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cortes met, on the 29th of September, the opposition accused | garrison and municipal guards, shelled the Necessidades Palace, King Carlos of complicity in grave financial scandals. It was and aiter severe street-fighting (Oct. 4th-6th) became masters admitted that he had borrowed largely from the treasury, on of the capital. The king escaped to Ericeira, and thence, with the security of his civil list, and the Republican depwies the other members of the royal family, to Gibraltar. Soon accused him of endeavouring to assign the tobacco monopoly afterwards they travelled undisturbed to England, where to one of his own foreign creditors, in settlement of the debt. I the king was received by the duke of Orleans. ThroughFranco organized a coalition in defence of the Crown, but in out Portugal the proclamation of a republic was either January 1907 business in the cortes was brought to a standstill welcomed or accepted without further resistance. A proviand many sittings ended in uproar. The attacks on the king sional government was formed under the presidency of Dr were repeated at the trial of the poet Guerra Junqueiro, who was Theophilo Braga (b. 1843), a native of the Azores, who had indicted for lèse-majeste. All parties believed that the ministry since 1865 been prominent among Portuguese men of letters would fall, and the rotativos prepared once more to divide the (see Literature, below). The new government undertook to spoils of office, when, on the end of May 1907, João Franco carry out part of the Republican programme before summonreconstructed his cabinet, secured the dissolution of the cortes ing a constituent assembly to remodel the constitution. Among and announced that certain bills still under discussion would its most important acts were the expulsion of the religious conreceive the force of law. His partisans in the press hailed gregations which had returned after 1834, the nationalization the advent of a second Pombal, and their enthusiasm was of their property, and the abolition, by decree, of the council shared by many enlightened Portuguese, who had previously of state, the upper house and all hereditary titles or privileges. held aloof from politics but now rallied to the support of an The Republican programme also included the separation of honest dictator. Backed by these forces, as well as by the king Church and State, and the concession of local autonomy (on and the army, Franco effected some useful reforms. But his federal lines, if possible) to the provinces and colonies of Portugal. opponents included not only the Republicans, the professional BIBLIOGRAPHY.-I. Sources.-There are separate articles on the politicians and those officials who feared inquiry, but also the

Portuguese 15th- and 16th-century chroniclers, G. E. de Azurara,

J. de Barros, D. de Goes, F. Lopes, J. Osorio da Fonseca, R. de magistracy, the district and municipal councils, and the large

Incils, and the large Pina, G. de Resende and L. de Sousa, and on the 19th-century body of citizens who still believed in parliamentary government. historians, A. Herculano and J. P. Oliveira Martins. The most The existing debt owed by D. Carlos to the nation was assessed important collections of documents are Collecção dos litros in

cdítos, &c., cd. J. F. Corrêa da Serra (11 vols., Lisbon, 1790-1804); at £154,000. This sum was ostensibly paid by the transference

Quadro elementar das relações politicas e diplomaticas de Portugal, to the treasury of the royal yacht “ Amelia " and certain palaces;

ed, first by the Viscount de Santarem (1856-1861) and afterwards, but the cost and upkeep of the “ Amelia " had been paid with under the ti

under the title of Corpo diplomatico portugues, by L. A. Rebello da public money, while the palaces had long been maintained as state Silva (vols. i.-iv.), J. J. da Silva Mendes Leal (v.-ix.) and J.C. de property. These transactions, though perhaps necessary to

Freitas Moniz (x., &c.). The Collecção de tratados, &c. (30 vols.,

Lisbon, 1856-1879), was ed. successively by Viscount J. F. Borges save the credit of the sovereign at the least possible cost,

de Castro and J. Judice Biker; it was continued by the Royal infuriated the opposition. Newspapers and politicians openly Academy as the Nova collecção de tratados (2 vols., Lisbon, 1890advocated rebellion; Franco had recourse to coercion. Sedi- | 1891); See also Portugaliae monumenta historica, ed. A. Herculano tious journals were suppressed; gaols and fortresses were crowded

and J. J. da Silva Mendes Leal (12 parts, Lisbon, 1856-1897);

Diogo Barbosa Machado, Bibliotheca lusitana (4 vols., Lisbon, with prisoners; the upper house, which was hostile to the

1741-1759): Innocencio da Silva and (after vol. x.) P. W. de Brito dictator, was deprived of its judicial powers and reconstituted Aranha, Diccionario bibliographico portugues (Lisbon, 1858, &c.). on a less democratic basis (as in 1826); the district and muni Periodicals containing valuable historical matter are the Archivo cipal councils were dissolved and replaced by administrative

historico portuguez (Lisbon, 1903, &c.), the Boletim of the Lisbon

Geographical Society (1873, &c.), and Portugalia (Oporto, 1898, &c.). commissions nominated by the Crown (Jan. 1, 1908).

2. General Histories.-The Historia de Portugal, by J. P. Oliveira The ministerial press from time to time announced the dis-Martins (2 vols., 4th ed., Lisbon, 1901), is a series of brilliant imcovery of sensational plots against the king and the dictator. pressionist studies. There is a popular illustrated Historia de

word Assassina."

Portugal, by A. Ennes, M. Pinheiro Chagas and others, in 37 parts . It is, however, uncertain whether the assassination

(Lisbon, 1877-1883). See also H. Morse Stephens, Portugal, 4th tion of King of King Carlos and the crown prince (see Carlos I.),

ed., with additional chapter on the reign of D. Carlos, by Martin Carlos. on the ist of February 1908, was part of a widely | Hume (London, 1908): I Accession organized conspiracy; or whether it was the act of London, 1888-1889); H. Schaefer, Geschichte von Portugal (5 vols., of Manoel ** an isolated band of fanatics, unconnected with any | 2nd ed., Hamburg, 1874).

3. Special Periods.-A. Herculano's classic Historia de Portugal political party. The republican press applauded the murder;

(4 vols., Lisbon, 1846-1853) covers the period up to 1279. H. da the professional politicians benefited by it. But the regicide

Gama Barros, Historia da administração publica em Portugal nes Buiça and his associates probably acted on their own initiative. seculos XII. á XV. (2 vols., Lisbon, 1895-1896) is a scientific study The immediate results were the accession of Prince Manoel or of the highest value. For the periods 1415-1460 and 1750-1777,

sce the authorities quoted under HENRY THE NAVIGATOR, and Manuel (Emanuel II.) to the throne and the resignation of

POMBAL. A critical bibliography for the period 1460-1580 is given Franco, who sailed for Genoa. A coalition ministry, representing by K. G. Jayne, in Vasco da Gama, &c. (London, 1910). For all the monarchist parties, was formed under the presidency of later history, see L. A. Rebello da Silva, Historia de Portugal nos Admiral Ferreira do Amaral. The administrative commissions seculos XVII. e XVIII. (5 vols., Lisbon, 1860-1871); J. M. Latino

Coelho, Historia de Portugal desde os fins do XVII. seculo até appointed by Franco were dissolved; the civil list was reduced;

1814 (3 vols., Lisbon, 1874-1891); the authorities cited under the upper house was reconstituted. A general election took | PENINSULAR WAR; S. j. da Luz Soriano, Ilistoria da guerraem place; in April the cortes met and the balance of power between Portugal (19 vols., Lisbon, 1866–1890); J. P. Oliveira Martins, Progressives and Regenerators was restored. On the 6th of Portugal contemporaneo (1826-1868), (2 vols., 4th ed., Lisbon, 1906);

J. L. Freire de Carvalho, Memorias ... para ...a usurpação May 1908 D. Manoel swore to uphold the constitution and was

de D. Miguel (4 vols., Lisbon, 1841-1849); Sir C. Napier, An Account acclaimed king by the cortes. His uncle D. Affonso (b: 1865) of the War .... between D. Pedro and D. Miguel (2 vols., London, took a similar oath as crown prince on the 22nd of March 1910. 1835); W. Bollaert, The Wars of Succession of Portugal and Spain, The failure of the dictatorship and the inability of the from 1821 to 1840 (2 vols., London, 1870).

(K. G. J.) monarchists to agree upon any common policy had discredited

LITERATURE The Revo. the existing régime, and at the general election of The Portuguese language can be most conveniently described lution of August 1910 the Republican candidates in Lisbon in relation to the other languages of the Peninsula (see SPAIN: 1910.

and Oporto were returned by large majorities. On Language). Portuguese literature is distinguished by the the 3rd of October the murder of a distinguished Republican wealth and variety of its lyric poetry, by its primacy in bucolic physician, Dr Miguel Bombarda, precipitated the revolution verse and prose, by the number of its epics and historical books, which had been organized to take place in Lisbon ten days by the relative slightness of the epistolary element, and by the later. The Republican soldiers in Lisbon, aided by armed almost complete absence of the memoir. Rich as its romanceiro civilians and by the warships in the Tagus, attacked the loyal l is, its volume is far less than the Spanish, but the carcioneiros

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remain to prove that the early love songs of the whole Peninsula illustrated in the Cancioneiro da Ajud's, the oldest collection of were written in Portuguese, while the primitive prose redaction Peninsular verse. The apogee of palace poetry dates from of Amadis, the prototype of all romances of chivalry, was 1275 to 1280, when young King Diniz displayed his exceptional almost certainly made in Portugal, and a native of the same talents in a circle formed by the best troubadours of his father country produced in the Diana of Montemor (Montemayor) | Alphonso III

Alphonso III. and the veterans of his grandfather Alphonso IL. the masterpiece of the pastoral novel. The Lusiads may be whose song-book, Cantigas de S. Maria, contains the choicest called at once the most successful epic cast in the classical religious verse of the age. Diniz, who had been educated mould, and the most national of poems, and the great historical by Amyeric of Cahors, proved himself the most fecund poet. monuments and books of travel of the 16th and 17th centuries king of his day, though the pleiad of fidalgos forming his court, are worthy of a nation of explorers who carried the banner of and the jogracs who flocked there from all parts, were fewer the Quinas to the ends of the earth. On the other hand Portugal in number, less productive, and lacked the originality, vigour gave birth to no considerable dramatist from the time of Gil and brilliance of the singers who versified round Alphonso D . Vicente, in the 16th century, until that of Garrett in the 19th, The principal names of the Dionysian period (1284-1 325) and it has failed to develop a national drama.

which is illustrated in the Cancioneiro da Vaticano are the king Its geographical position and history have rendered Portugal | himself and his bastards D. Alphonso Sanches and D. Pedro, very dependent for intellectual stimulus and literary culture count of Barcellos. Of the two last, the former sings of love well on foreign countries, and writers on Portuguese literature are and sincerely, while the latter is represented by love songs replete wont to divide their subjects into periods corresponding to the with false sentiment and by some rather gross songs of maldiz, a literary currents from abroad which have modified its evolution. form which, if it rarely contains much poetical feeling or literary To summarize, the first literary activity of Portugal was derived

al was derived value, throws considerable light on the society of the time.

value, throws consi from Provence, and Provençal taste ruled for more than a The verses of Diniz, essentially a love poet, are conventional century; the poets of the 15th century imitated the Castilians, in tone and form, but he can write pretty ballads and pastorals and the 16th saw the triumph of Italian or classical influence. when he allows himself to be natural. The Portuguese trouba. Spain again imposed its literary standards and models in dours belonged to all social classes, and even included a few the 17th century, France in the 18th, while the Romantic priests, and though love was their favourite topic they used movement reached Portugal by way of England and France; and every kind of verse, and in satire they hold the palm. In other those countries, and in less degree Germany, have done much respects they are inferior to their Provençal masters. Speaking to shape the literature of the 19th century. Yet as regards the generally, the cancioneiros form monotonous reading owing Peninsula, the literatures of Portugal and Castile act and react to their poverty of ideas and conventionality of metrical forms on one another and is the latter gave much, she also received and expression, but here and there men of talent who were poets much, for nearly every Portuguese author of renown from 1450 by profession and better acquainted with Provençal literature until the 18th century, except Antonio Ferreira, wrote in Spanish, endeavoured to lend their work variety by the use of difficult and some, like Jorge de Montemor and Manocl de Mello, pro processes like the lexaprem and by introducing new forms like duced masterpieces in that language and are numbered as the pastorela and the descort. It is curious to note that no beroic Spanish classics. Again, in no country was the victory of the songs are met with in the cancioneiros; they are all with one Italian Renaissance and the classical revival so complete, so exception purely lyrical in form and tone. The death of King enduring.

Diniz proved a severe blow to troubadour verse, and the reign But notwithstanding all its dependence on classical and of his successor Alphonso IV. witnessed a profound decadence foreign authors; Portuguese literature has a distinct individuality of court poctry, while there is not a single poem by a Portuguese which appears in the romanceiro, in the songs named cantares author in the last half of the 14th century, and only the names de amigo of the cancioneiros, in the Chronicles of Fernão Lopes, of a few authors have survived, among them the Galicians in the Historia tragico-maritima, in the plays of Gil Vicente, Vasco Pires de Camoens, an ancestor of Luiz de Camoens, and the in the bucolic verse and prose of the early 16th century, in the typical lover Macias. The romanceiro, comprising romances of Letters of Marianna Alcoforado and, above all, in The Lusiads. adventures, war and chivalry, together with religious and sea

Early Period.-Though no literary documents belonging to songs, forms a rich collection of ballad poetry which continued in the first century of Portuguese history have survived, there is process of elaboration throughout the whole of the middle ages

evidence that an indigenous popular poetry both but uniortunately the oldest specimens have perished and scarcely Poetry.

sacred and profane existed, and while Provençal any of those existing bear a date anterior to the 15th century. influences moulded the manifestations of poetical talent for Epic poetry in Portugal developed much later than lyric, ncarly two hundred years, they did not originate them. The but the signal victory of the united Christian hosts over the close relations that prevailed between the reigning houses of Moors at the battle of the Salado in 1340 gave occasion to an

Provence and Aragon, cemented by intcrmarriages, epic by Alphonso Giraldes of which some fragments remain. introduced a knowledge of the gay science, but it reached Portugal The first frankly literary prose documents appear in the 14th by many other ways--by the crusaders who came to help in century, and consist of chronicles, lives of saints and genealogica fighting the Moors, by the foreign“prelates who occupied Penin-treatises. The more important are the Chronica sular sees, by the monastic and military orders who founded brete do archivo nacional, the Chronicas de S. Cria

c Early Prose. establishments in Portugal, by the visits of individual singers de Coimbra, the Chronica da conquista do Agurte and tho to court and baronial houses, but chiefly perhaps by the pilgrims Livros dos Linhagens, aristocratic registers, portions of which, eamed from every country along the Frankish way to I like the story of King Arthur. have cons

, have considerable lite the far-famed shrine of Santiago de Compostela. Already by All the above may be found in the Portugaliae monumenta the end of the 12th century the lyric poetry of the troubadours historica, scriptores, while the Life of St Elizabeth of Portugal had found cultivators in Portugal, and a few compositions which is included in the Monarchia lusitano; Romania has printed have come down to us bear a date slightly anterior to the year the following hagiographical texts belonging to the same century 1200. One of the earliest singers was D: Gil Sanches, an ille- -the Vida de Eufrosina, the Vida de Maria Egypcia and the gitimate son of Sancho I., and we possess a cantar de amigo in l'ida de Sancto Amaro; the Vida de Santo Eloy has a speared Galician-Portuguese, the first literary vehicle of the whole in the Instituto and the Vida dos Santos Barlaão e Jusajate has Peninsula, which appears to be the work of Sancho himself, been issued by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences. and addressed to his concubine, A. Ribeirinha. The pre- Romances of chivalry belonging to the various cycles must Alphonsine period to which these men belong runs from 1200 to have penetrated into Portugal at an early date, and the Nobili1245 and produced little of moment, but in 1248 the accessionario of the Conde D. Pedro contains the genealogy of Arthur of King Alphonso III., who had lived thirteen years in France, and the adventures of Lear and Merlin. There exists a midinaugurated a time of active and rich production which is l 14th-century Historia do Santo Graal, and in unprinted Josep


ab Aramadia, while, though the MS. is lost, we have abundant, include D. João Vanuel, D. João de Menezes. João Rodrigues de evidence of the existence of a primitive Portuguese prose Sá e Menezes, Diogo Brandão, Duarte de Brito and Fernão da redaction of Amadis de Gaula anterior to the present Spanish | Silveira. The literary progenitors of the cancioneiro were the text. Furthermore, the Livro de Esopo published by Dr Leite Spanish poets Juan de Mena, Jorge Manrique, Garci-Sanchez de Vasconcellos also belongs to the period, and there are other de Badajos and Rodriguez del Padron, and its main subjects works in MS.

are love, satire and epigram. The epic achievements of the The 15th Century.--In the reign of John I. the court Portuguese in that century, the discoveries and the wars in became an important literary centre, the king himself composed Africa, hardly find an echo, even in the verses of those who had Prose.

a Livro de Montaria, so far unedited, and his sons are taken part in them. Instead, an atmosphere of artificiality

rightly described as Camoens as inclyla geração, surrounds these productions, and the verses that reveal genuine allos Infantes." King Edward (Duarte) collected a precious library poetical feeling are very few. They include a lament of Garcia composed of the ancient classics, some translated by his order, de Resende on the death of Ignez de Castro which probably as well as medieval poems and histories, and he wrote a moral inspired the inimitable stanzas dedicated to the same subject treatise Leal comselheiro, and hints on horsemanship, or Livro in The Lusiads, the Fingimento de Amores by Diogo Brandão, the da ensinança de bem cavalgar toda sella. His brother D. Pedro Coplas of D. Pedro already referred to, and a number of minor also wrote a moral treatise Da virtuosa Bemfeiloria, and caused pieces. However, some names appeared in the Cancioneiro Gerale Vegetius's De re mililari and Cicero's De officiis to be turned into which were to be among the foremost in Portuguese literature, Portuguese. This travelled prince brought back from Venice a e.g. Bernardim Ribeiro, Christovam Falcão, Gil Vicente, and MS. of Marco Polo, the gift of the Senate, and is still remembered Sá de Miranda, who represent the transition between the Spanish by the people through the story Livro das viagens do Infante school of the 15th and the Italian school of the 16th century, D. Pedro o qual andou ás sele partidas do mundo, reprinted almost the members of which are called Os Quinhentistas. Ribeiro and yearly, of which he is the hero. All the monarchs of the 15th Falcão, the introducers of the bucolic style, put new life into century were highly educated men and patrons of letters; indeed, the old forms, and by their eclogues in redondilhas, breathing even that typical medieval knight Alphonso V. confesses, in his the deepest and most genuine feeling in verses of perfect harmony, correspondence with Azurara, that the sword avails nothing they gave models which subsequent writers worked by but could without the pen. The age is noted for its chronicles, beginning never equal. with the anonymous life of the Portuguese Cid, the Holy Con- The Drama.—The history of the modern drama begins with stable Nuno Alvares Pereira, told in charming infantile prose, religious plays, followed at a later period by moralities, and the translated Chronica da fundição do mocsleyro de Sam Vicente, thence, by an easy transition, by the farce. This transition from and the Vida de D. Tello. Fernão Lopes (q.v.), the father of the presentment of traditional types to the modern play can be Portuguese history and author of chronicles of King Pedro, traced in the works of Gil Vicente, the father of the Portuguese King Ferdinand and King John I., has been called by Southey theatre. His first efforts belonged to the religious drama, and the best chronicler of any age or nation. Gomes Eannes de some of the more notable had edification for their object, e.g. Azurara completed Lopes's chronicle of King John by describing the Barca do Inferno, but even in this class he soon introduces the capture of Ceuta, and wrote a chronicle of D. Pedro de the comic element by way of relief, and in course of time he Menezes, governor of the town down to 1437, and a chronicle of arrives at pure comedy and develops the study of character. D. Duarte de Menezes, captain of Alcacer, but his capital work for a detailed description and criticism of his work, see Vicente. is the chronicle of the conquest of Guinea (see AZURARA).

In the various towns where he stayed and produced his plays, Though not a great chronicler or an artist like Lopes, Ruy de writers for the stage sprang up, and these formed the Eschola Pina (9.0.) is free from the rhetorical defects of Azurara, and his Velha or school of Gil Vicente. To name the best an Vicente chronicles of King Edward and King Alphonso V. are character known, Evora, the city of culture, produced Affonso and the ized by unusual frankness, and meritorious both as history and Alvarez, author of religious pieces, Antonio Ribeiro, Eschola literature. All these three writers combined the posts of keeper nicknamed "the Chiado," an unfrocked friar with Velha of the archives and royal chronicler, and were, in fact, the king's a strong satirical vein who wrote farces in the Bazochian style, men, though Lopes at least seems rather the historian of a and his brother Jeronimo Ribeiro. In Santarem appeared people than the oracle of a monarch. Garcia de Resende (9.0.) Antonio Prestes, a magistrate who drew from his judicial appropriated Pina's chronicle of King John II., and after adding experience but evinced more knowledge of folk-lore than a wealth of anecdote and gossip and casting the glamour of poetry dramatic talent, while Camoens himself was so far influenced

what dry record, he reissued it under his own name. | by Gil Vicente, whose plays he had perhaps seen performed in The taste for romances of chivalry continued throughout the Lisbon, that in spite of his Coimbra training he never exchanged 15th century, but of all that were produced the only one that has the old forms for those of the classical comedy. His Amphi. come down to us is the Eslorea do Imperador Vespasiano, an tryons is a free imitation of the Latin, yet thoroughly national in introduction to the Graal Cycle, based on the apocryphal gospel of spirit and cast in the popular redondilha; the dialogue is spirited, Nicodemus.

the situations comic. King Scleucus derives from Plutarch and The Constable D. Pedro of Portugal, son of the prince of that has a prose prologue of real interest for the history of the stage, name already referred to, has left some verses marked by while Filodemo is a clever tragi-comedy in verse with prose

elevation of thought and deep feeling, the Salyre de dialogues interspersed. Another poet of the same school is Verse.

* felice e infelice vida, and the death of his sister Balthazar Dias, the blind poet, whose simple religious autos inspired his Tragedia de la rciña Isabel; but he is best remem-are still performed in the villages, and are continually reprinted, bered by his Coplas de contempto del mundo in the Cancioneiro the best liked being the Aulo of St Alexis, and the Auto of St Geral. Though he actually drafted the first in his native tongue, Catherine. He is purely medieval in subject and spirit, his all these poems are in Castilian, and D. Pedro is one of the first lyrics are perfect in form and expression, his diction thoroughly representatives of those Spanish influences which set aside the popular. One of the last dramatists of the 16th century Provençal manner and in its place adopted a taste for allegory belonging to the old school was Simão I do, who wrote the and a reverence for classical antiquity, both imported from Italy. Comedy of Diu and the Enchantments of Alfea, two long plays It was to the constable that the marquis de Santillana addressed almost entirely in Spanish, and full of digressions only made his historic letter dealing with the origins of Peninsular verse. tolerable by the beauty of their lyrics. The court poetry of the reigns of King Alphonso V. and King Except Camocns, all these men, though disciples of Gil Vicente, John II., so far as it survives, is contained in the lyrical collection are decidedly inferior to him in dramatic invention, fecundity known as the Cancioneiro Geral, compiled by Garcia de Resende and power of expression, and they were generally of humble and printed in 1916. Nearly three hundred authors are there social position. Moreover the favour of the court was withrepresented by pieces in Portuguese and Castilian, and they I drawn on the death of Gil Vicente, and this meant much, for there existed no educated middle class to support a national | contains some beautiful eclogues as well as cartas in the bucolic theatre. At the same time the old dramatists had to face the style, while the odes, sonnets, and eclogues of Frei Agostinho opposition of the classical school, which appealed to the cultured, are full of mystic charm. Camoens (q.v.) is, as Schlegel remarked, and the hostility of the Inquisition, which early declared war an entire literature in himself, and some critics ratc him even on the popular plays on account of their grossness, and after-higher as a lyric than as an epic poet. He unites and fuses the wards through the index prohibited altogether even the religious best elements of the Italian and the popular muse, using the autos, as it had condemned the Italian comedies. The way was forms of the one to express the spirit and traditions of the other, thus clear for the Jesuits, who, with their Latin tragi-comedies or and when he employs the medida ucha, it becomes in his hands dramatized allegories written to commemorate saints or for a vehicle for thought, whereas before it had usually served scholastic festivals, succeeded for a time in supplanting both merely to express emotions. the popular pieces of the old school and the plays modelled on His Lusiads, cast in the Virgilian mould, celebrates the the masterpieces of Greece and Rome. The old dramatists combination of faith and patriotism which led to the discoveries came to write for the lower classes only, and though the school and conquests of the Portugucse, and though the nie

Poetry. lingered on, its productions were performed solely by travelling voyage of Vasco da Gama occasioned its composition companies at country. fairs. Though we know that much has and formed the skeleton round which it grew, its true subject perished, the four Indexes of the 16th century give some idea of is the peito illustre lusitano. Immediately on its appearance the rich repertory of the popular theatre, and of the efforts The Lusiads took rank as the national poem par excellence, and necessary to destroy it; moreover, the Spanish Index of 1559, its success moved many writers to follow in the same path; of by forbidding autos of Gil Vicente and other Portuguese authors, these the most successful was Jeronymo Corte Real (9.0.). is interesting evidence of the extent to which they were appreci All these poems, like the Elogiada of Luis Pereira Brandão ated in the neighbouring country.

on the disaster of Al Kasr, the Primeiro cerco de Dir of the The Renaissance.-The movement commonly called the chronicler Francisco de Andrade, and even the Afonso Africano Renaissance reached Portugal both indirectly through Spain of Quevedo, for all its futile allegory, contain striking episodes and directly from Italy, with which last country it maintained and vigorous and well-coloured descriptive passages, but they close literary relations throughout the 15th century. King cannot compare with The Lusiads in artistic value. Alphonso V. had been the pupil of Matthew of Pisa and sum- The return of Sá de Miranda from Italy operated to transform moned Justus Balduinus to his court to write the national the drama as well as lyric poetry. He found the stage occupied history in Latin, while later King John II. corresponded with mainly by religious plays in which there appeared The Politian, and early in his reign the first printing-press got to no trace of the Greek or Roman theatre, and, Classical work. In the next century many famous humanists took up admiring what he had seen in Italy, he and his Comedy and their abode in Portugal. Nicholas Cleynarts taught the Infant followers protested against the name auto, restored Tragedy, Henry, afterwards cardinal and king, and lectured on the classics that of comedy, and substituted prose for verse. They generally at Braga and Evora, Vasacus directed a school of Latin at Braga, chose the plays of Terence as models, yet their life is convencional and George Buchanan accompanied other foreign professors and their types are not Portuguese but Roman-Italian. The to Coimbra when King John III, reformed the university. Many revived classical comedy was thus so bound down by respect distinguished Portuguese teachers returned from abroad to for authority as to have little chance of development, while assist the king at the same time, among them Ayres Barbosa its language consisted of a latinized prose from which the from Salamanca, André de Gouveia of the Parisian college of St emotions were almost absent. Though it secured the favour Barbe, whom Montaigne dubbed “the greatest principal of of the humanists and the nobility, and banished the old popular France." Achilles Estaço and Diogo de Teive.

I plays from both court and university soon after Gil Vicente's At home Portugal produced André de Resende (9.0.), author death, its victory was shortlived. Jorge Ferreira de Vasconof the Historia da antiguidade da cidade de Evora and De cellos, who produced in the Eufrosing the first prose play, antiquitatibus Lusilaniae, and Francisco de Hollanda, painter, really belongs to the Spanish school, yet, though he wrote architect, and author of, inter alia, the Quatro dialogos da under the influence of the Celestino, which had a great vogue in pintura antiga. Moreover, women took a share in the intel Portugal, and of Roman models, his types, language and general lectual movement of the time, and the sisters Luisa and Angela characteristics are deeply national. However, even if they had Sigea, Joanna Vaz and Paula Vicente, daughter of Gil Vicente, stage qualities, the very length of this and his other plays, constituted an informal female academy under the presidency the Ulisipo and the Aulegraphia, would prevent their performof the Infanta D. Maria, daughter of King Manoel. Luisa Sigêa ance, but in fact they are novels in dialogue containing a treawas both an orientalist and a Latin poetess, while Publia sury of popular lore and wise and willy sayings with a moral Hortensia de Castro, after a course of humanities, philosophy and object. So decisive was the success of Jorge Ferreira's new theology, defended theses at Evora in her eighteenth year. invention, notwithstanding its anonymity, that it decided Sá

The Italian school was founded by Sá de Miranda (q.v.), a de Miranda to attempt the prose comedy. He modelled himself man of noble character who, on his return in 1526 from a six on the Roman theatre as reflected by the plays of Ariosto, and he The Molise years' stay in Italy, where he had foregathered with avowedly wrote the Estrangeiros to combat the school of Gil School or Os the leading writers of the day, initiated a reform of Vicente, while in it, as in Os Vilhal pandos, the action takes Quiaheg. Portuguese literature which amounted to a revolu-place in Italy. Antonio Ferreira, the chief dramatist of the tistas.

Se tion. He introduced and practised the forms of the classical school, knew both Greek and Latin as well as Miranda, sonnet, canzon, ode, epistle in oilava rima and in tercets, and the but far surpassed him in style. He attempted both comedy epigram, and raised the whole tone of poetry. At the same time and tragedy, and his success in the latter branch is due to the he gave fresh life to the national redondilha metre (medida velha) fact that he was not content to seek inspiration from Seneca, by his Cartas or Saliras which with his Eclogues, some in Portu- as were most of the tragedians of the 16th century, but went guese, others in Castilian, are his most successful compositions. straight to the fountain heads, Sophocles and Euripides. His His chief disciple, Antonio Ferreira (9.v.), a convinced classicist, Bristo is but a youthful essay, but his second piece, O Cioso, is went further, and dropping the use of Castilian, wrote sonnets almost a comedy of character, though both are Italian even in much superior in form and style, though they lack the rustic the names of the personages. Ferreira's real claim to distincatmosphere of those of his master, while his odes and epistles tion, however, rests on Ignes de Castro (see FERREIRA). are too obviously reminiscent of Horace. D. Manoel de Portugal, The principal form taken by prose writing in the 16th century Pero de Andrade Caminha, Diogo Bernardes, Frei Agostinho da was historical, and a pleiad of distinguished writers arose to Cruz and André Falcão de Resende continued the erudite narrate the discoveries and conquests in Asia, Africa and the school, which, after considerable opposition, definitely triumphed ocean. Many of them saw the achievements they relate and in the person of Luiz de Camoens. The Lima of Bernardes were inspired by patriotism to record them, so that their writings lack that serene atmosphere of critical appreciation which is galleon “ St John" on the Natal coast, an event which inspired looked for if history is to take its place as a science. In the four Corte-Real's epic poem as well as some poignant stanzas in 16th decades of his Asia, João de Barros, the Livy The Lusiads, and the tales form a model of simple spontaneous Century of his country, tells in simple vigorous language popular writing. Prose: the "deeds achieved by the Portuguese in the dis- | The romance took many forms, and in two of them at least History

covery and conquest of the seas and lands of the works appeared which exercised very considerable influence Orient.” His first decade undoubtedly influenced Camoens, and abroad. The Menina e moça of Bernardim Ribeiro, together the two men fixed the Portuguese written tongue, the a tender pastoral story inspired by saudade for his

Romances, onc by his prose, the other by his verse. The decades, which lady-love, probably moved Montemôr or Montemayor were continued by Diogo do Couto, a more critical writer and (q.v.) to write his Diana, and may some fifty years later have a clear and correct stylist, must be considered the noblest suggested the Lusitania transformada to Fernão Alvares do historical monument of the century (sce BARROS). Couto Oriente, who, however, like Ribeiro, owes some debt to Sanis also responsible for some acute observations on the causes of nazaro's Arcadia. To name the Palmeirim d'Inglaterra of Portuguese decadence in the East, entitled Soldado practico. Moraes (7.0.) is to mention a famous book from which, we are

The word encyclopaedist fits Damião de Goes, a diplomatist, told, Burke quoted in the House of Commons, while Cervantes traveller, humanist and bosom friend of Erasmus. One of the had long previously declared that it ought to be guarded as most critical spirits of the age; his chronicle of King Manoel, carefully as the works of Homer. Like most successful ro. the Fortunate Monarch, which he introduced by one of Prince mances of chivalry, it had a numerous progeny, but its sequels, John, afterwards King John II., is worthy of the subject and D. Duardos by Diogo Fernandes, and D. Clarise de Bretanha the reign in which Portugal attained the apogee of its greatness. by Gonçalves Lobato, are quite inferior. The historian Barros Goes (9.1.) wrote a number of other historical and descriptive tried his youthsul pen in a romance of chivalry, the Chronica works in Portuguese and Latin, some of which were printed do Imperador Clarimundo, while in another branch, and a popular during his residence in the Low Countries and contributed to one in Portugal, the Arthurian cycle, the dramatist Ferreira his deserved fame. After twenty years of investigation at de Vasconcellos wrote Sagramor or Memorial des proesas da Goa, Fernão Lopes de Castanheda issued his Historia do de segunda Tavola Redonda. A book of quite a different order is scobrimento e conquista da India pclos Porluguezes (Lisbon, 1552- the Contos de proveito e exemplo by Fernandes Trancoso. con1554 and 1561), a book that ranks besides those of Barros and taining a series of twenty-nine tales derived from tradition Couto. Antonio Galvão, who, after governing the Moluccas or imitated from Boccaccio and others, which enjoyed deserved with rare success and integrity, had been offered the native favour for more than a century. throne of Ternate, went home in 1540, and died a pauper in a Samuel Usque, a Lisbon Jew, deserves & place to himself hospital, his famous treatise only appearing posthumously. for his Consolaçam os tribulações de Israel, where he exposes The Tratado dos diversos . . . caminhos por onde a pimenta e the persecutions endured by his countrymen in every age down to especiaria veyo da India ... e assim de todos os descubrimentos his time; the book takes the dialogue form, and its diction is ... que são feitos em q era de 1500 has been universally recog. elegant and pure. The important part taken by Portuguese nized as of unique historical value. Like the preceding writers, prelates •and theologians at the Council of Trent stimulated Gaspar Corrcia or Corrêa lived long years in India and embodied religious writing, most of it in Latin, but Frei Bartholomeu dos his intimate knowledge of its manners and customs in the Martyres, archbishop of Braga, wrote a Cothecismo da doutrina picturesque prose of the Lendas da India, which embraces the Christā, Frei Luiz de Granada a Compendio de Doutrina Christa events of the years 1497 to 1550. Among other historical and Sermões, all in Portuguese, and other notable pulpit oratori works dealing with the East are the Commentarios de Afonso include Diogo de Paiva de Andrade, Padre Luiz Alvares, Dori d' Albuquerque, an account of the life of the great captain and Antonio Pinheiro and Frei Miguel dos Santos, who preached at administrator, by his natural son, and the Tratado das cousas the obsequies of King Sebastian. da China e de Ormuz, by Frei Gaspar da Cruz.

Among the moralists of the time three at least deserve the Coming back to strictly Portuguese history, we have the title of masters of prose style, Heitor Pinto for his Imagens da uncritical Chronica de D. João III. by Francisco de Andrade, vida Christă, Bishop Arráez for his Dialogos, and Frei Thomé de and the Chronica de D. Sebastião by Frei Bernardo da Cruz, Jesus for his noble devotional treatise Trabalhos de Jesus, while who was with the king at Al Kasr al Kebir, while Miguel Leitão the maxims of Joanna da Gama, entitled Dilos da Freira, de Andrade, who was taken prisoner in that battle, related his though lacking depth, form a curious psychological document. experiences and preserved many popular traditions and customs The ranks of scientists include the cosmographer Pedro Nunes in his Miscellaneo. Bishop Osorio (9.0.), a scholar of European (Nonius), a famous mathematician, and the botanist Garcia da

in Latin, and his capital work, a Orta, whose Colloquios dos simples e drogas was the first book to chronicle of King Manoel, is in that longuc.

be printed in the East (1563), while the form of Aristotelian The books of travel of this century are unusually important scholastic philosophy known as Philosophie conimbricensis because their authors were often the first Europeans to visit had a succession of learned exponents. As, however, their or at least to study the countries they refer to. They include, vehicle was Latin, a mere mention must suffice, and for the to quote the more noteworthy, the Descobrimento de Frolida, same reason only the title of a notable book by Francisco Sanches the Itinerario of Antonio Tenreiro, the Verdadeira informacão can be given, the De nobili et prima universali scientia quod das letras do Preste Joào by Francisco Alvares and the Ethiopia nihil scitur. oriental by Frei João dos Santos, both dealing with Abyssinia, In 1536 Fernão de Oliveira published the first Portuguese the Ilinerario de terra santa by Frei Pantalcão de Aveiro, and grammar, and three years later the historian Barros brought out that much-translated classic, the Historia da vida do padre his Cartinha para aprender a ler, and in 1540 his Grammatica. Francisco Xarier by Padre João de Lucena. Fernão Cardim | Magalhães Gandavo printed some rules on orthography in 1574. in his Narralira cpistolar records a journey through Brazil, and Nunes de Leão also produced a treatise on orthography in 1576 Pedro Teixeira relates his experiences in Persia. But the work and a work on the origins of the language in 1605, and Jeronymo that holds the palin in its class is the Peregrinação which Fernào Cardoso gave his countrymen a Latin and Portuguese dictionary. Mendes Pinto (9.9.), the famous adventurer, composed in his The 17th Century.-The gigantic efforts put forth in every old age for his children's reading. While Mendes Pinto and his department of activity during the 16th century led to the book are typically Portuguese of that age, the Historia tragico inevitable reaction. Energy was worn out, patriotic Os Seisceo. maritima, sometimes designated the prose epic of saudade, is ardour declined into blind nationalist vanity, and tistas. equally characteristic of the race of seamen which produced it. rhetoric conquered style. From a literary as from Lyric This collection of twelve stories of notable wrecks which befella political point of view the 17th century found Poetry. Portuguese ships between 1552 and 1604 contains that of the | Portugal in a lamentable state of decadence which dated from

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