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POCISC Dono duen aldan perfecting machines the sheet is sed directly into grippers, change the high over-feedboard, and the taking-off apparatus is automatic iaking place when grippers on each cylinder meet, the outer for me but on a different plan from that of the ordinary Wharfedale, the grippers taking the sheet from the inner forme grippers.

sheets being carried over tapes with the freshly-printed side upperThis is a general description of the principles on which these most, thus preventing smearing: they are then carried on to the heap machines are built, but, as in other classes, there are many variations or pile by the frame or long arms placed at the end of the machine. in details. For example, there are the drop-bar, the web and the A recent feature of this machine is the tandem equipment, whereby gripper methods of feeding these presses. In the first case a bar two, three or even four machines may be coupled together for colour descends upon the paper after it is laid to point marks, and this bar, work. Only one layer-on is required and register is obtained autohaving a rotary motion, runs the sheet between a roller and a small | matically throughout. drum into the machine. The web arrangement consists of a series The principle of the two-revolution press is that the cylinder

always rotates in the same direction, and twice for each copy given, continuously rotate, the web of paper travelling in and out, in a once for the actual impression, and again to allow of the return of serpentine manner, between various cylinders ol two characters the forme-carriage in its reciprocating action. This also allows time one (the type cylinders) carrying the surface to be impressed, usually for the feeding in of the next sheet to be printed. Ainong other curved stereotype plates, and the other (the impression cylinders) advantages claimed for this press one is that the movement which giving the desired impression. Such a press, il driven by electric governs the action of the type bed in reversing is so arranged that the power, is set in motion by merely pushing a button or small switch, strain which sometimes occurs in other reciprocating machines is la bell first giving warning of the press being about to move. The considerably reduced; another is that the registering or correct number of duplicate sets of stereotype plates to be worked from by backing of the pages on the second side in printing is uncommonly these presses is determined by the size and number of the pages to good; but this depends much upon the layer-on. In many of the old be printed, and this in turn is regulated by the capacity of the kinds of two-revolution machines, owing to the cylinder being geared machine. separately from the type bed, it was apt to be occasionally thrown out, As already explained, the forerunners of the rotary presses of the but in the Miehle, for instance, it is only out of gear in reversing, present day were the type-revolving printing-machines, and, whilst and in gear while printing. Great strength is imparted to the frame, They were still being used, experiments were being made to cast and the type bed is particularly rigid. These points, together with curved stereotype plates which would facilitate and simpilly the a truly turned and polished cylinder, with carefully planned means of work of producing newspapers. This was successfully accomplished adjustment, much simplify the preparation of making-ready of by the use of flexible paper matrices, from which metal plates any kind of type-forme or blocks for printing. which is carried could be cast in shaped moulds to any desired curve. These plates out much in the same way as on the ordinary single cylinder, but in were then fixed on the beds of the Hoe type revolving machine, a more convenient manner. Many of these machines are made to which were adapted to receive them instead of the movable typeprint four double crowns, 60 X 40 in., or even larger,

formes previously used. This new method enabled the printers

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Fig. 8.- Payne & Sons' Two-colour Single Cylinder Machine. The two-colour machine is generally a single cylinder (hig. 8) | to duplicate the type pages and to run several machines at the same with one feed only, and the bed motion reciprocating. The two ume, thus producing copies with far greater rapidity. In some large

colours are printed cach at one revolution from the two offices as many as five machines were in constant use. About this Two-rolour

our type-formes as they pass under the cylinder, which I period the English stamp duty on printed matter was repcaled, and Machines, rotates twice in its travel. A double inking apparatus ihis materially aided the development of the newspaper press. is of course necessary, and the inking arrangements are placed at the Subsequently the proprietors of The Times made various experitwo extreme ends of the machine. In comparison with the ordinary ments with a view to making a rotary perfecting press, and as a single cylinder the two-colour machinc is built with a longer frame, result started the first one about 1868. It was somewhat similar as is necessary to allow the two type-formes to pass under the in design to the Bullock press, so far as the printing apparatus was cylinder, both in its travel forward and on its return. This concerned, except that the cylinders were all of one size and placed cylinder on its return is stationary, in fact it might be called a one above the other. The sheets were severed after printing, double or rather an alternative stop-cylinder machine, with the ink | brought up by tapes, and carried down to a sheet flyer, which moved ing facilities arranged somewhat on the same plan as on either a backwards and forwards, and the sheets were alternately “ flown" two-feeder or a perfecting machine. These two-colour presses are into the hands of two boys seated opposite each other on either side intended only for long runs, short runs may be worked to advantage of the flyers. Hippolyte Marinoni (1823-1904), of Paris, also devised separately on the ordinary single-colour machine. Generally, with a machine on a somewhat similar principle, making the impression the exception just mentioned, the machine is much the same as the and type cylinders of one size and placing them one over the other. ordinary stop or Wharfedale.

About 1870 an English rotary machine called the “Victory " was Before leaving the subject of printing with the reciprocating bed invented by Messrs Duncan & Wilson. It printed from the web, motion, it may be mentioned that although in all modern machines and had a folder attached. An improved form of this machine is of that kind the printed sheet is self-delivered, the imprinted paper still in use. This machine had separate fly-boards for the delivery has generally been fed in by hand, and for some classes of work this of the sheets. In 1871 Messrs Hoe & Co. again turned their attenis still done. But many automatic feeders have been invented tion to the construction of a rotary perfecting press to print from the from time to time, which for the many purposes for which they are reel or continuous web of paper, and from stereotype olates fastened suitable must be reckoned part of a modern printing establishment. to the cylinder.

As distinct from flat bed printing with a reciprocating motion, The rotary presses in use at the present time are indeed wonderful printing on rotary principles is a most interesting study, and it is specimens of mechanical ingenuity, all the various operations of

this department of printing mechanics which has damping (when necessary), feeding, printing (both sides), cutting, Rotary

developed so very much in recent years. It seems folding, pasting, wrapping (when required) and counting being Machines. simo

bes. almost as though this branch had reached its limit, purely automatic. These machines are of various kinds, and are and as though any further developments can only be a question of specially made to order so as to cope with the particular class of duplication of the existing facilities so as to print from a greater work in view. They may be built on the "deck" principle of two, number of cylinders than, say, an octuple machine. This would three, four, or even more reels of paper, and either in single width be merely a matter of building a higher machine so as to take a (two pages wide), or double width (four pages wide). Single and larger number of reels arranged in decks. As the name implies, two-reel machines are generally constructed on the "straight line" these presses are so constructed that both printing surfaces and paper principle, i.e. arranged with the paper at one end of the machine.

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and passing through the cylinders to the folder at the other end plates, four pages on each type cylinder, making a total of thirty-two wbere the copies are delivered. Three, and four-reel machines pages in all. Each press produces of that number of pages 50,000 have also been constructed on the same principle, but the more copies per hour, printed both sides, cut, folded and usual arrangement of the four-reel press is to place two reels at either counted off in quires complete; by increasing the sets of

4 Octuple w end, with the folders and delivery boards in the centre. This makes stereotype pages the same machine will produce 100,000 Machines. it possible to operate them as independent machines, or to run in copies per hour of sixteen pages, and by duplicating the most.pl combination with each other.

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folding and delivery apparatus, 200,000 copies of eight pages of the When presses are made in double width a two-reel machine is same size. This mammoth press measures 54 ft. in length, 19 ft. known as a quadruple, a three-reel as a sextuple, and a four-reel as in height and 12 ft. across; its dead weight is about 110 tons, and an octuple machine. Double sextuple and double octuple machines roughly 100,000 different pieces of metal were used in its construcare made, having six and eight reels respectively. The quadrupletion. The rough cost of such a machine is probably about £18,000. machine is a favourite one and is perhaps most in demand for news- Such a press requires two 55 h.p. motors, one at each end, to drive it. paper work. This press prints from two reels of the double width. The press is practically four quadruple machines built together, The first reel is placed to the right of the machine near the floor, each of which can be worked independently of the other. The and the second at the back of the machine and at right angles to it. paper is fed from reels placed at the two ends in decks, one above A quadruple machine will produce 48,000 copies per hour of four, the other, each reel containing about five miles of paper, and weighing six or eight pages; and proportionately less of a greater number of about fourteen hundredweight. The process of unwinding these pages; all folded, counted and pasted if required. The four cylinders, long reels of paper in the course of printing takes only half an hour; which are on the right-hand side of the press, are respectively the I they are arranged on a revolving stand so that directly they are hon am 29 de noiva resanded

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2000 filino FIG.9. -Hoe's Double Octuple Rotary Machine. oeciu o shoot: 2017 printing and impression cylinders—the two inside ones being those spent the stand is turned half way round, and four other full reels giving the impression, and the two outer ones bearing the printing already in position are presented ready to be run into the press. surfaces. The inking arrangements are placed at the two extreme This ingenious arrangement, whereby the reels can be changed in ends of these four drums or cylinders, thus being near the type about three minutes, obviates the loss of time previously incurred surfaces in each case. As the paper is unwound from the reel below by the press being kept standing while the empty spindles were it travels between the first two cylinders when it is printed on the removed and replaced with four full reels. first side; it then passes to the third and fourth cylinders, which give Om

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alebo it the second backing side, thus "perfecting the printed sheet. Having described some representative types of the different From this point the long sheet is carried overhead to the left-hand classes of printing-presses in use, we may now treat of the side of the machine, where it is cut longitudinally and divided, and then associated with the other web similarly printed by the other methods employed by the workmen in securing The Pre-12 half of the press. They then descend into the two different folders, the best results in printing. The real art of printing, paration or where they are folded and cut the copies being discharged on to as far as presswork is concerned, lies in the careful Makingthe delivery boards situated at the two sides of the left-hand portion of the machine, and each quire is counted or told off by being jogged

preparation of the printing surface for printing before ready for

Printing.b forward. This description applies to one half of the machine only. I running off any number of impressions. This for while this is in operation the same thing is being repeated by the preparation is technically called "making-ready,” and is an other half situated at the back. I 1900g

0190 operation requiring much time and care, especially in the case Another machine, somewhat complex but quite complete in itself, of illustrated work, where artistic appreciation and skill on the is tnat constructed by Messrs Robert Hoe & Co. in London from drawings and patterns sent over from New York, for weekly papers

ors part of the workman is of great assistance in obtaining satisfacof large circulation. Double sets of plates are placed on the main tory and delicate results. Theoretically, if both type and press machine, which is capable of taking twenty-four pages, but by using were new, little or no preparation should be necessary, but narrower rolls the number of pages may be reduced to either sixteen

practical experience proves that this need of preparation has or twenty if a smaller paper is desired. In addition to the body of the paper it prints a cover, and is capable of producing 24.000

not yet been entirely obviated and still remains an important complete copies per hour, folded, insetted, cut, pasted and covered. factor. Single proofs of type, stereotype, electrotype or blocks That portion of the machine which prints the cover is fed from a of any description can often be struck off without making-ready narrower reel of a different colour of paper from that used for the with fairly good results, but if precision of colour” (that is. inside pages. The printing surface for one side of the cover is placed at one end of the cylinder and the reverse side is placed at the other

| inking) and uniformity of impression throughout a volume are end. This ingenious combination results in the nrinting of one desired, it is necessary to put the forme, whether type or blocks cover for every copy of the paper.oi e s to

or both, into a proper condition before starting the printing of The double octuple machines (fig. 9) erected by the same firm for an edition, whatever its number. And this applies to all good the printing of Lloyd's Weekly News were probably, in 1908, the

he work produced from whatever presses or machines other than latest development in rotary printing. These presses print from eight different reels of the double width, four placed at each end of those built on the rotary principle. In these, even if time the machine, the delivery being in the centre, and from eight sets of permitted, little can be done in the way of making-ready; nos is it really necessary for newspapers, printed and read one day, 1 blocks so that they are brought to the height of the type, or a shado and then generally thrown away the next. But for finely printed

higher. This is usually done by pasting layers of thickish paper,

or even thin cards, underneath the blocks. This must be carefully works this preparation is essential; the actual results vary with done so as to make them stand squarely and firmly on their base, the operator, both as regards quality and, what is very important in order that they may not rock and give a slur in printing. After to the employer, in the length of time taken. Some men labour underlaying, and to emphasize the respective degrees of light and

shade in the illustrations, a separate and careful overlaying is remore at it than others, and it is considered that a press is only

quired for the blocks before anything is done to the main forme. This really paying while it is actually running.

is particularly necessary is the blocks are woodcuts, or electrotypes of The system of making-ready employed now is quite different from woodcuts, which require a different cutting of perhaps three different that in use when it was necessary to dampen paper before it could

thicknesses, all on thin hard paper, to give their full effect. But with be satisfactorily printed. It was then customary to print with a half-tone process illustrations very little overlaying is required. good deal of packing, usually consisting of a thick blanket together

hint blanket together I provided the blocks have been brought up to the proper height by with several thicknesses of paper, all of which intervened between underlaying in the first instance-the various tones being already the printing and the impression surface, whether the latter was flat

Whether the latter was fail in the block itself--and it is little more than a matter of sharp, hard or cylindrical. There was much in favour of this system, because a impression to give full effect to these, if both paper and ink are good firm impression could be obtained, and the "nutmeg-grater" suitable. For line process blocks a still different treatment in effect on the reverse, when the impression was too heavy, could, making-ready is desirable, so as to get rid of the hard edges which are after the sheets were dry, be removed by cola-pressing in a hydraulic

nearly always found in this kind of block. Here too it is essential press. It is still the best method for obtaining first-rate results in

that the preliminary underlaying be done with extreme care il good fine work, where hand-made or other rough paper is used. But the

work is desired. The originals and the engraver's proofs are of great demand for cheap literature required quicker means of production, I assistance to the workman in bringing out the details of an illustra. and the introduction of process blocks, especially those made by

tion when he is preparing it for printing. In rotary printing from the half-tone process, necessitated the use of smooth paper and a

1 the curved stereotype plate and from the endless web of paper saster drying ink, both of which are to be deplored, because to

I much can be done to assist the printer is good stereotype plates are calender the paper to the degree requisite for this kind of printing

supplied to him, and, if the forme contains any illustrations, both practically means destroying its natural surface, and in rendering

the artist and the engraver can help him if they keep in mind the the ink quicker in drying the pigment undoubtedly suffers. On

particular character of illustration which they are preparing for the the other hand, there has been a compensating advantage in the fact

press. The artist can accentuate the highlights or solids in the that improved machinery has been demanded for this class of work,

original drawing or photograph, and the stereotyper can emphasize and the British manufacturer has been stimulated by the American

points in the picture by thickening the plate in the parts necessary manufacturers, who have taken the initiative in the change of to stand out. methods in printing. Cylinders are now turned so truly and ground

The past generation has seen many improvements in printing to such a nicety that very little packing is required between type | machinery, all tending to an increased production, and generally and sheet to be impressed, so that a new system of making-ready, | the betterment of the work turned out. This is particutermed hard-packing," has been resorted to. The fact that the larly true of three-colour printing (see PROCESS), which con bord iron impression cylinder was nearer the type forbade the large

for commercial purposes has been brought to a high velope amount of soft-packing formerly used, besides which process blocks,

degree of perfection. Only what may be fairly considered as whether line or hall-tone, could not be rendered properly by a

representative presses have been dealt with in this article, but there soft impression. Although less packing is necessary, greater care is

are many others, some of which have been most ingeniously conrequired in preparing type or blocks for printing by this new method.

structed for special purposes. Process engraving has practically The method in making-ready ordinary plain formes is as follows. superseded wood engraving, and the new processes have brought The type-forme is placed on the coffin or bed of the press and fixed

new conditions, requiring a different making-ready, paper and ink. into its proper position--the precise position being regulated by the

Some of these altered conditions are to be regretted. For instance, exact size of the sheet of paper on which the work is to be printed. it is unfortu

it is unfortunate that the quality and surface of papers have to be The cylinder is first dressed with a fine and thin calico drawn tightly

sacrificed to the demands for cheap literature, and this especially

sacrificed over and fastened securely, which serves as a base on which to

applies to illustrated work. fasten sheets. A sheet of some hard paper, such as manila, is then

The introduction of the autoplate is of great advantage to those placed over it to form, as it were, a foundation.

using rotary presses, because it allows the production of a large The printer next proceeds to pull a sheet, without ink, to test the

number of duplicate stereotype plates of satisfactory quality impression. We take it that the machine has already been regulated speedily.. This is all important in a newspaper office, where the by means of the impression screws at the respective ends of the cylin

tive ends of the cylin margin of time between the caseroom and machine department is der for all-round or average work, and that any inequality of impres

usually so limited, for it permits several machines being quickly sion can be remedied by adding or taking away from the sheets on equipped with duplicate sets of the same pages. the cylinder. Now, supposing the forme to be dealt with consists Power is another matter that is changing fast. Electricity is of thirty-two pages to be printed on quad crown paper, measuring supplanting both steam and gas, and is being installed in most large 40 X 30 in., on a suitable size of single cylinder machine of the printing-houses, including newspaper offices. Suction gas is being Wharfedale class, it would be found, although both the machine Liried in some offices as a supplanter of electricity and is said to be and type were fairly new (that is, not much worn), that there was much cheaper as a power producer. The independent system of some amount of inequality in the impression given to the whole

in l its in the impression given to the whole motors is generally adopted, because it is found more economical sheet. This is easily detected by examining the sheet the reversed I and better for driving purposes, besides dispensing with the overhead side in a strong side-light. Although the greater part may be fairly shafting and belting, always unsightly, and dangerous to the workeven, some pages, or portions of pages, would show up too strongly, people. Speeds can be regulated to a nicety for each separate the impress almost cutting through the paper, while in other portions machine, and any machine can be set in motion by pressing a button. the impression would be so faint that it could hardly be seen. These A printing-house of average size, which makes book printing a differences of impression are called respectively "high" and "low." speciality, consists of many departments under the supreme control All these difficulties have to be rectified by the printer either over for a general manager. His deputy may be said to be laying or cutting away pieces in this first trial sheet. If the "set" the works manager, who is responsible for all work of the cylinder is about correct, and the impression sheet has been being produced in a proper manner by the different

a Prlatiage taken with neither too many nor too few sheets on the cylinder, it departments. The progress of the work is as follows.

li bouse. will be a matter rather of overlaying, or " patching up," than of | The MS., or "copy" as it is called, is handed, with all cutting away from this trial sheet. As soon as this first sheet has instructions, to the overseer of the caseroom, who gives it out to the been levelled up it is fixed on to the cylinder to its exact position, compositors in instalments as they finish the work already in hand. so that it will register or correspond with the type when the press is Formerly the greater bulk of composition was donc on the piece-work running, and another trial sheet is struck off, which is treated pre- system, but as machine composition has largely superseded hand cisely in the same manner, and is then fastened up on the cylinder labour for the more ordinary class of work, piece-work is declining, on top of the first sheet. It may even be necessary for fine printing and there is a greater tendency to have the work done on " establishto repeat this a third time, especially if the forme includes blocks of ment" (" 'stab "), i.e. fixed weekly wages. When the copy is in type any kind. When this preparation is completed, the whole is covered a proof is struck off and sent to the reading closet, where the corrector up by a somewhat stouter sheet, which forms a protection to the of the press (see PROOF-READING), with the aid of a reading-boy, whole making-ready, but which can easily be listed should it be will compare it with the original MS. or copy, and mark all errors necessary to give any finishing touches to it before beginning to l on the proof, so that they may be amended by the compositor at run.

his own cost before it is despatched to the author or customer, who If the forme to be printed consists of both type and blocks mixed, in turn revises or corrects it for the general improvement of the a somewhat different treatment has to be employed in order to put work. The proof is then returned to the printer, and if these the blocks into a relative position with the type for printing. This corrections are at all heavy, another proof, called the " revise," is is done by the usual trial impression sheet, and, as blocks are submitted, together with the first marked one, so that the author found to vary much in height and are generally low as compared may see that his emendations have been made. This may even be with type, this deficiency has to be remedies by underlaying the repeated, but when finally corrected the proof is marked " press ".

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and is sent to the printer with the necessary instructions as to | 1605; a satirical version of Boileau's Ode sur le prise de Namur printing. Alter another reading or revision in the reading closet I (1605): some lines on William's escape from assassination in it is sent to the compositors, who make the final corrections in the type and hand the forme to the printing department to deal with. 1696; and a brief piece called The Secretary. After his return It is this department which contributes most to the success of any from France Prior became under-secretary of state and sucprinting firm, and it requires a really good man at its head. He ceeded Locke as a commissioner of trade. In 1701 he sat in must be a thoroughly practical printer familiar with the different

| parliament for East Grinstead. He had certainly been in kinds of printing machinery. To make the department pay, the machines must be kept fully employed with the many classes of work

| William's confidence with regard to the Partition Treaty; but that a large concern has to deal with; the wheels must be kept when Somers, Orford and Halifax were impeached for their running as much as possible, and the time for making-ready curtailed share in it he voted on the Tory side, and immediately on as far as is consistent with the proper preparation of the forme

Anne's accession he definitely allied himself with Harley and Here again it is most important that a sharp eye be kept on the materials used. Ink forms a large item in the total expenses of this St John. Perhaps in consequence of this for nine years there is department, besides which there are: oil for lubricating, turpentine no mention of his name in connexion with any public transaction. and other solvents for cleaning, paper for proofs and making-ready, But when the Tories came into power in 1710 Prior's diplomatic &c. When the work is printed it is handed to the warehousemen,

abilities were again called into action, and till the death of Anne who are responsible both for unprinted and printed paper. Lastly, the counting-house deals with all accounts, both departments' and

he held a prominent place in all negotiations with the French customers'.

court, sometimes as secret agent, sometimes in an equivocal BIBLIOGRAPHY.-The following books and periodicals may be

position as ambassador's companion, sometimes as fully accredispecially referred to: Books-J. Southward (and subsequently ted but very unpunctually paid ambassador. His share in A. Powell), Practical Printing, a handbook of the art of typography negotiating the treaty of Utrecht, of which he is said to have (2 vols. 8vo, London, 1900); J. Southward, Modern Printing, a

disapproved, personally led to its popular nickname of “Matt's treatise on the principles and practice of typography, &c. (large 8vo, London, 1900); C. T. Jacobi, Printing, a practical treatise on the

Peace.” When the queen died and the Whigs regained power art of printing, &c. (8vo, 4th ed., London, 1908); W. J. Kelly, Press he was impeached by Sir Robert Walpole and kept in close work, a practical handbook for the use of pressmen and their appren- custody for two years (1715-1717). In 1709 he had already pubtices (8vo, 2nd ed., Chicago, 1902); C. T. Jacobi, The Printer's

lished a collection of verse. During this imprisonment, mainHandbook of Trade Recipes, &c. (8vo, 3rd ed., London, 1905); F. J. F. Wilson and D. Grey, Modern Printing Machinery and Leller

taining his cheerful philosophy, he wrote his longest humorous press Printing (large 8vo, London, 1888); Robert Hoe, A Short poem, Alma; or, The Progress of the Mind. This, along with his History of the Printing Press (4to, New York, 1902): T. L. de Vinne,

most ambitious work, Solomon, and other Poems on several The Invention of Printing (New York, 1876). Periodicals, The

Occasions, was published by subscription in 1718. The sum British and Colonial Printer and Stationer (London, bi-weekly); The Brilisk Printer (Lcicester, alternate months): The Printer's Register

received for this volume (4000 guineas), with a present of £4000 (London, monthly); The Printing World (London, monthly): The from Lord Harley, enabled him to live in comfort; but he did Caxton Magazine (London, monthly); The Printing Art (Cambridge, not long survive his enforced retirement from public life, although Mass., U.S.A., monthly): The Inland Printer (Chicago, monthly):

he bore his ups and downs with rare equanimity. He died at The American Printer (New York, monthly): The International Printer (Philadelphia, monthly). See also the bibliography attached

Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, a seat of the earl of Oxford, on the to the article TYPOGRAPHY.

(C. T. J.) 18th of September 1721, and was buried in Westminster Abbey,

where his monument may be seen in Poet's Corner. A History PRIOR, MATTHEW (1664-1721), English poet and diploma.

of his Own Time was issued by J. Bancks in 1740. The book tist, was the son of a Nonconformist joiner at Wimborne-Minster,

pretended to be derived from Prior's papers, but it is doubtful East Dorset, and was born on the 21st of July 1664. His

| how far it should be regarded as authentic. father moved to London, and sent him to Westminster, under

Prior had very much the same easy, pleasure-loving disposition Dr Busby. At his father's death he left school, and fell to the

as Chaucer (with whose career his life offers a certain parallelism), care of his uncle, a vintner in Channel Row. Here Lord Dorset

combined with a similar capacity for solid work. His poems found him reading Horace, and set him to translate an ode.

show considerable variety, a pleasant scholarship and great He acquitted himself so well that the earl offered to contribute

bute executive skill. The most ambitious, i.e. Solomon, and the to the continuance of his education at Westminster. One of

paraphrase of the Nut-Brown Maid, are the least successful. his schoolsellows and friends was Charles Montagu, afterwards

But Alma, an admitted imitation of Butler, is a delightful earl of Halifax. It was to avoid being separated from Montagu

piece of wayward easy humour, full of wilty turns and welland his brother James that Prior accepted, against his patron's

remembered allusions, and Prior's mastery of the octo-syllabic wish, a scholarship recently founded at St John's College. He

couplet is greater than that of Swift or Pope. His tales in took his B.A. degree in 1686, and two years later became a

rhyme, though often objectionable in their themes, are excellent fellow. In collaboration with Montagu he wrote in 1687 the

specimens of narrative skill; and as an epigrammatist he is Cily Mouse and Country Mouse, in ridicule of Dryden's Hind and

end unrivalled in English. The majority of his love songs are Panther. It was an age when satirists were in request, and sure

frigid and academic, mere wax-flowers of Parnassus; but in of patronage and promotion. The joint production made the

familiar or playful efforts, of which the type are the admirable fortune of both authors. Montagu was promoted at once, and

lines To a Child of Quality, he has still no rival. “Prior's" Prior three years later was gazelted secretary to the embassy

says Thackeray, himself no mean proficient in this kind—“ seem at the Hague. After four years of this employment he was

to me amongst the easiest, the richest, the most charmingly appointed one of the gentlemen of the king's bedchamber.

humorous of English lyrical poems. Horace is always in his Apparently, also, he acted as one of the king's secretaries, and in

mind, and his song and his philosophy, his good sense, his happy 1697 he was secretary to the plenipotentiaries who concluded

easy turns and melody, his loves and his Epicurianism, bear a the peace of Ryswick Prior's talent for affairs was doubled by great resemblance to that most delightful and accomplished Pope, who had no special means of judging, but it is not likely

master." that King William would have employed in this important

The largest collection of Prior's verses is that by R. Brimley business a man who had not given proof of diplomatic skill and

| Johnson in the" Aldine Poets" (2 vols., 1892). There is also a selecgrasp of details. The poet's knowledge of French is specially tion in the “ Parchment Library," with introduction and notes mentioned among his qualifications, and this was recognized by Austin Dobson (1889).

(A. D.) by his being sent in the following year to Paris in attendance PRIOR (from Lat. prior-former, and hence 'superior, on the English ambassador. At this period Prior could say with through O. Fr. priour), a title applied generally to certain monasgood reason that “ he had commonly business enough upon his tic superiors, but also in the middle ages to other persons in hands, and was only a poet by accident." To verse, however, authority. Under the Roman Empire the word prior is found which had laid the foundation of his fortunes, he still occasionally signifying “ ancestor." In the early middle ages it was com. trusted as a means of maintaining his position: His occasional monly applied to secular officials and magistrates, and it remained poems during this period include an elegy on Queen Mary in all though the middle ages as the title of certain officials in the

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