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the preceding age. In 1536 the Inquisition began its work, | others, and zier much labor imae produced the panegyrical while between 1552 and 1555 the control of higher education | Vida de D. Frei Bartholemeu dos martyres, the Historia de S. passed into the hands of the Jesuits. Following the Inquisition Domingos, and the Annaes d'el rei D. João III. His style is and the Jesuits came two other obstacles to the cultivation of lucid and vivid, but he lacks the critical sense, and the speeches letters, the censorship of books and the Indexes, and, as if these he puts into the mouths of his characters are imaginary. Manoel plagues were not enough, the Spanish domination followed. de Faria y Sousa (q.v.), a voluminous writer on Portuguese Next the taint of Gongorism appeared, and the extent to which history and the arch-commentator of Camoens, wrote, by an it affected the literature of Portugal may be seen in the five irony of fate, in Spanish, and Mello's classic account of the volumes/of the Fenix renascida, where the very titles of the Catalonian War is also in that language, while, by a still greater poems suffice to show the futilities which occupied the attention irony, Jacinto Freire de Andrade thought to picture and exalt of some of the best talents. The prevailing European fashion the Cato-like viceroy of India by his grandiloquent Vida de D. of literary academies was not long in reaching Portugal, and João de Castro. 1647 saw the foundation of the Academia dos Generosos which Other historical books of the period are the valuable Discursos included in its ranks the men most illustrious by learning and of Severim de Faria, the Portugal restaurado of D. Luis de social position, and in 1663 the Academia dos Singulares came | Menezes, conde de Ericeira, the ecclesiastical histories of Arch. into being; but with all their pedantry, extravagances and bad bishop Rodrigo da Cunha, the Agiologio lusitano of Jorge Cardoso taste, it must be confessed that these and similar corporations and the Chronica da Companhia de Jesus by Padre Balthazar tended to promote the pursuit of good literature. In bucolics Telles. The last also wrote an Historia da Ethiopia, and, though there arose a worthy disciple of Ribeiro in Francisco Rodrigues the travel literature of this century compares badly with that of Lobo (q.v.), author of the lengthy pastoral romances Corte na the preceding, mention may be made of the Itinerario da India aldea and Primavera, the songs in which, with his eclogues, por terra até e ilha de Chipre of Frei Gaspar de S. Bernardino, earned him the name of the Portuguese Theocritus. The fore- and the Relação do novo caminho através de Arabia e Syria of most literary figure of the time was the encyclopaedic Francisco Padre Manoel Godinho. Manoel de Mello (9.0.), who, though himself a Spanish classic, In the 17th century the religious orders and especially the strove hard and successfully to free himself from subservience Jesuits absorbed even more of the activities and counted for to Spanish forms and style. Most of the remaining lyricists of more in the public affairs of Portugal than in the east the period were steeped in Gongorism or, writing in Spanish, preceding age. The pulpit discharged some of the have no place here. It suffices to mention Soror Violente do Céo, functions of the modern press, and men who combined the gifts an exalted mystic called “the tenth muse," Bernarda Ferreira of oratory and writing filled it and distinguished themselves, de Lacerda, author of the Soledades de Bussaco, the Laura do their order and their country. The Jesuit Antonio Vieira (9..), Anfrizo of Manoel Tagarro, the Sylvia de Lizardo of Frei Bernardo missionary, diplomat and voluminous writer, repeated the de Brito, and the poems of Frei Agostinho das Chagas, who, triumphs he had gained in Bahia and Lisbon in Rome, which however, is better represented by his Carlas espirituaes. Satiri-proclaimed him the prince of Catholic orators. His 200 sermons cal verse had two notable cultivators in D. Thomas de Noronha are a mine of learning and experience, and they stand out from and Antonio Serrão de Castro, the first a natural and facile writer, all others by their imaginative power, originality of view, the second the author of Os Ratos da Inquisiçao, a facetious variety of treatment and audacity of expression. His letters poem composed during his incarceration in the dungeons of the are in a simple conversational style, but they lack the popular Inquisition, while Diogo de Sousa Camacho showed abundant locutions, humour and individuality of those of Mello. Vieira wit at the expense of the slaves of Gongorism and Marinism. was a man of action, while the oratorian Manoel Bernardes lived
The gallery of epic poets is a large one, but most of as a recluse, hence his sermons and devotional works, especially their productions are little more than rhymed chronicles and Luz e Calor and the Nova Floresta, breathe a calm and sweetness
have almost passed into oblivion. The Ulyssca of alien to the other, while they are even richer treasures of pure Poetry. e Gabriel Pereira de Castro describes the foundation Portuguese. Perhaps the truest and most feeling human
of Lisbon by Ulysses, but, not withstanding its documents of the century are the five epistles written by plagiarism of The Lusiads and faults of taste, these ten cantos Marianna Alcoforado (9.0.) known to history as the Lellers of a contain some masterly descriptive passages, and the ottava Portugucse Nun. Padre Ferreira de Almeida's translation of the rima shows a harmony and flexibility to which even Camoens | Bible has considerable linguistic importance, and philological rarely attained; but this praise cannot be extended to the studies had an able exponent in Amaro de Roboredo. tiresome Ulyssipo of Sousa de Macedo. The Malaca conquistada The popular theatre lived on in the Comedias de Cordel, of Francisco de Sá de Menezes, having Alphonso d'Albuquerque mostly anonymous and never printed its existence would for its hero, is prosaic in form, if correct in design. Rodrigucz hardly be known were it not for the pieces which the Drama. Lobo's twenty cantos in honour of the Holy Constable do him were placed on the Index. The popular autos that no credit, but the Viriato tragico by that travelled soldier have survived are mainly religious, and show the abuse of Garcia de Mascarenhas has some vigorous descriptions, and metaphor and the conceits which derive from Gongora. Al! critics reckon it the best epic of the second class.
through this century Portuguese dramatists, who aspired to be In point of style the historians of the period are laboured heard, wrote, like Jacintho Cordeiro and Mattos Fragoso, in and rhetorical; they were mostly credulous friars who wrote in Castilian, though a brilliant exception appeared in the person of History their cells, and no longer, as in the 16th century, Francisco Manoel de Mello (q.v.), whose witry Auto do fidalgo
travellers and men of action who described what aprendiz in redondilhas is eminently national in language, they had seen.
and treatment. Until the Restoration of 1640 the stage Frei Bernardo de Brito began his ponderous Monarchia remained spellbound by the Spaniards, and when a court once Lusitana with the creation of man and ended it where he should more came to Lisbon it preferred Italian opera, French play3, have begun, with the coming of Count Henry to the Peninsula. and carzuelas to dramatic performances in the vernacular, with His contribution is a mass of legends destitute of foundation or the result that both Portuguese authors and actors of repute critical sense, but both here and in the Chronica de Cister he disappeared. writes a good prose. Of the four continuers of Brito's work, The 18th Century.-The first part of the 18th century three are no better than their master, but Frei Antonio Brandão, differs little from the preceding age except that both affectation who dealt with the period from King Alphonso Henriques to and bad Laste tended to increase, but gradually signs appearcu King John II., proved himself a man of high intelligence and a of a literary revolution, which preceded the political and learned, conscientious historian.
developed into the Romantic movement. Men of liberal ideas Frei Luiz de Sousa, a typical monastic chronicler, although he went abroad, chiefly to France, to escape the stupid tyranny that bad begun life as a soldier, worked up the matcrials collected Lyy ruled in Church and-state, and to their exhortation and example
are largely due the reforms which were by degrees inaugurated | Almeida Garrett, who belonged to the Filintistas, or followers in every branch of letters. Their names were among others of Nascimento, in opposition to the Elmanistas, or disciples of Alexandre de Gusmão, the Cavaleiro de Oliveira, Ribeiro Bocage. Sanches, Corrêa da Serra, Brotero and Nascimento. They had Early in the 18th century the spirit of revolt against despotism a forerunner in Luiz Antonio Verney, who poured sarcasm on led to an attempt at the restoration of the drama by authors the prevailing methods of education, and exposed to good effect sprung from the people, who wrote for spectators
The Drama. the extraordinary literary and scientific decadence of Portugal as coarse as they were ignorant of letters. Its in an epoch-making work, the Verdadeiro methodo de estudar. centres were the theatres of the Bairro Alto and Mouraria, and
From time to time literary societies, variously called academies the numerous pieces staged there belong to low comedy. The or arcadias, arose to co-operate in the work of reform. In Operas portuguezas of Antonio José da Silva (9.v.), produced
. 1720 King John V., an imitator of Louis XIV., between 1733 and 1741, owe their name to the fact that arias, Academy ol
Yo established the academy. of history. The fifteen minuets and modinhas were interspersed with the prose dialogue, History,
en volumes of its Memorias, published from 1721 to and if neither the plots, style, nor language are remarkable, 1756, show the excellent work done by its members, among they have a real comic force and a certain originality. Silva whom were Caetano de Sousa, author of the colossal Historia is the legitimate representative in the 18th century of the popular da Casa Real portugueza, Barbosa Machado, compiler of the theatre inaugurated by Gil Vicente, and though born in Brazil, invaluable Bibliotheca Lusitano, and Soares da Silva, chronicler whence he brought the modinha, he is essentially a national writer. of the reign of King John I.
Like Silva's operas, the comedies of Nicolao Luiz contain a The Royal Academy of Sciences founded in 1780 by the end faithful picture of contemporary society and enjoyed considerduke of Lafões, uncle of Queen Maria I., still exists, though itsable popularity. Luiz divided his attention between heroic Royal output and influence are small. Its chief contribu- comedies and comedies de capa y espada, but of the fifty-one Academy of tions to knowledge were the Diccionario da lingua ascribed to him, all in verse, only one bears his name, the rest Sciences. Portugueza, still unfinished, and the Memorias (1788- appeared anonymously. His method was to choose some Spanish 1795), and it included in its ranks nearly all the learned men of or Italian play, cut out the parts he disliked, and substitute the last part of the 18th century. Among them were the ecclesi- scenes with dialogues in his own way, but he has neither ideals, astical historian Frei Manoel do Cenaculo, bishop of Beja, the taste nor education; and, except in Os Maridos Perallas, his polygraph Ribeiro dos Santos, Caetano do Amaral, a patient characters are lifeless and their conventional passions are investigator of the origins of Portugal, João Pedro Riberio, expressed in inflated language. Notwithstanding their dethe founder of modern historical studies, D, Francisco Alexandre merits, however, his comedies held the stage from 1760 until Lobo, bishop of Vizeu, whose essays on Camoens and other the end of the century. authors show sound critical sense and a correct style, Cardinal Meanwhile the Arcadia also took up the task of raising the Saraiva, an expert on ancient and modern history and the tone of the stage, but though the ancients and the classic writers voyages of his countrymen, and Frei Fortunato de S. Boaven of the 16th century were its ideals, it drew immediate inspiration tura, a historical and literary critic.
from the contemporary French theatre. All its efforts failed, In 1756 Cruz e Silva (9.v.), with the aid of friends, established however, because its members lacked dramatic talents and, the Arcadia Ulysi ponense, “ to form a school of good sayings being out of touch with the people, could not create a national and good examples in eloquence and poctry.” The most drama. Arcadias, considered poets of the day joined the Arcadia and Garção (q.o.) led the way with the Theatro Novo, a bright Lyric individually wrote much excellent verse, but they little comedy in blank verse, and followed it up with another, Poetry, &c all lacked creative power. The principal Greek and Assemblea ou partida; but he did not persevere. Figueiredo Latin authors were the models they chose, and Garção, the most felt he had a mission to restore the drama, and wrote thirteen prominent Arcadian, composed the Cantata de Dido, a gem of volumes of plays in prose and verse, but, though he chose national
as well as some charming soonets to friends and subjects, and could invent plots and draw characters, he coule elegant odes and epistles. The bucolic verse of Quita, a hair. not make them live. Finally, the bucolic poet Quita produced dresser, has a tenderness and simplicity which challenge com- the tragedies Segunda Castro, Hermione and two others, but parison with Bernardim Ribeiro, and the Marilia of Gonzaga these imitations from the French, for all the taste they show, contains a celebrated collection of bucolic-erotic verse. Their were stillborn, and in the absence of court patronage, which conventionality sets the lyrics of Cruz e Silva on a lower plane, was exclusively bestowed on the Lisbon opera, then the best but in the Hyssope he improves on the Lutrin of Boileau. After equipped in Europe, Portugal remained without a drama of its a chequered existence, internal dissensions caused the dissolution own. of the Arcadia in 1774. It had only gained a partial success Sacred eloquence is represented by Fr. Alexandre Palhares, because the despotic rule of Pombal, like the Inquisition before a student of Vieira, whose outspoken attack on vice in high him, hindered freedom of fancy and discussion, and drove the places in a sermon preached before Queen Maria led to his exilc Arcadians to waste themselves on flattering the powerful. from court. The art of letter-writing had cultivators in Abbade In 1790 a New Arcadia came into being. Its two most distin- Costa, Ribeiro Sanches, physician of Catherine II. of Russia, guished members were the rival poets Bocage (q.v.) and Agostinho Alexandre de Gusmão, and the celebrated Cavalheiro de Olide Macedo (q.v.). The only other poet of the New Arcadia veira, also author of Memorias politicas e literarias, published at who ranks high is Curvo Semedo; but the Dissidents, a name the Hague, whither he had 'fled to es bestowed on those who stood outside the Arcadias, included Philological studies were pursued with ardour and many valuable two distinguished men now to be cited, the second of whom publications have to be recorded, among them Bluteau's Vocabecame the herald of a poetical revolution. No Portuguese bulario Portuguez, the Reflexões sobre a lingoa portuguesa and satirist possessed such a complete equipment for his office as an Arte poelica by Francisco José Freire, the Exercicios and Nicolao Tolentino, and though a dependent position depressed | Espirito da lingoa e eloquencia of Pereira de Figueiredo, transhis muse, he painted the customs and follies of the time with lator of the Vulgate, and Viterbo's Elucidario, a dictionary of almost photographic accuracy, and distributed his attacks or old terms and phrases which has not been superseded. Finally begged for favours in sparkling verse. The task of purifying the best literary critic and one of the most correct prose writers and enriching the language and restoring the cult of the Quin- of the period is Francisco Dias Gomes. hentistas was perseveringly carried out by Francisco Manoel de The 19th Century and After.-The 19th century witnessed a Nascimento (q.v.) in numerous compositions in prose and verse, general revival of letters, beginning with the Romantic moveboth original and translated. Shortly before his death in Paris ment, of which the chief exponents were Garrett (q.v.) and he became a convert to the Romantic movement, and he Herculano (9.0.), both of whom had to leave Portugal on account prepared the way for its definite triumph in the person of of their political liberalism, and it was inaugurated in the field of poetry. Garrett read the masterpieces of contemporary the Braganza dynasty, and in Os Simples he interprets in foreign literature during his exiles in England and France, and, sonorous stanzas the life of country-folk by the light of his The imbued with the national spirit, he produced in 1825 | powerful imagination and pantheistic tendencies. The ClariRomantic the poem Camões, wherein he broke with the estab- dades de Sul of Gomes Leal, a militant anti-Christian, at times Movement: lished rules of composition in verse and destroyed recall Baudelaire, and flashes of genius run through Antipoetry the authority of the Arcadian rhymers. His poetry Christo, which is alive with the instinct of revolt. The Só like that of his fellow emigre, the austere Herculano, is eminently of the invalidish Antonio Nobre is intensely Portuguese in sincere and natural, but while his short lyrics are personal in subjects, atmosphere and rhythmic sweetness, and had a deep subject and his longer poems historical, the verse of Herculano influence. Cesario Verde sought to interpret universal nature is generally subjective and the motives religious or patriotic. and human sorrow, and the Parnassian Gonçalves Crespo may The movement not only lost much of its virility and genuineness, be termed a deeper, richer Coppée. His Miniaturas and Nocbut became ultra-Romantic with A. F. de Castilho (9.0.), whose lurnos have been re-edited by his widow, D. Maria Amalia Vaz de most conspicuous followers were João de Lemos and the poets Carvalho, a highly gifted critic and essayist whose personality of the collection entitled 0 Trovador; Soares de Passos, a and cercle call to mind the 18th-century poetess, the Marqueza singer for the sad; the melodious Thomas Ribeiro, who drew de Alorna. The French symbolists found an enthusiastic his inspiration from Zorilla and voiced the opposition to al adept in Eugenio de Castro. Anto
und José de Sousa political union with Spain in the patriotic poem D. Jayme. Monteiro have written verse remarkable by its form, while Mendes Leal, a king in the heroic style, Gomes de Amorim perhaps the most considered of the later poets are Antonio and Bulhão Pato, belong more or less to the same school. Corrêa de Oliveira and Lopes Vieira. Many other genuine On the other hand José Simões Dias broke with the Romantic bards might be mentioned, because the Portuguese race can tradition in which he had been educated, and successfully boast of an unceasing flow of lyric poetry. sought inspiration from popular sources, as his Peninsulares Garrett took in hand the reform of the stage, moved by a proves.
desire to exile the translations on which the playhouses had long In 1865 there arose a serious and lengthy strife in the Por-subsisted. He chose his subjects from the national . tuguese Parnassus, which came to be known as the Coimbra history, and began with the Auto de Gil Vicente, in The Drama. The question, from its origin in the university city. which he resuscitated the founder of the theatre, and followed Coimbra Its immediate cause was the preface which Castilho this up with other prose plays, . among which the Alfageme Question contributed to the poem Moçidode of Pinheiro de Santarem takes the palm; finally he crowned his labours Chagas, and it proclaimed the alliance of poetry with philosophy. by Frei Luis de Sousa, a tragedy of fatality and pathos and one The younger men of letters regarded Castilho as the self-elected of the really notable pieces of the century. The historical bent
jal-praise school, who, ignorant of the literary thus given to the drama was continued by the versatile Mende movement abroad, claimed to direct them in the old paths, and Leal, by Gomes da Amorim and by Pinheiro Chagas, who all would not tolerate criticism. The revolt against his primacy however succumbed more or less to the atmosphere and machitook the form of a fierce war of pamphlets, and led ultimately nery of ultra-Romanticism, while the plays of Antonio Ennes to the dethronement of the blind bard. The leaders in the deal with questions of the day in a spirit of combative liberalism, movement were Anthero de Quental (2.0.) and Dr Theophilo In the social drama, Ernesto Biester, and in comedy Fernando Braga, the first a student of German philosophy and poetry, Caldeira, also no mean lyric poet, are two of the principal names,
econd a disciple of Comte and author of an epic of humanity, and the latter's pieces, A Mantilha da Renda and A Ma Visão dos tempos, whose immense work in the spheres of poetry, have a delicacy and vivacity which justifies their success. The criticism and literary history, marred by contradictions, but comedies of Gervasio Lobato are marked by an easy dialogue abounding in life, cannot be judged at present. In the issue and a sparkling wit, and some of the most popular of them were literature gained considerably, and especially poetry, which written in collaboration with D. João de Camara, the leading entered on a period of active and rich production, still un. dramatist of the day, one of whose pieces, Os Velhos, has been checked, in the persons of João de Deus (9.1.) and the Coim translated and staged abroad. To Henrique Lopes de Menbrans and their disciples. The Campo de flores contains some donça, scholar, critic and poet, we owe some strong historical of the most splendid short poems ever written in Portuguese, plays as well as the piece Zé Polonso, written with Lobato, and an Italian critic has ventured to call João de Deus, to whom which made a big hit. The playwrights also include Julio God and women were twin sources of inspiration, the greatest Dantas, and Dr Marcellino Mesquita, author of Leonor Telles love poet of the 19th century. Simplicity, spontaneity and and other historical dramas, as well as of a powerful piece, harmony distinguished his earlier verses, which are also his Dôr supremo. best, and their author belongs to no school but stands alone. Herculano led the way in the historical romance by his Lendas A preponderance of reflection and foreign influences distinguishe narrativas, and O Monaslicon, two somewhat laboured pro the poets now to be mentioned. Anthero de Quental, the chief ductions, whose progenitor was Walter Scott; they
The Novel of the Coimbrans, enshrined his metaphysical neo-Buddhistic still find readers for their impeccable style. Their " ideas overshadowed by extreme pessimism, and marked the most popular successors have been A Mocidade de D. João V. stages of his mental evolution, in a sequence of finely-wrought and A ultima corrida de louros reaes em Salvaterra by Rebello sonnets. These place him in the sacred circle near to Heine da Silva, and Um Anno na Corte by the statesman, Andrade and Leopardi, and, though strongly individualistic, it is curious Corvo, the first and the last superior books. The novel shares to note in them the influence of Germanism on the mind of a with poetry the predominant place in the modern literature of southerner and a descendant of the Catholic navigators of the Portugal, and Camillo Castello Branco (9.0.), Gomes Coelho and 16th century. Odes modernas, written in youth, show “Santo Eça de Queiroz are names which would stand very high in any Anthero," as his friends called him, in revolutionary, free- country. The first, a wonderful impressionist though not perthinking and combative mood, and are ordinary enough, but haps a great novelist, describes to perfection the domestic and the prose of his essays, e.g. Considerations on the Philosophy social life of Portugal in the early part of the 19th century. of Portuguese Literary History, has that peculiar refinement, His remarkable works include Amor de Perdição, Amor de Sala clearness and conciseness which stamped the later work of vação, Retrato de Ricardina, and the series entitled Novellas do this sensitive thinker. A subtle irony pervades the Rimas of Minko; moreover some of his essays in history and literary João Penha, who links the Coimbrans with Guerra Junqueiro and criticism, such as Bohemia do
the younger poets. Partly philosophical, partly romances. Gomes Coelho, better known as Julio Dinis, records Receat
naturalistic, Junqueiro began with the ironical com- his experiences of English society in Oporto in A Familia Verse.
position, A Morle de D. João; in Patria he evoked | inglese and for his romantic idealism he has been dubbed in a series of dramatic scenes and lashed with satire the kings of British; Portuguese critics have accused him of imitating Dickens,
His stories, particularly As Pupillas do Snt. Reitor, depict | exception made both name and livelihood by writing for the country life and scenery with loving sympathy, and hold the papers, but as pure journalists none has excelled Antonio reader by the charm of the characters, but Diniz is a rather Rodriguez Sampaio, Antonio Augusto Teixeira de Vasconcellos subjective monotonous writer who lacks the power to analyse, and Emygdio Navarro. and he is no psychologist. Eça de Queiroz (9.v.) founded the The leading Portuguese orators of the 19th century, with the Naturalist school in Portugal by a powerful book written in exception of Malhão, were not churchmen, as in the past, but 1871, but only published in 1875, under the title The Crime of politicians. The early days of parliamentary rule Father Amaro; and two of his great romances, Cousin Basil produced Manoel Fernandes Thomas and Manoel
Oratory. and Os Maias, were written during his occupancy of consular Borges Carneiro, but the most brilliant period was that of the posts in England. The Relic conveys the impressions of a first twenty-five years of constitutional government after 1834, journey in Palestine and in parts suggests his indebtedness to and the historic names are those of Garre Flaubert, but its mysticism is entirely new and individual; Passos, and the great tribune and apostle of liberty, José while the versatility of his talent further appears in The Cor-Estevão Coelho de Magalhães. The ill-fated Vieira de Castro respondence of Fradique Mendes, where acute observation is excited the greatest admiration by his impassioned speeches combined with brilliant satire or rich humour. The later por- in the Chamber of Deputies during the 'sixties; the nearest tion of The City and the Mountains, for the truth and beauty of modern counterpart to these distinguished men is the orator its descri
tive passages, is highly praised, and many pages are Antonio Candido Ribeiro da Costa. already quoted as classic examples of Portuguese prose. Among BIBLIOGRAPHY.-The corner-stones are the Bibliotheca Lusitana other novelists are Oliveira Marreca, Pinheiro Chagas, Arnaldo of Barbosa Machado and the Diccionario bibliographico portuguez, Gama. Luis de Magalhães and Teixeira de Queiroz, the last of by Innocencio da Silva, with Brito Aranha's supplement; while the whom is almost as distinctly national a writer as Castello Branco
Bibliotheca Hispana Nova of Nicolao Antonio (1783-1788) may also
be referred to. Subsidiary to these are the Manual bibliographico himself.
portugues of Dr Pinto de Mattos, the admirable Catalogo razonado Years of persevering toil in archives and editions of old de los Autores portugueses que escribieron en Castellano, compiled chronicles prepared Herculano for his magnum opus, the Historia by Garcia Peres (1890), and such publications as Figaniere's de Portugal. The Historia da Origem e Estabele
Catalogo dos Manuscriplos portuguezes no Museu Britannico (1853). History.
The only full general history of the literature comes from the prolific ory cimento da Inquisição em Portugal followed and
pen of Dr Theophilo Braga (second and revised edition in 32 vols.). confirmed the position of its author as the leading modern | The volumes positively bulge with information and contain much historian of the Peninsula, and he further initiated and edited acute criticism, but their value is diminished by frequent and needthe important series Portugaliae Monumenta historica. The less digressions and by the fantastic theorizings of their author, a
militant Positivist. Of one-volume books on the same subject, Visconde de Santarem, and Judice Biker in geography and
Dr Braga's Curso da Historia do Litteratura portugueza and his diplomatics, produced standard works; Luz Soriano com Theoria da Historia da Lilleralura portugueza (3rd ed., 1881) may be piled painstaking histories of the reign of King Joseph and recommended, though the plainer Historia da Lilleratura portof the Peninsular War; Silvestre Ribeiro printed a learned
gueza, by Dr Mendes dos Remedios (3rd ed., 1908) has the consider.
able advantage for foreign students of including a large number account of the scientific, literary and artistic establishments of
of selected passages from the authors named. See also the ChrestoPortugal, and Lieut.-Colonel Christovam Ayres was the author mathia archaica of J. J. Nunes (1905). Among foreign studies of a history of the Portuguese army. Rebello da Silva and the the palm must be given to the “Geschichte der portugiesischen voluminous and brilliant publicist's, Latino Coelho and Pin
Litteratur" by the eminent scholar, Mme Michaelis de Vasconcellos,
in the Grundriss der rom. Philologie of Gröber (1893-1894). Among heiro Chagas, wrote at second hand and rank higher as stylists
I general critical studies are Costa e Silva's Ensaio biographico-crilico than as historians. Gama Barros and Costa Lobo followed and the masterly work of Menendez y Pelayo, Historia de las ideas closely in the footsteps of Herculano, the first by a Historia estalicas en España. da Administração publica em Portugal nos Seculos XII. a XV., Coming to special periods, the student may consult, for the positively packed with learning, the second by a Historia de cancioneiros, Mme Michaelis de Vasconcellos, op. cit. and her
great edition of the Cancioneiro da Ajuda (1904); also H. R. Lang, Sociedade em Portugal no Seculo XV. Though he had no time Das Liederbuch der Königs Denis von Portugal (1894). Lopes de for original research, Oliveira Martins (2.0.) possessed psycho- Mendonça treats of the literature of the 16th and 17th centuries logical imagination, a rare capacity for general ideas and the in articles in the Annaes das sciencias e letras; and the Memorias de gift of picturesque narration: and in his philosophic Historial Hilleraluro portugueza printed by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences
(1792-1814) contain essays on the drama and the Arcadia, but the de Portugal, his sensational Portugal contemporaneo, Os Filhos 19th century has naturally received most attention. For that de D. João and Vida de Nun' Alvarez, he painted an admirable period, see Lopes de Mendonça, Memoiras da litteratura contemseries of portraits and, following his master Michelet, made the poranea (1855); Romero Ortiz, La Literatura portugueza en el siglo
XIX. (1869), containing much undigested information; and Maxime past live again. Furthermore the interesting volumes of his
Formont, Le Mouvement poétique contemporain en Portugal, an able Bibliotheca das Sciencias Sociaes show extensive knowledge, sketch; but the soundest review is due to Moniz Barreto, whose freshness of views and critical independence and they ve 1 "Litteratura portugueza contemporanea " came out in the Revista greatly contributed to the education of his countrymen.
de Portugal for July 1889. Students of the modern novel in Portugal
should refer to the essays of J. Pereira de Sampaio (" Bruno ") Ramalho Ortigão, the art critic, will be remembered prin
| A Geração Nova (1886). or the Far pas, a series of satirical and humorous sketches
Portugal still lacks a collection equivalent to Rivadeneyra's of Portuguese society which he wrote in collabora Biblioteca de autores españoles, contenting itself with the Par. Critic . tion with Queiroz. io Cesar Machado and Fialho nasso lusitano (6 vols., 1826) and a Corpus illustrium poetarum
lusitanorum qui latine scripserunt (1745-1748), and though much de Almeida made their mark by many humorous publications,
has been accomplished to make the classics more available, even yet and, in the domain. of pure literary criticism, mention must be
no correct, not to say critical, texts of many notable writers exist. made of Antonio Pedro Lopes de Mendonça, Rebello da Silva, The Cancioneiro de Ajuda by Mme Vasconcellos, is the perfection Dr Joaquim de Vasconcellos, Mme Michaëlis de Vascon- of editing, and there are diplomatic editions of other cancioneiros,
le.g. IL Canzoniere portoghese della Bibliotheca Vaticana, by E. cellos. Silva Pinto, the favourite disciple of Castello Branco, Monaci (1875), of which Dr Braga hurriedly prepared a critical edi. and of Luciano Cordeiro, founder of the Lisbon Geographical tion; Il Canzoniere portoghese Colocci-Brancuti by E. Molteni (1880), Society, whose ablc monograph, Soror Marianna, vindicated and the Cancioneiro Geral (1896). The Romanceiro portugues of the authenticity of the Lellers of a Portuguese Nun and showed | V. E. Hardung is incomplete.
(E. PR.) Marianna Alcoforado to be their authoress. Excellent critical PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA, or MOZAMBIQUE. This Porwork.was also done by Moniz Barreto, whose early death was a tuguese possession, bounded E. by the Indian Ocean, N. by serious loss to letters.
German East Africa, W. by the Nyasaland Protectorate, RhoIn scientific literature hardly a single department lacks a name desia and the Transvaal, S. by Tongaland (Natal), has an arca of repute even outside Portugal. The press has accompanied of 293,500 sq. m. It is divided in two by the river Zambezi. the general progress, and ever since Herculano founded and The northern portion, between the ocean and Lake Nyasa and wrote in the Panorama, the leading writers have almost without I the Shiré river, is a compact block of territory, squarish in
two volcanicut the mostans
shape, being about 400 m. long by 360 m. broad. South of the Geology.--The central plateau consists of gneisses, granites and Zambezi the province consists of a strip of land along the
be schists of the usual East African type which in part or in whole are
to be referred to the Archaean system. The next oldest rocks belong coast varying from 50 to 200 m. in depth. Along the Zambezi | to the Karroo period. Their principal occurrence is in the Zambezi itself Portuguese territory extends west as far as the Loangwa basin, where at Tete they contain workable seams of coal, and have confluence, some 600 m., by river.
yielded plant remains indicating a Lower Karroo or Upper Carboni.
ferous age. Sandstones and shales, possibly of Upper Karroo age, Physical Features. The coast-line extends from 26° 52' S. to 10° form a narrow belt at the edge of the foot-plateau. Upper Cretaceous 40' S., and from south to north makes a double curve with a general rocks crop out from beneath the superficial deposits along the coast trend outward, i.e. to the east. It has a length of 1430 m. Some belt between Delagoa Bay and Mozambique. The Cenomanian 40 m. north of the Natal (Tongoland) frontier is the deep indentation pcriod is represented in Conducia by the beds with Pusosia and of Delagoa Bay (q.v.). The land then turns outward to Cape Cor Acanthoceras, and in Sofala and Busi by the beds with Alectryonia rientes, a little north of which is Inhambane Bay. Bending westward ungulata and Exogyra columba. The highest Cretaceous strata again and passing several small islands, of which the chief is Bazaruto, occur in Conducia, where they contain the huge ammonite PachySofala Bay is reached. Northward the Zambezi with a wide delta discus conduciensis. The Eocene formation is well represented in pours its waters into the ocean. From this point onward the coast Gazaland by the nummulitic limestones which have been found to is studded with small islands, mainly of coral formation. On one extend for a considerable distance inland. Basalts occur at several of these islands is Mozambique, and immediately north of that port localities in the Zambezi basin. On the flanks of Mount Milanje is Conducia Bay. Somewhat farther north are two large bays- there are two volcanic cones which would appear to be of compara. Fernao Veloso and Memba. There is a great difference in the charac- tively recent date; but the most interesting igneous rocks are the ter of the coast north and south of Mozambique. To the north the rhyolitic lavas of the Lebombo range. coast is much indented, abounds in rocky headlands and rugged Climate.-The climate is unhealthy on the coast and along the cliffs while, as already stated, there is an almost continuous fringe banks of the Zambezi, where malaria is endemic. With moderate of islands South of Mozambique the coast-line is low, sandy care, however, Europeans are able to enjoy tolerably good health. and lined with mangrove swamps. Harbours are few and poor. On the uplands and the plateaus the climate is temperate and The difference in character of these two regions arises from the fact healthy. At Tete, on the lower Zambezi, the annual nican temperathat in the northern half the ocean current which flows south between ture is 77.9° F., the hottest month being November, 83:3, and Madagascar and the mainland is close to the coast, and scours out the coldest July, 72.5o. At Quilimane, on the coast, the mean all the softer material, while at the same time the coral animalcules temperature is 85.1°, maximum 106.7o and minimum 49.1°. The are building in deep waters. But south of Mozambique the ocean cool season is from April to August. The rainy season lasts from current forsakes the coast, allowing the accumulation of sand December to March, and the dry season from May to the end of and alluvial matter. North of Fernao Veloso and Memba the largest September. November is a month of light rains. During the monbays are Pemba (where there is commodious anchorage for heavy soons the districts bordering the Mozambique Channel enjoy a draught vessels), Montepuesi and Tunghi, the last named having fairly even mean temperature of 76.1%, maximum mean 88.7°, and for its northern arm Cape Delgado, the limit of Portuguese territory. | minimum mcan 65.3o.
Orographically the backbone of the province is the mountain Fauna.--The fauna is rich, game in immense variety being chain which forms the eastern escarpment of the continental plateau. plentiful in most districts. The carnivora include the lion, both It does not present a uniformly abrupt descent to the plains, but in of the yellow and black-maned varieties, leopard, spotted hyena, places--as in the lower Zambezi district--slopes gradually to the jackal, serval, civet cat, genet, hunting dog (Lycaon pictus) in the coast. The Lebombo Mountains, behind Delagoa Bay, nowhere Mozambique district, mongoose and spotted otter, the last-named exceed 2070 ft. in height; the Manica plateau, farther north, rare. Of ungulata the elephant is plentiful, though large tuskers are is higher. Mt Doe rises to 7875 ft. and Mt Panga to 7610 st. not often shot. The black rhinoceros is also common, and south of The Gorongoza massif with Mt Miranga (6550 It.), Enhatete the Zambezi are a few specimens of white rhinoceros (R. simus). (6050 ft.), and Gogogo (5900 ft.) lies north-east of the Manica plateau, The rivers and marshes are the home of numerous hippopotami, and is, like it, of granitic formation. Gorongoza, rising isolated which have, however, deserted the lower Zambezi. The wart-hog with precipitous outer slopes, has been likened in its aspect to a and the smaller red hog are common. A species of zebra is plentiful, frowning citadel. The chiel mountain range, however, lies north and herds of buffalo (Bos caffer) are numerous in the plains and in of the Zambezi, and east of Lake Chilwa, namely, the Namuli open woods, Oi antelopes the finest are the eland and sable antelope. Mountains, in which Namuli Peak rises to 8860 st., and Molisani, The kudu is rare. Waterbuck, hartebeeste (Bubalis lichtensteini), Mruli and Mresi attain altitudes of 6500 to 8000 ft. These moun- brindled gnu and tsesebe (south of the Zambezi, replaced north of tains are covered with magnificent forests. Farther north the river that river by the lechwe and puku), reedbuck, bushbuck, impala, basins are divided by well-marked ranges with heights of 3000 ft. duiker, klipspringer and oribi are all common. The giraffe is not and over. Near the south-east shore of Nyasa there is a high range found within the province. Of edentata the scaly ant-eater and (5000 to 6000 ft.) with an abrupt descent to the lake-some 3000 st. porcupine are numerous. Among rodentia hares and rabbits are in six miles. The country between Nyasa and Ibo is remarkable abundant. There are several kinds of monkeys and lemuroids, for the number of fantastically shaped granite peaks which rise but the anthropoids are absent. Crocodiles, lizards, chameleons, from the plateau. The plateau lands west of the escarpment are land and river tortoises are all very numerous, as are pythons of moderate elevation--perhaps averaging 2000 to 2500 ft. It (some 18 ft. long), cobras, pufl-adders and vipers. Centipedes and is, however, only along the Zambezi and north of that river that scorpions and insects are innumerable. Among insects mosquitos, Portuguese territory reaches to the continental plateau.
locusts, the tsetse fiy, the hippo-fly, cockroaches, phylloxera, ter. Besides the Zambezi (q.v.) the most considerable river in Portu mites, soldier ants and flying ants are common plagues. As has been guese East Africa is the Limpopo (9.0.) which enters the Indian indicated, the Zambezi forms a dividing line not crossed by Ocean about 100 m. north of Delagoa Bay. The Komati (9.0.), certain animals, so that the fauna north of that river presents some Sabi, Busi and Pungwe south of the Zambezi; the Lukugu, Lurio, marked contrasts with that to the south. Montepuesi (Mtepwesi) and Msalu, with the Rovuma (9.v.) and its Bird-life is abundant. Among the larger birds flamingoes are afflucnt the Lujenda, to the north of it, are the other rivers of the especially common in the Mozambique district. Cranes, herons, province with considerable drainage arcas. The Sabi rises in storks, pelicans and ibises are numerous, including the beautiful Mashonaland at an altitude of over 3000 st., and after flowing southcrested crane and the saddle-billed stork (Myceria senegalensis), for over 200 m. turns east and pierces the mountains some 170 m. the last-named comparatively rare. The eagle, vulture, kite, from the coast, being joined near the Anglo-Portuguese frontier buzzard and crow are well represented, though the crested eagle is by the Lundi. Cataracts entirely prevent navigation above this not found. Of game birds the guinea fowl, partridge, bustard, point. Below the Lundi confluence the bed of the Sabi becomes quail, wild goose, teal, widgeon, mallard and other kinds of duck considerably broader, varying from half a mile to two miles. In the are all common. Other birds numerously represented are parrots rainy season the Sabi is a large stream and even in the "dries" it (chiefly a smallish green bird-the grey parrot is not found), ravens, can be navigated from its mouth by shallow draught steamers for hornbills, buntings, finches, doves, a variety of cuckoo, small wag. over 150 m. Its general direction through Portuguese territory | tails, a starling with a beautiful burnished bronze-green plumage. is cast by north. At its mouth it forms a delta 60 m. in extent. | spur-winged plovers, stilt birds, ruffs and kingfishers. The Busi (220 m.) and Pungwe (180 m.) are streams north of and Flora.---The fora is varied and abundant, though the custom of similar in character to the Sabi. They both rise in the Manica the natives to burn the grass during the dry season gives to large plateau and enter the ocean in Pungwe Bay. their mouths but a areas for nearly half the year a blackened, desolate appearance. mile or two apart. The lower reaches of both streams are na vigable, Six varieties of palms are found-the coco-nut, raphia, wild date, the Busi for 25 m., the Pungwe for about 100 m. At the mouth of borassus (or fan palm), hyphacne and Phoenix spinosa. The cocothe Pungwe is the port of Beira. Of the north-Zambezi streams nut is common in the coast regions and often attains 100 ft.: the date the Lukugu, rising in the hills south-east of Lake Chilwa, flows south palm, found mostly in marshy ground and by the banks of small and enters the ocean not far north of Quilimane. The Lurio, rising rivers, is seldom more than 20 st. in height. Or the many timber in the Namuli Mountains, flows north-east. having a course of trees a kind of cedar is found in the lower forests; ironwood and some 200 m. The Montepuesi and the Msalu drain the country ebony are common, and other trees resemble satin and rosewood. between the Lurio and Rovuina basins. Their banks are in general The Khava senegalensis, a very large tree found in ravines and by well defined and the wet season rise seems fairly constant.
river banks, afiords durable and easily-worked timber; there are
Zambezi: The chief mbas been likeongoza, risin
er, only along the Zamaveraging 2000 to 25pment are land andar
ely rareed, though. paririninds of