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the City of London in that year. The history of the telephone, preference was given to army, navý and royal marine pensioners, service and the growth of the industry are set out in the article

and men of the army reserve. Due regard was paid to the legitimate

claims of telegraph messengers or other persons who had prospects TELEPHONE.

of succeeding to these situations. In August 1897 the government Post OFFICE STAFF

decided to reserve one-half of all suitable vacancies for ex-soldiers

and sailors, as postmen, porters and labourers, and preference The staff of the post office on the 31st of March 1906 amounted has been shown to them for employment as list-attendants, careto 195,432. Of these 41,081 were women, a proportion of over takers, &c. one-fifth of the staff. The postmasters numbered 875 (in- Finance. --The following table shows the financial working cluding to employed abroad), and the sub-postmasters 21,027. l of the post office:

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2,820,210 | 1,154,211 | 728,413 ) $15.89: 736.000 5,668,165 | 3,721,084 3.350,563 1,249.821 664.342 553.010 142,788 6,275,085 3.446.396 4,597.355 1395,282 729,813677.524 178,464 7.955.344 3,070,116 $.903.399 1,474,118 750.307 710.944213.747 9,083.0093.710.3.36 6,277,275 1.516,850764.804 726.10r 236,677 10.064.003 3.030.567 7.737,010 11,821,758 687,100 | 604,027

295,195 11,849,012 5.540,897

The total number of offices (including branch offices) was 22,088.

POSTAGE STAMPS The unestablished staff, not entitled to pension, made up chiefly

For all practical purposes the history of postage stamps begins of telegraph boys, and of persons who are employed for only

in the United Kingdom. A post-paid envelope was in common part of the day on post office business, included 87,753 out of

use in Paris in the year 1653. Stamped postal letter-paper the grand total, and almost the whole of the sub-postmasters.

(carlo postale bollata) was issued to the public by the governThe pay and prospects of almost all classes have been greatly

ment of the Sardinian States in November 1818, and stamped improved since 1884, when the number stood at 91,184. The

postal envelopes were issued by the same government from principal schemes of general revision of pay have been: 1881,

1820 until 1836. Stamped wrappers for newspapers were made Fawcett's scheme for sorting-clerks, sorters and telegraphists

experimentally in London by Charles Whiting, under the name (additional cost £210,000 a year), and for postmen, 1882,

of “go-frees,” in 1830. Four years later (June 1834), and in £110,000: Raikes's various revisions, 1888, chief clerks and

ignorance of what Whiting had already done, Charles Knight, supervising officers, £6230; 1890, sorting-clerks, sorters and

| the well-known publisher, in a letter addressed to Lord Althorp, telegraphists, £170,600; 1890, supervising force, £65,000;

then chancellor of the exchequer, recommended similar wrappers 1890, London sorters, £20,700; 1891, London overseers, £9400;

for adoption. From this suggestion apparently Rowland Hill, 1891, post men, £125,650: Arnold Morley, 1884, London

who is justly regarded as the originator of postage stamps, got overseers, £1400, and rural auxiliaries, £20,000.

his idea. Meanwhile, however, the adhesive stamp was made A committee was appointed in June 1895 with Lord Tweedmouth experimentally by James Chalmers in his printing-office at as chairman, to consider the pay and position of the post office

Dundee in August 1834.2 These experimental stamps were staff, excluding the clerical force and those employed at headquarters. The committee reported on the 15th of December 1896 and

printed from ordinary type, and were made adhesive by a wash its recommendations were adopted at an immediate increased ex of gum. Chalmers had already won local distinction by bis pense of (139,000 a year, which has since risen to £500,000. In successful efforts in 1822, for the acceleration of the Scottish 1897 additional concessions were made at a cost of £100,000 a year. mails from London. Those efforts resulted in a saving of

In July 1890 a number of postmcn in London went out on forty-eight hours on the double mail journey, and were highly strike. Over 450 were dismissed in one morning, and the work appreciated in Scotland. of the post office was carried on without interruption. The Rowland Hill brought the adhesive stamp under the notice of men received no sympathy from the public, and most of them the commissioners of post office inquiry on the 13th of February were ultimately successful in their plca to be reinstated. A 1837. Chalmers made no public mention of his stamp of 1834 quasi-political agitation was carried on during the general elec- until November 1837. tion of 1892 by some of the London sorters, who, under the plea Rowland Hill's pamphlet led to the appointment of a comof civil rights, claimed the right to influence candidates for mittee of the House of Commons on the 22nd of November parliament by exacting pledges for the promise of parliamentary | 1837, “ to inquire into the rates and modes of charging postage, support. The leaders were dismissed, and the post office has with a view to such a reduction thereof as may be made without upheld the principle that its officers are to hold themselves free injury to the revenue." This committee reported in favour to serve either party in the State without putting themselves of Hill's prop

of Hill's proposals; and an act was passed in 1839, authorizing prominently forward as political partisans. Parliament has the treasury to fix the rates of postage, and regulate the mode been repeatedly asked to sanction a parliamentary inquiry to of their collection, whether by prepayment or otherwise. A reopen the settlement of the Tweedmouth Committee, and premium of £200 was offered for the best, and £100 for the next

raphists have been especially active in pressing, for best, proposal for bringing stamps into use, having regard to a further committee. The rates of pay at various dates since

1 Slamp-Collector's Magazine, v. 161 scq.; J. E. Gray, Illustrated 1881 are set out with great fullness in the Parliamentary papers

Catalogue of Postage Slamps, 6th ed., 167. (Posimen, No. 237 of 1897; Sorters, Telegraphists, 0°C., No. 230 . Patrick Chalmers, Sir Rowland Hill and James Chalmers. of 1898, and Report of the Select Commillee on Post Office Servants, Inventor of the Adhesive Stamp (London, 1882), passim. See also 1907; this latter contains important recommendations for the the same writer's pamphlet, entitled The Position of Sir Rozcland

Hill made plain (1882), and his The Adhesive Stamp: a Fresh Chapler removal of many grievances which the staff had been long

in the History of Post-Office Reform (1881). Compare Pearson Hill's agitating to have removed).

tract, A Paper on Postage Stamps, in reply to Chalmers, reprinted In November 1891 an important change was made in the method from the Philatelic Record of November 1881. Pearson Hill has of recruiting postmen, with the object of encouraging military thercin shown conclusively the priority of publication by Sir Rowland service, and providing situations for those who after serving in the Hill. He has also given proof of James Chalmers's express acknow. army or navy are left without employment at a comparatively ledgment of that priority. But he has not weakened the evidence carly age. In making appointments to the situation of post man, I of the priority of invention by Chalmers.

the tel

July 18 stermark? erforated (?) 185

stbure and in Finland in 1845): orb watermark; lilac-rose balt, and some ultramarine; per richi

" (1) the convenience as regards the public use; (2) the security check-letters in all four corners instead of two only; large crown against forgery; (3) the facility of being checked and distin- / watermark; perforated 14. ..

In 1880 the line-engraved one penny stamps were superseded by guished at the post office, which must of necessity be rapid;

the surface-printed one of similar value in venetian red, designed and (4) the expense of the production and circulation of the and printed by Messrs De la Rue & Co. stamps.” To this invitation 2600 replies were received, but no Three-half penny Stamp.--October 1, 1870: large crown water. improvement was made upon Rowland Hill's suggestions. A

mark; lake-red; perforated 14. Superseded in October 1880 by

De la Rue's surface printed stamp. further Minute, of the 26th of December 1839, announced that

Two penny Stamp, - First issue, Ist (for 6th) May 1840: small the treasury had decided to require that, as far as practicable, crown watermark; light blue, dark blue; imperforate. Second the postage of letters should be prepaid, and such prepayment

issue, March 1841: small crown watermark; white line below effected by means of stamps. Stamped covers or wrappers,

Postage " and above “Twopence"; dull to dark blue; imper.

forate. Third issue, February (?) 1854: small crown waterinark; stamped envelopes, and adhesive stamps were to be issued by

blue, dark blue; perforated 16. Fourth issue, March 1855: small government. The stamps were engraved by Messrs Perkins. crow

crown watermark; blue, dark blue; perforated 14. Fifth issue, Bacon & Petch, of Fleet Street, from Hill's designs, and the July 1855: large crown watermark; blue; perforated 16; blue, Muiready envelopes and covers by Messrs Clowes & Son, of

dark blue; perforated 14. Sixth issue, May (?) 1857: large crown

watermark; white lines thinner, blue, dark blue; per.orated 14; Blackíriars. The stamps were appointed to be brought into use

dark blue; perforated 16. Seventh issue, July 1858: large crown on the 6th of May 1840, but they appear to have been issued watermark; white lines as in fifth issue; deep to very deep blue; to the public as early as the ist of May. The penny stamp, perforated 16. Eighth issue, April (?) 1869: large crown waterbearing a profile of Queen Victoria, was coloured black, and

mark; white lines thinner; dull blue, deep to very deep blue,

violet blue; perforated 14. Superseded in December 1880 by De the twopenny stamp blue, with check-letters in the lower

| la Rue's surface-printed stamp. angles (in all four angles from April 1858). Up to the 28th of

(ii.) Embossed Slamps. January 1854 the stamps were not officially perforated, except

Produced by Dryden Brothers, of Lambeth, from designs subin the session of 1851, when stamps, perforated by a Mrmitted by Mr Ormond Hill of Somerset House, engraved after Archer, were issued at the House of Commons post office. In Wyon's medal. 1853 the government purchased Archer's patent for £4000.

Sixpence.—March 1. 1854: violet. reddish lilac. dark violet:

imperforate. Superseded in October 1856 by De la Rue's surfaceThe stamps were first water-marked in April 1840.

printed stamp. The canton of Zürich was the first foreign state to adopt postage

Tenpence.-November 6, 1848: pale to very deep chestnutstamps, in 1843. The stamps reached America in the same year, brown; imperforate. Superseded by De la Rue's surlace-printed being introduced by the government of Brazil. That of the United stamp in 1867. States did not adopt them until 1847; but a tentative issue was One Shilling.--September 11, 1847: emerald green, pure deep made by the post office of New York in 1845. An adhesive stamp green, yellow-green; imperforate. Superseded in November 1856 was also issued at St Louis in the same year, and in Rhode Island by De la Rue's surface printed stamp. in the next. In Europe the Swiss cantons of Geneva (18.14) and of

(iii.) Surface-printed Stamps before 1880.' Basel (1845) soon followed the example set by Zürich. In the Russian Empire the use of postage stamps became general in 1818 Twopence-half-penny.-- First issue, July 1, 1875: small anchor (after preliminary issues at St Petersburg and in Finland in 1845). watermark; lilac-rose; perforated 14. Second issue, May 1876; France issued them in 1849. The same year witnessed their intro- orb watermark; lilac-rose, perforated 14. Third issue, February duction into Tuscany, Belgium and Bavaria, and also into New South Wales. Austria, Prussia, Saxony, Spain, Italy, followed 14. Fourth issue, March 23, 1881: large crown watermark; bright in 1850. The use of postage stamps seems to have extended to blue; perforated 14. the Hawaiian Islands (1851?) a year before it reached the Dutch Threepence.-All perforated 14. First issue, May 1, 1862: Netherlands (1852). Within twenty-five years of the first issue heraldic emblems watermark; carmine (pale to deep). Second issue, of a postage stamp in London, the known varieties, issued in ali March 1, 1865: same watermark as above; carmine-pink. Third parts of the world, amounted to 1391. Of these 841 were of issue, July, 1867: watermarked with a spray of rose; carmineEuropean origin, 333 were American, 59 Asiatic, 55 African. The pink, carmine-rose. Fourth issue, July 1873. watermark as third varieties of stamp issued in the several countries of Oceania were issue; carmine-rose. Fifth issue, January 1, 1881: watermark large 103. Or the whole 1391 stamps no less than 811 were already crown; carmine-rose. Sixth issue, January 1, 1883; watermark obsolete in 1865, leaving 580 still in currency.

as fifth issue: purple shades overprinted with value in deep pink.

Four pence.--All perforated 14. First issue, July 31, 1855: English ISSUES

watermark small garter; deep and dull carmine. Second issue, (i.) Line-engraved Slamps.

February 1856: watermark medium garter; pale carmine. Third Half penny Slamp.-First issue, October 1, 1870: size 18 mm.

issue, November 1, 1856: watermark medium garter; dull rose. by 14 mm.; lake-red varying to rose-red.

Fourth issue, January 1857: watermark large garter; dull and One Penny Stamp.-- First issue, ist (for 6th) May 1840: the

pale to deep rose, pink. Fifth issue, January 15, 1862: water. head executed by Frederick Heath, from a drawing by Henry

mark large garter; carmine-vermilion, vermilion-red. Sixth issue, Corbould of William Wyon's medal struck to commemorate her

July 1865: watermark large garter; pale to dark vermilion. Seventh

issue, March 1, 1876. watermark large garter; pale vermilion. majesty's visit to the City of London on the 9th of November 1837:

Eighth issue, February 27, 1877: watermark large garter; pale size 22 mm. by 187 mm.; black, watermarked with a small crown; a few sheets in 1841 struck in red, two essays were made in April

sage-green. Ninth issue, July 1880: watermark large garter; and October 1840 in blue and blue-back; imperforate. The

mouse-brown. Tenth issue, January 1, 1881: watermark large second issue, January 20, 1841, differed only from the first issue

crown; mouse-brown. as to colour-red instead of black. It is stated that the colour,

Sixpence. --All perforated 14. First issue, October 21, 1856: no " though always officially referred to as 'red,' was really a red.

letters in angles; watermark heraldic emblems; dull lilac. Second brown, and this may be regarded as the normal colour; but con

issile, December 1, 1862: small white letters in angles; otherwise siderable variations in tone and shade (brick-red, orange-red, lake

as first issue. Third issue, April 1, 1865: large white letters in

angles; otherwise as first issue. red) occurred from time to time, often accentuated by the blueing

Fourth issue, June 1867: water. of the paper, though primarily due to a want of uniformity in the

mark spray of rose; otherwise as third issue; some in bright lilac. method employed for preparing the ink." The change of colour

Fifth issue, March 1869: as fourth issue: lilac, decp lilac, purplefrom black was made in order to render the obliteration (now in

lilac. Sixth issue, April 1, 1872: as fourth issue; bright chestnutblack instead of red ink) more distinct; imperforate. Third

brown. Setenth issue, October 1872: as fourth issue; buff. Eighth issue, February 1854: small crown watermark; perforated 16

issue, April 1873: as fourth issue; greenish grey. Ninth issue, (i.e. 16 holes to 2 centimetres). The fourth issue, January 1855,

April 1, 1874: watermarked as fourth issue; large coloured letters in differed only from the third issue in being perforated 14. Fifth

angles; greenish grey. Tenth issue, January I, 1881: large crown issue, February 1855: from a new die, with minute variations of

watermark; otherwise as ninth issue. Eleventh issue, January 1, engraving. In the second die the eyelid is more distinctly shaded,

1883: as tenth issue; purple, overprinted with value in deep the nostril more curved, and the band round the hair has a thick dark line forming its lower edge. Small crown watermark; perfor

Eighepence.-September 11, 1876: watermark large garter; ated 16 and 14. Sixth issue, July 1855: large crown watermark;

chrome-yellow, pale yellow; perforated 14. perforated 14; a certain number 16. Seventh issue, January

Ninc pence.-All perforated 14. First issue, January 15, 1862: 1858: carmine-rose varying from pale to very deep. Large crown

watermark heraldic emblems; ochre-brown, bright bisire. Second

issue, December 1, 1865: watermark as above; bistre-brown, straw. watermark; perforated, chiefly 14. Eighth issue, April 1, 1864:

Third issue, October 1867: watermark spray of rose; straw. I Wright and Crecke, History of the Adhesive Stamp of the Britisk Tenpence.July 1, 1867: watermark spray of rose; red-brown. Isles available for Postal and Telegraph Purposes (London, 1899). perforated 14.

pink.

14.

One Shilling.--All perforated 14. First issue, November 1,1 Three pence.-January 1, 1887: yellow paper; watermarked with 1856: watermark heraldic emblems; no letters in angles; dull a large crown; purple; perforated 14. green, pale to dark green. Second issue, December 1, 1862: as Four pence.-January 1, 1887: watermark and perforation as above; small white letters in angles; pale to dark green. Third in threepence; green and brown. issue, February 1865: as above; large white letters in angles; pale Four pence-halfpenny.-September 15, 1892: as the fourpence; to dark green, bluish green. Fourth issue, August 1867: water green and carmine. mark spray of rose; otherwise as third issue; pale to dark green, Five pence.-January 1, 1887: as the fourpence; purple and blue. bluish green. Fifth issue, September 1873: large coloured letters Sixpence.-January 1, 1887: pale red paper; watermarked with in angles; otherwise as fourth issue; light to dark green, bluish a large crown; purple; perforated 14. green. Sixth issue, October 14, 1880: as fith issue; pale red. Nine pence.- January 1, 1887: large crown watermark; purple brown. Seenth issue, June 15, 1881: watermark large crown; and blue; perforated 14. otherwise as sixth issue; pale red-brown.

Tenpence.-February 24, 1890: as the ninepence; purple and Two Shillings.-Watermark spray of rose; perforated 14. First carmine-red. issue, July 1, 1867: pale to full blue, very deep blue. Second One Shilling.-January 1, 1887: as the nincpence: green. issue, February 1880: light brown.

The various fiscal stamps admitted to postage uses, the overFire Shilling5.-- First issue, July 1, 1867: watermarked with printed official stamps for use by government departments, and a cross paté; pink, pale rose; perforated 153 by 15. Second issue, the stamps specially surcharged for use in the Ottoman Empire, do November 1882: watermark large anchor; carmine-pink; perfor- not call for detailed notice in this article. ated 14.

The distinctive telegraph stamps are as follows:Ton Shillings. First issue, September 26, 1878: watermark One Halfpenny.-April 1, 1880: shamrock watermark; orange

oss paté; green-grey; perforated 15} by 15. Second issue, February 1883: watermark large anchor; green-grey; perforated 14.

One Penny.-February 1, 1876: as the halfpenny; reddish One Pound.-First issue, September 26, 1878: watermark cross brown. paté; brown-violet; perforated 154 by 15. Second issue, December Threepence.- Perforated 14. First issue, February 1, 1876: 1882: watermark large anchor; brown-violet; perforated 14.

watermark spray of rose; carmine. Second issue, August 1881: (iv.) Afler 1880.

watermark large crown; carmine. In 1880-1881 the half penny, penny, three-halí penny and two

Four pence.- March, i, 1877: watermark large garter; pale

sage-green; perforated 14. penny surface-printed stamps superseded the line-engraved stamps

Sixpence. -- Perforated 14. First issue, March 1, 1877: waterof the same value, and a new surface-printed stamp of fivepence was introduced. These stamps are distinguished from the stamps

mark spray of rose; greenish-grey. Second issue, July 1881: as already described by the absence of plate-numbers and (except

first issue; watermark large crown.

One Shilling.- Perforated 14. First issue, February 1, 1876: in the penny stamp) of check-letters in the corners; also by the

watermark spray of rose; green. Second issue, October 1880: coarser style of engraving necessary for printing by machines

watermark spray of rose: pale red-brown. Third issue, February driven by steam-power. One Halfpenny. - First issue, October 14, 1880: large crown

1881: watermark large crown; pale red brown.

Three Shillings.- Perforated 14; slate blue. First issue, March 1. watermark; pale green, bluish green, dark green; perforated 14. Second issue, April 1, 1884: slate-blue.

1877: watermark spray of rosc. Second issue, August 1881:

watermark large crown. One Penny.-- January 1, 1880: large crown watermark; venetian

Five Shillings.- First issue, February 1, 1876: watermark cross red; perforated 14.

paté; dark to light rose; perforated 15 by 15). Second issue, Three-haljpence. -October 14, 1880: large crown watermark; venetian red; perforated 14.

August 1881: watermark large anchor; carmine-rose; perforated Twopence.- December 8, 1880: large crown watermark; pale to *Ten Shillings.- March 1, 1877; watermark cross pate; greervery deep carmine red; perforated 14. Five pence.—March 15. 1881: large crown watermark; dark dull

grey: perforated 15 by 151.

One Pound.-March 1, 1877: watermark shamrock; brownindigo, indigo-black; perforated 14.

purple; perforated 14. The Customs and Inland Revenue Act which came into force

Five Pounds.-March 1, 1877: watermark shamrock; orange. on June 1, 1881, made it unnecessary to provide separate penny

vermilion: perforated 15! by 15. stamps for postal and fiscal purposes. By an act of 1882 (45

In addition to these, there were stamps specially prepared for & 46 Vict. c. 72) it became unnecessary to provide separate stamps

the army telegraphs. for postal and fiscal purposes up to and including stamps of the value of 2s. 6d. A new series was therefore issued : · One Penny.--All perforated 14. First issue, July 12, 1881:

BRITISH COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES large crown watermark; 14 pearls i, each angle; purple-lilac, purple. Second issue, December 12, 1881: as first issue; 16 pearls in each Australian Commonwealth.-In 1905 there were 6654 post angle; purple. Three-half pence.-April 1, 1884: large crown watermark; purple;

offices open; 311,401,539 letters and cards, 171,844,868 newsperforated 14.

papers, book-packets and circulars, 2,168,810 parcels, and Twopence.--Ditto.

13,680,239 telegrams were received and despatched; the revenue Two pence-halfpenny.-Ditto.

was £2,738,146 and the expenditure £2,720,735. Three pence. -Ditto.

New Zealand.-In 1905 there were 1937 post offices open; Four pence.--Ditto, except in colour (sea-green). Five pence.--As fourpence.

74,767,288 letters and cards, 47,334,263, newspapers, bookSixpence.-Ditto.

packets and circulars, 392,017 parcels, and 5,640,219 telegrams Nine pence.--Ditto.

were dealt with. The revenue from the post office was £410,968, One Shilling.-Ditto. Two Shillings and Sixpence.- July 22, 1883: watermark large

and from telegraphs £273,911, while the expenditure on the post anchor; purple, dull lilac, dark purple: perforated 14.

office was £302,146 and on telegraphs £276,581. Five Shillings.--April 1, 1884: ditto; pale to very deep carmine. Dominion of Canada.-In 1905 there were 10,879 post offices Ten Shillings.-Ditto; pale blue, cobalt, light to dull blue. open; 331,792,500 letters and cards, 60,405,000 newspapers, One Pound. - First issue, April 1, 1884: large crown watermark,

book-packets and circulars, and 58,338 parcels were received 3 appearing in each stamp; brown-violet; perforated 14. Second issue, January 27, 1891: same watermark; bright green; perforated

and despatched. The revenue from the post office amounted

to £1,053,548, and from telegraphs £28,727, while the expendiFive Pounds. - March 21, 1882: large anchor watermark; orange- ture was, on the post office £952,652 and on telegraphs £78,934. vermilion, vermilion, bright vermilion; perforated 14.

Cape of Good Hope. --The number of post offices open in 1905 Following upon the report of a committee of officials of the General Post Office and Somerset House, a series of new stamps,

was 1043; 7,596,600 letters and cards, 3,706,960 newspapers, commonly known as the “ Jubilee " issue, was introduced on

book-packets and circulars, 536,800 parcels, and 6,045,228 January 1, 1887, all of which between one halfpenny and one telegrams were dealt with. The revenue from the post office shilling exclusive were printed either in two colours or on a coloured

was £423,056, and from telegraphs £206,842 the expenditure paper, so that each stamp was printed in part in one or other of the doubly fugitive inks-green and purple.

| being, £456,171 on the post office and £272,863 on telegraphs. One Half penny.-January 1, 1887: large crown watermark;

British India.--In 1905 there were 16,033 post offices open; orange-vermilion to bright vermilion; perforated 14.

597,707,867 letters and cards, 76,671,197 newspapers, bookThree-half pence.- January 1, 1887: as the hallpenny; green packets and circulars, 4,541,367 parcels, and 9,098,345 teleand purple. Topence.-Ditto: green and scarlet to carmine.

grams were dealt with. The revenue from the post office was Two pence-half penny.-January 1, 1887: blue paper; watermark

| £1,566,704 and from telegraphs £733,193, while the expenditure large crown; dark purple; perforated 14.

| was, on the post office, £1,199,557 and on telegraphs £546,914. FRANCE

a considerable and growing revenue. In 1676 the farmers had The French postal system was founded by Louis XI. (June paid to the king £48,000 in the money of that day. A century 19, 1464), was largely extended by Charles IX. (1565), and later they paid a fixed rent of £352,000, and covenanted to pay

received considerable improvements at various in addition one-fifth of their net profits. In 1788--the date Early History periods under the respective governments of of the last letting to farm of the postal revenue--the fixed and

Henry IV. and Louis XIII. (1603, 1622, 1627 seq.). the variable payments were commuted for one settled sum of In 1627 France originated a postal money-transmission system, £480,000 a year. The result of the devastations of the Revolu. a system of cheap registration for letters. The postmaster who tion and of the wars of the empire together is shown strikingly thus anticipated modern improvements was Pierre d'Alméras, / by the fact that in 1814 the gross income of the post office was a man of high birth, who gave about £20,000 (of modern money) but little more than three-fifths of the nel income in 1788. Six for the privilege of serving the public. The turmoils of the years of the peaceful government of Louis XVIII. raised the Fronde wrecked much that he had achieved. The first farm of gross annual revenue to £928,000. On the eve of the Revolution postal income was made in 1672, and by farmers it was adminis of 1830 it reached £1,348,000. Towards the close of the next tered until June 1790. To increase the income postmaster-reign the post office yielded £2,100,000 (gross). Under the ships for a long time were not only sold but made hereditary. revolutionary government of 1848-1849 it declined again (falling Many administrative improvements of detail were introduced, in 1850 to £1,744,000); under that of Napoleon III. it rose

y Mazarin (1643). by Louvois (c. 1680 seg.), and by steadily and uniformly with every year. In 1858 the gross Cardinal de Fleury (1728); but many formidable abuses also revenue was £2,296,000, in 1868 £3,596,000. continued. The revolutionary government transferred rather

The inge nuity of the French postal authorities was severely than removed them. Characteristically, it put a board of post-tried by the exigencies of the German War of 1870-71. The masters in room of a farming postmaster-general and a con- first contrivance was to organize a pigeon servicc (see

also PIGEON POST), carrying microscopic despatches trolling one. Napoleon (during the consulate?) abolished the

See Pigeon aed

prepared by the aid of photographic appliances. The board, recommitted the business to a postmaster-general as it

Posts.

number of postal pigeons employed was 363, of which had been under Louis XIII., and greatly improved the details number fifty-seven returned with despatches. During the height of the service; Napoleon's organization of 1802 is, in substance, of the sicge the English postal authorities received letters for that which now obtains, although, of course, large modifications

transmission by pigeon post into Paris by way of Tours, subject

to the regulations that no information concerning the war was and developments have been made from time to time.

given, that the number of words did not exceed twenty, that The university of Paris, as early as the 13th century, pos- the letters were delivered open, and that 5d. a word, with a registrasessed a special postal system, for the abolition of which in the tion sec of 6d.,8 was prepaid as postage. At this rate the postage 18th it received a large compensation. But it continued to

of the 200 letters on each folio was 1.10, that on the eighteen pellicles

of sixteen folios cach, carried by one pigeon, £11.520. Each despossess certain minor postal privileges until the Revolution.

patch was repeated until its arrival had been acknowledged by Mazarin's edict of the 3rd of December 1643 shows that France balloon post; consequently many were sent off twenty and some at that date had a parcel post as well as a letter post. That edict even more than thirty times. The second step was to establish a creates for each head post office throughout the kingdom three

regular system of postal balloons, flty-one being employed for letter

service and six for telegraphic service. To M. Durnouf belongs several officers styled respectively (1) comptroller, (2) weigher,

much of the honour of making the balloon service successful. On (3) assessor; and, instead of remunerating them by salary, it the basis of experiments carried out by him a decree of the 26th of directs the addition of one-fourth to the existing letter rate and September 1870 regulated the new postal system. Out of sixtyparcel rate, and the division of the surcharge between the three. four several ascents, cach costing on the average about (200,

filty-seven achieved their purpose, notwithstanding the building Fleury's edicts of 1728 make sub-postmasters directly respon

by Krupp of twenty guns, supplied with telescopic apparatus, sible for the loss of letters or parcels; they also make it necessary for the destruction of the postal balloons. Only five were captured, that senders should post their letters at an office, and not give and two others were lost at sea. The aggregate weight of the letters them to the carriers, and regulate the book-post by directing

and newspapers thus aerially mailed by the French post ofice

amounted to about eight tons and a hall, including upwards of that book parcels (whether MS. or printed) shall be open at the

3.000.000 letters; and, besides the aeronauts, ninety-one passengers ends. In 1758, almost eighty years after Dockwra's estab- were conveyed. The heroism displayed by the French balloor lishment of a penny post in London, an historian of that city post men was equalled by that of many of the ordinary letterpublished an account of it, which in Paris came under the eye carriers in the conveyance of letters through the catacombs and

quarries of Paris and its suburbs, and, under various disguises, of Claude Piarron de Chamousset, who obtained letters-patent

often through the midst of the Prussian army. Several lost their to do the like, and, before setting to work or seeking profit for

lives in the discharge of their duty, in some cases saving their himself, issued a tract with the title, Mémoire sur la pctite-poste despatches by the sacrifice. During the war the Marseilles route établie à Londres, sur la modèle de laquelle on pourrait en établir de for the Anglo-Indian mails was abandoned. They were sent semblables dans les plus grandes villes d'Europe. The reform

through Belgium and Germany, by the Brenner Pass to Brindisi,

and thence by Italian packets to Alexandria The French route was successfully carried out.

was resumed in 1872.10 By this time the general post office of France was producing

1 For the details, see Ency. Bril., 8th ed., xviii. 420-424, and * The despatches carried by the pigeons were in the first instance Maxime Du Camp, "L'Administration des Postes," in Revue des photographed on a reduced scale on thin shects of paper, the original deux mondes (1865), and scries, vol. Ixvii. 169 seq.

writing being preserved, but after the ascent of the twenty-fith ? 28 Pluviose, an XII. = the 18th of February 1804.

balloon leaving the city an improved system was organized. The Le Quien de la Neusville, Usages des postes (1730), pp. 59-67, communications, whether public despatches, newspapers or private 80, 121-123. 147-149, 286-291; Maxime du Camp, op. cu. passim; letters, were printed in ordinary type, and micro-photographed on Pierre Clément, Appréciation des conséquences de la réforme to thin films of collodion. Each pellicle measured less than 2 in. postale, passim: Loret, Gazette rimée (Aug. 16, 1653); Furetière, Le by I, and the reproduction of sixteen lolio pages of type contained Roman Bourgeois (in Du Camp, ut supra): Die ersten Posteinricht. above 3000 private letters. These pellicles were so light that ungen, u.s.w.," in L'Union postale, viii. 138; Ordonnances des Rois 50.000 despatches, weighing less than I gramme, were regarded as de France, as cited by A. de Rothschild, Histoire de la poste-aux. the weight for one pigeon. In order to ensure their safety during lettres (3rd ed., 1876), i. 171, 216, 269. We quote M. de Rothschild's transit the films were rolled up tightly and placed in a small quill clever book with some misgivings. It is eminently sparkling in which was attached longitudinally to one of the tail feathers of style, and most readable; but its citations are so given that one the bird. On their arrival in Paris they were flattened out and is constantly in doubt lest they be given at second or even at third thrown by means of the electric lantern on to a screen, copied by hand instead of from the sources. The essay of M. du Camp is, clerks, and despatched to their destination. This method was up to its date, far more trustworthy. He approaches his subject afterwards improved upon, sensitive paper being substituted for as a publicist, M. de Rothschild as a stamp-collector.

the screen, so that the letters were printed at once and distributed. There are several charters confirmatory of this original

privilege.

Seventeenth Report of the Postmaster-General, p. 7. The earliest of these is of 1296 (Philip" the Fair").

• Boissay. "La Poste et la télégraphie pendant le siège de Paris," Ordonnances, &c., as above.

Journal des économistes. 3rd series, vol. xxii. pp. 117-129 anJ * There is an interesting biographical notice of Piarron

. 273-282. CI. Postal Gazette (1883), i. 7. Chamousset in Le Journal officiel of July 5. 1875.

10 Surteenth Report of the Postmaster-General, p. &.

Piernie, passim: LorDu Camp, ut supiii. 138; Ordonne la poste-aux. I transit the films

de la poste-aux. ihe weichibheches, weighing less than 1 grams

$76). 1. 171: 216, 269. We quote

cülars. &ccranics

1,436,210,000

4.923

Kord

orona

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The comparative postal statistics for all France during the placed under the control of the minister of commerce, in Hun. years 1900 and 1905 stands thus:-

gary under that of the minister of public works. The following

table gives the figures for 1900 and 1904:-
1900.
1905.

Austria.
No.
No.

1900.

1904. Letters . . . . . . .

980,629,000 1,113,090,000 Post-cards

62,594,000 450,889,000

Post offices

.. .No.

6,895

8.327 Newspapers, printed matter,

Letters and post-cards . .... 1.193,418,090 1,421,107.000 samples, circulars, &c. . .|1,390,246,000 1,441,713,000

Newspapers .

. 1,422,736,000

116,000,000

. 11,834,360,000

144.986,000

. Value of money ( French francs 1

Packet post: orders. . Internatl.

73,229,000

Ordinary packets kilogs. 37.521,000 44,624,000 Value of postal orders ...,

40,688,000 54.582,000

Registered packets kronen 8,043.570,000 8,323,179,000

209.982,000 261.454.000 Receipts . . . . .

and letters . .

. . 335,148,000 346,799,000 10,458,000 8,399.000

Receipts ·

kronen 107,718,000 123.919.000

· · The savings banks system of France, so far as it is connected

4.488.000 5,163.000 with the postal service, dates only from 1875, and began then (at

Expenses. · · ·

kronen 98,412,000 121.749,000 first) simply by the use of post offices as agencies and feeders for

4.100,000 5,073,000 the pre-existing banks. Prior to the postal connexion the aggre.

Hungary. gate of the deposits stood at $22.920,000. In 1877 it reached 132,000,000. Postal savings banks, strictly so called, began only

1900.

1904. during the year 1881. At the close of 1882 they had 210,712 depositors, with an aggregate deposit of £1.872,938 sterling: in Post offices . .

5,097 1905 they had 12,134.523 depositors, with an aggregate deposit Letters, newspapers,

487.670,000 584.081,000 of [229,094,155.

Packet post:
Ordinary packets

17.730,000 21.367.000 The union of the telegraph with the post office dates only Packets with de

6,256,900,000 4,936,403,000 from 1878. The following table gives the figures for 1900 and clared value and

"

260,704,000 money letters

205,08 3,000 .

. 1905:-

Reimbursements and s korona 1,095.591,000 1,253,440,000 1900. 1905.

money orders. . . . 45,649.000 52,226,000 Postal orders

korona 27.470,000 30,397,000 kilometres 117,559 129,826

1,145,000 1,266,000 Length of line.

miles . .

73,004
80,622
. . .

47,103,000

korona. Receipts

57,067.000 I kilometres

388,814

418,331 Length of wire

1,962,000

2,378,000 . miles.

241,453
259.784

korona

39.912,000 44.500.000 S francs .

Expenses
.
43.977,000 46.490,000

.. Total gross receipts

1,663.000 1,857.000 ?

1.759.000 1,860,000 Number of messages Torwarded :

German Empire Home service . . . . .

36,723,000 39.433.000 International

The Prussian postal system developed mainly by the ability 3,374,000

3.686,000 Amount of International iele:

and energy of Dr Stephan, to whom the organization of the graphic money orders:

International Postal Union? was so largely indebted, into the From foreign countries to France ;

admirably organized post and telegraph office of the empire .(Total francs) 6,145.455 10,239.546 From France to foreign

began with the Great Elector, and with the establishment in countries .(Total francs) 6,124.913 4.754.960 1646 of a Government post from Cleves to Memel. Frederick II.

largely extended it, and by his successor the laws relating to The postal telephonic system began in 1879. The following it were consolidated. In Strasburg a messenger code existed table gives the figures for 1901 and 1905:

as early as 1443. A postal service was prganized at Nurem1901.

1905.

berg in 1570. In 1803 the rights in the indemnity-lands

(Enlschädigungsländer) of the counts of Taxis as hereditary ( kilometres Length of line . .} miles

30,142

46,992

imperial postmasters were abolished. The first mail steam18.718

29,182

packet was built in 1821; the first transmission of mails by kilometres

453,287

498,389 Length of wire .

miles.

281,491

309,500

railway was in 1847; the beginning of the postal administratioa Messages

175.340,000 232.727,645 of the telegraphs was in 1849; and, by the treaty of postal Receipts · · ·

francs. . 17,518,000 23,495.000 union with Austria, not only was the basis of the existing system

701,000

940,000

of the posts and telegraphs of Germany fully laid, but the germ BIBLIOGRAPHY.-P. d'Alméras, Réglement sur le port des lellres was virtually set of the International Postal Union. That (1627); Le Quien de la Neufville, Usages des postes (1730); Rowland treaty was made for ten years on the 6th of April 1850, Hill, Report to the Chancellor of the Exchequer on the French Post

and was immediately accepted by Bavaria. It came into full Office (1837); Annuaire des postes (from 1850- ); M. du Camp,

operation on the ist of July following, and then includ " De L'administration ... et de l'hôtel des postes," in Revue des deux mondes (1865), 3rd seriess Revue des postes et télégraphes

Saxony, Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Holstein. Other German (pub. at various periods); A. de Rothschild, Histoire de la posle states followed; and the treaty was renewed in August 1860.. iux-lettres (1875); "Entwickelung des Post- u. Telegraphenwesens The following table gives figures for 1000 and 1905:in Frankreich," in Archiv f. Posl. u. Telegraphie (1882); " Die französischen Postsparkassen," and other articles, in L'Union

1900.

1905. postale (Berne). AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

Post offices

32,135

33.105 The Austrian postal system is among the oldest, on record.

2,893.555,000 | 3.855.369.000

Letters and parcels ( Vienna possessed a local letter post and a parcel post, on the received (value

10.508,000 10,518,000 plan of prepayment, as early as May 1772, at which date no declared) . . (1000 marks 15,984,425 16,215,800 city in Germany possessed the like. This local post was es

Parcels received (value not No.
declared).

153,985,000 186,038.000 tablished by a Frenchman (M. Hardy) and managed by a Dutch

Postal orders ne

126,217,209 162,800,261 man (Schooten).' Thirteen years after its organization it became

aived . .. 1 1000 marks 7,868,860 9.807.934 merged in the imperial post. The separate postal organizations of the empire (Austria) and of the kingdom (Hungary) date from

? The International Postal Union was founded at Berne in 1874.

All the countries of the world belong to it, with the exception of 1867. In Austria the post office and the telegraph office are

| Alghanistan, Baluchistan, China, Abyssinia and Morocco. Con'Loeper, " Organisation des postes de ville," in L'Ilnion postale gresses have been held at Paris (1878), Lisbon (1885). Vienna vii. i seg.

(1801), Washington (1897) and Rome (1906).

u Camp,

Revue des posics,"

in pretres (1875); periods); A. Ces

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Letters received

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