or defines the right. the langurs, as typified by the sacred ape of India. (See and which by means of the proceeding the court is to administer; PRIMATES.)
the machinery as distinguished from the product.” T. E. PROBUS, MARCUS AURELIUS, Roman emperor A.D. 276 | Holland (Elements of Jurisprudence, 1906, p. 86). describes to 282, was a native of Sirmium in Pannonia. At an early age procedure, or “adjective" law, as that part of law which he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the
provides a method of aiding and protecting rights. emperors Valerian, Claudius and Aurelian. He was appointed
See the articles on the various branches of law, as ADMIRALTY governor of the East by the emperor Tacitus, at whose death
JURISDICTION, CRIMINAL LAW, DIVORCE, &c.; also ACTION, APPEAL, he was immediately proclaimed his successor by the soldiers. EVIDENCE, PLEADING, SUMMONS, TRIAL, &c. Florianus, who had claimed to succeed his brother, was put to death by his own troops, and the senate eagerly ratified the
PROCESS, a general term now technically employed for choice of the army. The reign of Probus was mainly spent in
the photo-mechanical processes by which illustrations are successful wars by which he re-established the security of all
reproduced in printing. Until the last quarter of the 19th centhe frontiers, the most important of these operations being
tury reproductive processes, save as regards line reproduction, directed to clearing Gaul of the Germans. Probus had also can hardly be said to have had an existence. Paintings, drawput down three usurpers, Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus.
ings, and engravings, which it was desired to put into form which One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to
by means of the printing-press could be multiplied indefinitely bc idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful
had to go through a process of interpretation by an engraver works. such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia or draughtsman, who, on a metal plate, a block of wood or and other districts. This increase of duties was naturally stone, gave a rendering of the original subject. The means at unpopular, and while the emperor was urging on the draining
his disposal were lines and dots, which, varying in their thickof the marshes of his native place he was attacked and slain
ness and proximity, expressed dark or light passages in the scheme by his own soldiers. Scarcely any emperor has left behind him of light and shade of the original. It will readily be understood so good a reputation: his death was mourned alike by senate and how such interpretations would vary. An engraver with fine people, and even the soldiers repented and raised a monuinent
| art instincts would produce a result as distinct in character as in his honour.
an engraving as was the original as a painting or drawing, and Life by Vopiscus: Zosimus i. 64; Zonaras xii. 29: Aurelius
engravings were sought after as works of art, and treasured for Victor, Cacs. and Epit. 37: H. Schiller, Geschichte der römischen their artistic qualities. But engraving of this kind took time. Kaiserzeit (1883), vol. i.; E. Lépaulle, Étude historique sur M. A. | Years were devoted to the production of one steel- or copperProbus d'après la numismatique (1885); Pauly-Wissowa, Realency- | plate, while wood engravers who were artists could only work clopädie, ii. 2516 (Henze).
on a block when in the mood; and for that mood the publisher PROBUS, MARCUS VALERIUS, of Berytus, Roman gram- had to wait, and he grew impatient and was willing to accept marian and critic, flourished during the reign of Nero. He was rapid interpretation of originals by men who could produce them a student rather than a teacher, and devoted himself to the under other than artistic conditions. But the pain of the artist criticism and elucidation of the texts of classical authors (especi- at the bad rendering of his original was often great, so that he, ally the most important Roman poets) by means of marginal | not less than the publisher, though for another reason, hailed