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Great Britain was reduced, by the formation of chartered | own up to the signature of peace at Fontainebleau, in February companies, the first of which (1753) was given control of the 1763. Towards the close of the reign, a long-standing contra Algarve sardine and tunny fisheries. The Oldembourg Company versy with Spain as to the frontier between Brazil and the (1754) received a monopoly of trade with the Portuguese colonies Spanish colonies threatened a renewal of the war; but in this in the East; extensive monopolist rights were also conceded to crisis Pombal was deprived of power by the death of King the Pará and Maranhão Company (1755) and the Pernambuco Joseph (Feb. 20, 1777) and the accession of his daughter Maria I.

hyba Company (1759). In Lisbon a chamber of com- The queen was married to her uncle, who became king consort merce (I unta do commercio) was organized in 1756 to replace an as Pedro III. Pombal's dismissal, brought about by the older association of merchants, the Meza dos homens de negocio, influence of the queen-mother Mariana Victoria, Maria . which had attacked the Pará Company; and in the same year the did not involve an immediate reversal of his policy, Pedro III. Alto Douro Company was formed to control the port-wine trade The controversy with Spain was amicably settled and D. Joha. and to break the monopoly enjoyed by a syndicate of British by the treaty of San Ildefonso (1777), and further industrial wine merchants. This company met with strong opposition, and educational reforms were inaugurated, chief among them culminating in a rising at Oporto (February 1757), which was being the foundation, in 1780, of the Royal Academy of Sciences. savagely suppressed.

Queen Maria, who had previously shown signs of religious mania, Both his commercial policy and his desire to strengthen the became wholly insane after 1788, owing to the deaths of Pedro Crown brought Pombal into conflict with the Church and the | 111. (May 1786), of the crown prince D. Joseph, and of her conaristocracy. In 1751 he had made all sentences passed by the fessor, the inquisitor-general D. Ignacio de San Caetano. Her Inquisition subject to revision by the Crown. The liberation second son, D. John, assumed the conduct of affairs in 1792, of all slaves in Pará and Maranhão except negroes (1755), and the although he did not take the title of regent until 1799. Mean. creation of the Pará Company, were prejudicial to the interests while a two-fold reaction -on one side clericalist, on the other of the Jesuits, whose administrative authority over the Indians democratic-had set in against the reforms of Pombal. D. John

So curtailed. Various charges were brought told William Beckford in 1786 that “the kingdom belonged to against the Society by Pombal, and in September 1759, after the monks," and his consort Carlota Joaquina, daughter of five years of heated controversy (sce JESUITS), he published a Charles IV. of Spain, exercised a powerful influence in favour of decree of expulsion against all its members in the Portuguese the Church. But new ideas had been introduced with the new dominions. His power at court had previously been strengthened system of education, and the inevitable revolt against absolutism by the so-called Tavora plot. The marquess and marchioness had resulted in the formation of a Radical party, which sympaof Tavora and their two sons, with the duke of Aveiro, the count thized with the Revolution in France and carried on an active of Atouguia and other 'noblemen, were accused of complicity | propaganda through the numerous masonic lodges which were in in an attempt upon the life of King Joseph (September 1758). fact political clubs. D. John became alarmed, and the intendant Pombal appointed a special tribunal to judge the case; many of of police in Lisbon, D. Diogo Ignacio de Pina Manique, organized the accused, including those already mentioned, were found an elaborate system of espionage which led to the imprisonment guilty and executed; and an attempt was made to implicate or exile of many harmless enthusiasts. the Jesuits. Pombal's enemies declared that he himself had From similar motives, a treaty of alliance with Spain was organized the attack upon the king, in such a manner as to throw signed at Aranjuez in March 1793; 5000 Portuguese troops were suspicion upon his political opponents and to gain credit for sent to assist in a Spanish invasion of France; a himself. This accusation was not proved, but the history of the Portuguese squadron joined the British Mediterranean with Spain, Tavora plot remains extremely obscure. The expulsion of the fleet. But in July 1795 Spain concluded a peace France and Jesuits involved Portugal in a dispute with Pope Clement XIII.; with the French republic from which Portugal, as Great in June 1760 the papal nuncio was ordered to leave Lisbon, and the ally of Great Britain, was deliberately excluded. Britala, diplomatic relations with the Vatican were only resumed after the In 1796 Spain declared war upon Great Britain, and in "*

1793-1806. condemnation of the Jesuits by Clement XIV., in July 1773. 1797 a secret convention for the partition of Portugal was signed

His victory over the Jesuits left Pombal free to develop his by the French ambassador in Madrid, General Pérignon, and by plans for reform. He devoted himself especially to education the Spanish minister Godoy. D. John appealed for help to and defence. A school of commerce was founded in 1759; in Great Britain, which sent him 6000 men, under Sir Charles Stuart. 1760 the censorship of books was transferred from an ecclesi- and a subsidy of £200,000. Though Spain, through the influence astical to a lay tribunal; in 1761 the former Jesuit college in of D. John's father-in-law Charles IV., still remained neutral, Lisbon was converted into a college for the sons of noblemen; a state of war between Portugal and France existed until 1799. in 1768 a royal printing-press was established; in 1772 Pombal | D. John then reopened negotiations with Napoleon, and Lucien provided for a complete system of primary and secondary educa- Bonaparte was sent to dictate terms in Madrid. But D. John tion, entailing the foundation of 837 schools. He founded a dared not consent to close the harbours of Portugal against college of art in Mafra; he became visitor of Coimbra University, British ships. England was the chief market for Portuguese recast its statutes and introduced the teaching of natural science. wine and grain; and the long Portuguese littoral was at the mercy Fund for these reforms were to a great extent provided out of of the British navy. Compelled to choose between fighting on the sequestrated property of the Jesuits; Pombal also effected land and fighting at sea, D. John rejected the demands of Lucien great economies in internal administration. He abolished the Bonaparte, and on the roth of February 1801 declared war distinction between Old and New Christians, and made all upon Spain. His territories were at once invaded by a FrancoPortuguese subjects eligible to any office in the state. Far- Spanish army, and on the 6th of June 1801 he was forced to reaching reforms were at the same time carried out in the army, conclude the peace of Badajoz, by which he ceded the frontier navy and mercantile marine. In 1760 Admiral Boscawen had I fortress of Olivenza to Spain, and undertook to pay 20.000.000 violated Portuguese neutrality by burning four French ships off francs to Napoleon and to exclude British ships from Portuguese Lagos; Pombal protested and the British government apologized, ports. Napoleon was dissatisfied with these terms, and although but not before the military weakness of Portugal had been he ultimately ratified the treaty, he sent General Lannes to demonstrated. Two years later, when the Family Compact Lisbon as his ambassador, instructing him to bumiliate the involved Portugal in a war with Spain, Pombal called in Count | Portuguese and if possible to goad them into a renewal of the William of Lippe-Bückeburg to reorganize the army, which was war. The same policy was continued by General Junot, who reinforced by a British contingent under Brigadier-General John succeeded Lannes in 1804. Junot required D. John to declare Burgoyne, and was increased from 500 to 50.000 men. The war upon Great Britain, but this demand was not immediately Spaniards were at first successful, and captured Braganza and pressed owing to the preoccupation of Napoleon with greater Almeida; but they were subsequently defeated at Villa Velha affairs, and in October 1805 Junot left Portugal. and Valencia de Alcantara, and the Portuguese fully held their By his Berlin decree of the 21st of November 1806 Napoleon

required all continental states to close their ports to British wards, and won a victory at Bussaco on the 27th of September, ships. As Portugal again refused to obey, another secret Franco- but Masséna subsequently turned the position of the allied army The Spanish treaty was signed at Fontainebleau on the on the Serra de Bussaco, and caused Wellington to fall back Peaiasalar 27th of October 1807, providing for the partition upon the fortified lines which he had already constructed at War. of Portugal. Entre-Minho-e-Douro was to be given Torres Vedras. Here he stood upon the defensive until the to Louis II. of Etruria in exchange for his Italian kingdom; invaders should be deleated by starvation. The Portuguese Algarve and Alemtejo were to form a separate principality for troops cut Masséna's communications; the peasants, under Godoy; the remaining provinces were to be garrisoned by French instructions from Wellington, had already laid waste their own troops until a general peace should be concluded. To give effect farms, destroyed the roads and bridges by which Masséna might to these terms, General Junot hastened westward across Spain, retreat, and burned their boats on the Tagus. On the 5th of at the head of 30,000 French soldiers and a large body of March 1811, after a winter of terrible sutierings, Masséna's Spanish auxiliaries. So rapid were his movements that there retreat. began; he was harassed by the allied troops all the way was no time to organize effective resistance. On the 29th of to Sabugal, where the last rearguard action in Portugal took November D. John, acting on the advice of Sir Sidney Smith, I place on the 3rd of April. The invaders retired with a loss of British naval commander in the Tagus, appointed a council of nearly 30,000 men; Almeida was retaken on the 6th; and the regency and sailed for Brazil, convoyed by Sir Sidney Smith's remainder of the war was fought out on Spanish and French squadron. For a detailed account of the subsequent military soil. The Portuguese troops remained under Wellington's operations, see PENINSULAR WAR.

command until 1814, and distinguished themselves in many Junot, who was everywhere well received by the Portuguese actions, notably at Salamanca and on the Nivelle. democrats, entered Lisbon at the end of November 1807. He At the congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Portugal was represented lavestos by

assumed command of the Portuguese army, divided by three plenipotentiaries, who were instructed to press for the Jusot the kingdom into military governments, and, on the retrocession of Olivenza and to oppose the restora.

Results of Noveceber ist of February 1808 announced that the Braganzation of French Guiana, which the Brazilians had the war 1801

dynasty had forfeited its right to the throne. He him- conquered in 1809. Neither object was attained; August

self hoped to succeed D. John, and sought to conciliate and this failure, which was attributed to the lack of British 1808.

the Portuguese by reducing the requisition demanded support, hastened the reaction against British influence by Napoleon from 40,000,000 francs to 20,000,000. But the which had already begun. Since 1808 Portugal had theoreticaction of the French troops in occupying the fortresses of northern ally been governed by the regency representing D. John. Spain provoked in May 1808 a general rising in that country. But as t

But as the regency was corrupt and unable to co-operate with which soon spread to Portugal. The Spanish garrison in Oporto Wellington and Beresford, the British government had demanded expelled the French governor and declared for the Braganzas, that Sir Charles Stuart (son of the Sir Charles Stuart mentioned compelling Junot to march towards the north. He left Lisbon above) should be appointed one of its members. The real under the control of a regency, headed by the bishop of Oporto, control of affairs soon afterwards passed into the strong hands of who applied to Great Britain for help, promoted an insurrection Stuart and Beresford; and while the war lasted the Portuguese against the French, and organized juntas (committees) of acquiesced in what was in fact an autocracy exercised by

ment in the larger towns. On the 1st of August 1808 foreigners. In 1815. however, they desired to re Sir Arthur Wellesley, with 9000 British troops, landed at independence. A further cause of dissatisfaction was the mutual Figueira da Foz. He defeated a French division at Roliça jealousy of Portugal and Brazil. The colony claimed as high (Roleia ") on the 17th, and on the 21st won a victory over a political status as the mother-country, and by a decree dated Junot at Vimeiro ("Vimiera"). Fearing an attack by Portu- the 16th of January 1815 it was raised to the rank of a separate guese auxiliaries and the arrival of British reinforcements under kingdom. Thenceforward, until 1822, the Portuguese soverSir John Moore, Junot signed the convention of Cintra by which, eignty was styled the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and on the 30th of August 1808, he agreed to evacuate Portugal the Algarves. The importance of this change became apparent (see WELLINGTON). The regency appointed by D. John was when Queen Maria I. died (March 1816) and D. John succeeded now reconstituted and in October Sir John Moore assumed to the united thrones as John VI. The king refused to leave command of all the allied troops in Portugal. From Lisbon Brazil, partly owing to the intrigues of Carlota Joaquina, who Moore marched north-eastward with about 32,000 men to assist hoped to become queen of an independent Brazilian kingdom. the Spanish armics against Napoleon; his subsequent retreat Thus Portugal, which had been almost ruined by the war, was to join Sir David Baird in Galicia, in January 1809, diverted now humiliated by the failure of her diplomacy at Vienna and the pursuing army under Napoleon to the north-west, and by her continued dependence upon Great Britain and Brazil. temporarily saved Portugal from attack.

he resultant discontent found expression in the cry of “ Por. In February Major-General William Carr Beresford was tugal for the Portuguese " and in the demand for a constitution. given command of the Portuguese army. Organized and In 1817 a military revolt (pronunciamento) in Lisbon was Ireko br disciplined by British officers, the native troops played crushed by Beresford, and the leader, General Gomes Freire de Souk a gallant part in the subsequent campaigns. In Andrade, was executed; but on the 16th of August The Con March-May March 1809 the second invasion of Portugal began; 1820, after Beresford had sailed to Brazil to secure stitutional 1809. Soult crossed the Galician frontier and captured the return of John VI., a second rising took place Movemeat, Oporto, while an auxiliary force under General Lapisse advanced in Oporto. It soon spread southward.

A new 1820-1826.

A new fo20 from Salamanca. On the 22nd of April, however, Wellesley, council of regency was established in Lisbon, the British officers who had been recalled after the convention of Cintra, landed in were expelled from the army; Beresford, on his return from Lisbon. On the 12th of May he forced the passage of the Brazil, was not permitted to land; a constituent assembly was Douro, subsequently retaking Oporto and pursuing Soult into summoned. This body suppressed the Inquisition and drew Spain. Valuable assistance had been rendered by the Portu- up a highly democratic constitution, by which all citizens were guese generals Antonio da Silveira and Manoel de Brito declared equal before the law and eligible to any office; all class Mousinho-the first a leader, the second an organizer.

privileges were abolished, the liberty of the Press was guaranteed, After the battle of Wagram (July 6, 1809) the French and the government of the country was vested in a single armies in the Peninsula received large reinforcements, and chamber, subject only to the suspensive veto of the Crown. Lowasion by Marshal Masséna, with 120,000 men, was ordered So extreme a change was disliked by most of the powers and Masséna, to operate against Portugal. He crossed the frontier by many Portuguese, especially those of the clerical party. June 1810- in June 1810 and besieged Almeida, which capitu- Great Britain insisted on the return of John VI., who entrusted April 1811. La

• lated on the 27th of August. Wellesley, who had the government of Brazil to his elder són D. Pedro and landed pow become Viscount Wellington, opposed his march south-I in Portugal on the 3rd of July 1821. In 1822, on the advice of D. Pedro, he swore to obey the constitution (thenceforward of regency at first refused to publish the charter. They were known as the "constitution of 1822 "). But his younger son, forced to do so (July 12) by a pronunciamento issued by D. D. Miguel, and the queen, Carlota Joaquina, refused to take the João Carlos de Saldanha de Oliveira e Daun, count The nath; and in December 1822 sentence of banishment was pro- of Saldanha and commander of the army in Oporto. Absolutist nounced against them, though not enforced. They had many Saldanha, a prominent constitutionalist, threatened Reaaloa. supporters at home and abroad. French troops had invaded to march on Lisvon if the regency did not swear obedience to Spain in the interests of Ferdinand VII. (1823), and the French the charter by the 31st of July. Amid wild enthusiasm the government was prepared to countenance the absolutist charter was proclaimed on that day, and on the 3rd of August party in Portugal in order to check British influence there. Saldanha became head of a Liberal ministry. An absolutist Another military revolt broke out in Traz-os-Montes on the 3rd counter-revolution at once broke out in the north. It was of February 1823, its leader being the count of Amarante, who organized by the marquess of Chaves, and supported openly by was opposed to the constitution. D. Miguel appealed to the the Church and the Miguelite majority of the army: secret army- to " restore liberty to their king," and the army, incensed assistance was also given by Spain. As civil war appeared by the loss of Brazil (1822), gave him almost unanimous support. imminent, Canning despatched 5000 British troops under Sir At this juncture John VI., vainly seeking for a compromise, William Clinton to restore order, and to disband the troops abrogated the constitution of 1822, but appointed as his minister under Chaves. By March 1827 Clinton and Saldanha had :). Pedro de Sousa liolstein, count (afterwards duke) of Palmella secured the acceptance of the charter throughout Portugal. and leader of the “ English " or constitutional party. These in October 1826 D. Miguel also swore to obey the charter half-measures did not satisfy D. Miguel, whose soldiers seized and was betrothed to his niece D. Maria da Gloria (Maria II). :he royal palace in Lisbon on the 30th of April 1824. Palmella Pedro IV. appointed him regent in July 1827 and in February was arrested, and John VI. forced to take refuge on the British 1828 he landed in Lisbon, where he was received with cries of Aagship in the Tagus. But the united action of the foreign “Viva D. Miguel I., rei absoluto!” In March he dissolved the ministers restored the king and reinstated Palmella; the insur-parliament which had met in accordance with the charter. In rection was crushed; D. Miguel submitted and went into exile April the Tory ministry under Wellington withdrew Clinton's (June 1824).

division, which was the mainstay of the charter. In May D. In Brazil also a revolution had taken place. The Brazilians Miguel summoned a cortes of the ancient type, which offered him plemanded complete independence, and D. Pedro sided with the Crown; and on the 7th of July 1828 he took the oath as king. them. The Portuguese garrison of Rio de Janeiro was over- Saldanha, Palmella, the count of Villa Flor (afterwards duke of mwered; on the 7th of September 1822 D. Pedro declared the Terceira), and the other constitutionalist leaders were driven country independent, and on the 12th of October he was pro- into exile, while scores of their adherents were executed and thouclaimed constitutional emperor. He took no notice of the sands imprisoned. Austria and Spain supported D. Miguel, constituent assembly in Lisbon, which on the 19th of September who was able to dispose of the vast wealth of Carlota Joaquina; had ordered him to return to Portugal on pain of forfeiting Great Britain and France remained neutral. Only the emperor his right to inherit the Portuguese Crown. By the end of 1823 D. Pedro and a handful of exiles upheld the cause of Maria II., ..! Portuguese resistance to the new régime in Brazil had who returned to Brazil in 1820. overcome.

The Azores, although the majority of their inhabitants John VI. died on the roth of March 1826, leaving (by will) favoured absolutism, now became a centre of resistance to his daughter D. Isabel Maria as regent for Pedro I. of Brazil, D. Miguel. In 1828 the garrison of Angra declared The who now became Pedro IV. of Portugal. A crisis was evidenily for Maria II., endured a sicge lasting four months, Miguelite imminent, for Portugal would not tolerate an absentee sovereign and finally took refuge in the island of Terceira, Wars. who was far more Brazilian than Portuguese. The unsatisfied where it was reinforced by volunteers from Brazil and constituambition of Carlota Joaquina and the hostility between abso-tionalist refugees from England and France. In March 1829 butists and constitutionalists might at any moment precipitate Palmella established a regency on the island, on behalf of s civil war. To conciliate the Portuguese, Pedro IV. drew up Maria II.; and D. Miguel's fleet was defeated in Praia Bay on a charter (known as the “charter of 1826 ") which provided the 12th of August. Fortune played into the hands of Palmella, for moderate parliamentary government on the British model. Saldanha, Villa Flor and their followers in Terceira. In 1830 To conciliate the Brazilians, he undertook (by decree dated May a Whig ministry came into office in Great Britain; the " July 2nd 1826) to surrender the Portuguese Crown to his daughter D. revolution ” placed Louis Philippe on the throne of France, Maria da Gloria (then aged seven); but this abdication was made Carlota Joaquina, the power behind D. Miguel's throne, died on contingent upon her marriage with her uncle D. Miguel, who wa

iguel, who was the 7th of January. The fanaticism of the clerical and absofirst required to swear fidelity to the charter.

lutist parties in Portugal (collectively termed apostolicos) was 8. Constitutional Gooernment.-The charter of 1826 forms the enhanced by recrudescence of Sebastianism. Men saw in the basis of the present Portuguese constitution and the starting-brutal boor D. Miguel (9.7.) a personification of the hero-king point of modern Portuguese history. That history comprises Sebastian, whose second advent had been expected for two four periods: (a) From 1826 to 1834 the clerical and absolutist and a half centuries. In the orgy of persecution, outrages were parties led by D. Miguel united every reactionary element committed on British and French subjects; and a French squadthroughout the kingdom in a last unsuccessful stand against ron retaliated by seizing D. Miguel's fleet in the Tagus (July constitutional government; (6) From 1834 to 1853 the main 1831). In Brazil, D. Pedro abdicated (April 1831); he deterproblem for Portuguese statesmen was whether the constitution, mined to return to Europe and conduct in person a campaign now accepted as inevitable, should embody the radical ideas of for the restoration of Maria II. He was received with enthusiasm 1822 or the moderate ideas of 1826; (c) From 1853 to 1889 by Louis Philippe. In Great Britain Palmella raised a loan of :here was a period of transition marked by the rise of three new £2,000,000 and purchased a small fleet, of which Captain Sartorparties-Progressive, Regenerator, Republican; (d) From 1889 ius, a retired British naval officer, was appointed admiral. In to 1908 the Progressives and Regenerators monopolized the February 1832 the “Liberators,” as they were styled, sailed control of public affairs, but the strength of Republicanism was from Belleisle to the Azores, with D. Pedro aboard the flagship. not to be gauged by its representation in the cortes. At the In July they reached Portugal and occupied Oporto, but the beginning of the 20th century the question whether the monarchy expected constitutionalist rising did not take place. The should be replaced by a republic had become a living political country was almost unanimous in its loyalty to D. Miguel, who issue, which was decided by the revolution of October 5, 1910. had 80.000 troops against the 6500 (including 500 French and

The charter was brought to Lisbon by Sir Charles Stuart 300 British) of D. Pedro. But the Miguclites had no navy, in July 1826. The absolutists had hoped that D. Pedro would and no competent general. They besieged D. Pedro in Oporto abdicate unconditionally in favour of D. Miguel, and the council I from July 1832 10 July 1833. when the duke of Terceira and Captain Charles Napier, who had succeeded Sartorius, effected , 1889) Portugal obtained a respite from civil strife. Botb a daring and successful diversion which resulted in the capture monarchs delegated the conduct of affairs to their ministers, of Lisbon (July 24, 1833). Maria II. arrived from France in who constructed new railways, reformed the eduSeptember. The war went in her favour, largely owing to the cational system, and gradually improved the economic

Pedro V.

and Luiz. brilliant generalship of Saldanha and the financial straits to condition of the kingdom and its colonies. Pedro V. which D. Miguel was reduced. In April 1834 a Quadruple came of age and assumed the government on the 16th of Alliance was concluded between France, Spain, Great Britain November 1855, in 1857 he married Princess Stephanie of and the government of Maria II. The allied army defcated the Hohenzollern. The only political disturbance which marred Miguelites at Asseiceira on the 16th of May, and D. Miguel the peace of his reign arose out of the seizure of the “Charles surrendered at Evora-Monte on the 24th. By the convention et Georges," a French slave-trader which was captured off of Evora-Monte he was condemned to perpetual banishment Mozambique. Napoleon III, sent a fleet to the Tagus and from the Peninsula. On the 24th of September D. Pedro died. demanded an indemnity, which Portugal was compelled to pay. During the few months in which he acted as regent for his In 1860-1861 cholera ravaged the whole kingdom, and especially daughter, he had transformed Portugal from a semi-feudal into the capital. The king died of this discase on the nth of a modern state. Tithes, many hereditary privileges and all | November 1861, and two of his brothers, D. Ferdinand and monopolies were abolished; every convent was closed and its D. John, died shortly afterwards. D. Luiz was absent at the property nationalized; the Jesuits, who had returned after the time, and his father D. Ferdinand again became regent until death of Pombal, were again expelled; the charter of 1826 was his return, soon after which (1862) the new king married Maria restored.

Pia, daughter of Victor Emanuel II. of Italy. In 1869 slavery Maria II. was fifteen years old at her accession. She was was abolished in every Portuguese colony. In 1870 the duke twicc married--in December 1834 to Augustus, duke of Leuch of Saldanha, the last survivor of the turbulent statesmen of

w tenberg, who died four months afterwards; and in Queen Maria's reign, threatened an appeal to arms if the king Maria n..

3 April 1836 to Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, who received would not dismiss his minister, the duke of Loulé, an advanced

the title of king consort in September 1837. Both Radical and freemason, whose influence, dating from the reign the queen and the king consort were strangers io Portugal, of Pedro V., was viewed with disfavour by Saldanha, as well and could exercise little control over the turbulent factions as by more conservative politicians. The king yielded; and whose intrigues and pronunciamentos made orderly govern- Saldanha himself became prime minister, retaining office until ment impossible. There were three political parties: ihe 1874, when, at the age of 80, he was sent as ambassador to Miguelites, who were still strong enough to cause trouble, | London. He had been by far the most influential man in the Chartists, who advocated the principles of 1826; the Portugal, and his death in 1876 was followed by a regrouping Septembrists, who advocated those of 1822 and took their name of political parties. from the successful coup d'état of the oth-u1th of September! The party of the Regenerators (Regeneradores), formed in 1836. By this coup d'élat the constitution of 1822 was sub-1852 out of a coalition of Septembrists and Chartists, had stituted for the charter of 1826; and a Septembrist ministry already been disintegrated. Its more radical ele

Political under the Viscount Sá da Bandeira replaced the Chartist ments, known at first as the Historic Leit, were in

Parties. ministry under Saldanha, Terceira and Palmella. A counter- 1877 reorganized as the Progressives revolution, planned in the royal palace at Belem and hence Its more · conservative elements carried on the tradition known as the Belemsada, was frustrated in November 1836; and retained the name of the original Regenerators. Besides and in 1837 a Chartist insurrection was crushed after severe these two monarchist parties--the Regenerators or Conser. fighting. This was known as the “ War of the Marshals,” from vative right and the Progressives or Constitutional left-a the rank of the two Chartist leaders, Saldanha and Terceira. Strong Republican party was formed in 1881. There were In 1839 a moderate ministry took office, with Antonio Bermudo also the Miguelitos, active but impotent intriguers; and the da Costa Cabral as its real, though not its ostensible, head. A advocates of Iberian union, who became prominent in 1867, pronunciamento by Costa Cabral led to the restoration of thc 1869, 1874, and especially in July 1872, when many wellcharter on the roth of February 1842, and a Cabral government known politicians were implicated in a fantastic conspiracy was formed under the nominal leadership of Terceira. Costa for the establishment of an Iberian republic. Portuguese Cabral, who became count of Thomar in 1845, ruled despotically, nationalism was too strong for these advocates of union despite many insurrections, until May 1846, when a coalition with Spain, whose propaganda was discredited. as soon as of Miguelites, Septembrists and Chartist malcontents drove any national interest was seriously endangered. This was him into exile. On this occasion the rebellion-known as the the case in 1872, when Great Britain claimed the southern “War of Maria da Fonte "-proved formidable. Oporto was part of Delagoa Bay. The claim was submitted to the arbitraheld by a revolutionary junla, and Saldanha, who had become tion of M. Thiers, the French president, whose successor, prime minister, persuaded the Quadruple Alliance to intervene. Marshal Macmahon, delivered an award in favour of Portugal In June 1847 the Oporto junta surrendered, under promise of an on the 19th of April 1875 (see DELACOA Bay). amnesty, to a combined British and Spanish force, and the King Luiz died on the 19th of October 1889, and was succeeded convention of Gramido (July 24, 1847) ended the war. Saldanha by his son D. Carlos (9.0.). Colonial affairs had for some time was rewarded with a dukdom, and retained office until June received close attention. In 1885 Portugal recog1849. The dictatorial rule of his successor--the returned nized the Congo. Free State, and admitted its Affairs: exile, Thomar-provoked another successful rising on the 7th sovereignty over the north


bank of the Lower Relations of April 1851. Thomar again fled from the country; Saldanha Congo, although, in an unratified treaty of 1884, with Great again became prime minister, but at the head of a moderate Great Britain had recognized both banks of the Britala. coalition. He remained in power during five years of unbroken river as Portuguese territory. In 1836 Germany, France an peace (1851-1856), and carried many useful reforms. The Portugal defined by treaty the limits of their adjacent spheres most important of these was the so-called Additional Act of the of influence, and on the 26th of March 1887 Macao, hitherto sth of July 1852, which amended the charter of 1826 by pro- leased to Portugal, was formally ceded by the Chinese viding for the direct election of deputies, the decentralization government. In 1889 a resolution unanimously adopted by of the executive, the creation of representative municipal both chambers invited the ministry, of which José de Castro councils, and the abolition of capital punishment for political was president and Barros Gomes foreign minister, to press offences. Maria II. died on the 13th of November 1853, and was forward the territorial claims of Portugal in East and Central succeeded by her eldest son D. Pedro, during whose ministry | Africa. Shortly after the accession of King Carlos this active the king consort D. Ferdinand acted as regent.

policy led to a dispute with Great Britain (see AFRICA, 8 5). A Under the brothers Pedro V. (1853-1861) ‘and Luiz (1861| Portuguese force under Major Serpa Pinto had invaded the Shiré highlands in order to forestall their annexation by the the franchise (March 28, 1895); and had abolished the elective British, and the British government demanded satisfaction. branch in the upper house (Sept. 25, 1895). These changes Public opinion rendered compliance difficult until a British left untouched the most serious evil in Portuguese Coastle squadron was despatched to the mouth of the Tagus, and the public life. The two great parties, Progressives and tutional British minister presented an ultimatum (Jan. 11, 1890), requiring Regenerators, were largely composed of professional Chaoges, the withdrawal of all Portuguese forces from the Shiré. Barros politicians whose votes were determined by their 1883-1901 Gomes was then able to yield under protest; but disturbances private interests. Skilful manipulation of the electoral returns at once broke out in Lisbon and Oporto, and the ministry enabled these two parties to hold office in fairly regular rota. resigned. A coalition government took office on the 14th of tion; hence arose the popular nickname of rolativos, applied January, with Serpa Pimentel as prime minister and J. Hintze-to Progressives and Regenerators alike. The same methods Ribeiro as foreign minister. The king, in a letter to Queen enabled them to obstruct the election of Republican and Victoria, declined for the time being to receive the Order of the Independent candidates. Garter, which had just been offered him, and on the 6th of Under such a system of government it was natural that February the government addressed a circular letter to the economic issues should still dominate Portuguese politics at powers, proposing to submit the issues in dispute to a European the beginning of the 20th century. Year by year Republicae. conference. Meanwhile a Republican rising was suppressed in the budget showed a deficit, and the indebtedness ism and Lisbon, and many suspected officers were degraded. On the of the state increased. A large proportion of the the Army. 20th of August an Anglo-Portuguese agreement was negotiated expenditure was unproductive, corruption was rise in the public in London, but the cortes refused to ratify it. The ministry services, and the poverty of the overtaxed peasant and artisan therefore resigned, and on the 14th of October Abreu c Sousa classes gave rise to sporadic outbreaks of violence. In 1902 the fomed a new cabinet, which arranged with Great Britain a students at Coimbra and Oporto organized an agitation against modus vivendi for six months, pending the conclusion of another the proposed conversion of the gold debt; and anti-cicrical agreement. The British government was ready to make con- riots, followed by a strike, rendered necessary the proclamation cessions, but more than one collision took place between Portu- of martial law in Aveiro. In January 1903 an insurrection of guese troops in Manica and the forces of the British South Africa peasants armed with scythes took place at Fundão; the imposiCompany. The defeat of the Portuguese was the chief cause of tion of a new market tax provoked riots at Coimbra in March; a serious military rising in Oporto, which broke out on the 30th a serious strike of weavers took place at Oporto in June. In of January 1891. The suppression of this rising so far enhanced the same year the general distress was intensified by the failure the prestige of the cabinet that the cortes forthwith approved of the Rural and Mortgage Bank of Brazil. In these circumthe convention with Great Britain; and the definitive treaty, stances Republicanism rapidly gained ground. Its real strength by which Portugal abandoned all claim to a trans-African was masked by the system which enabled any ministry in power dominion, was ratified by the cortes on the 28th of May. Rela- to control the election of candidates to the cortes. In April tions with Great Britain, however, remained far from cordial | 1806, for example, only one Republican deputy was returred, until the celebration of the fourth centenary of Vasco da Gama's although it was notorious that the Republican party could voyage to India afiorded the opportunity for a rapprochement command a majority in many constituencies. Though the army in 1898.

as a whole was monarchist, certain regiments had become The extravagant management of the railways guaranteed by imbued with revolutionary ideals, which were fortified by the the state had entailed such heavy deficits that the payment of unwise employment of soldiers and sailors for the suppression Financial the coupon of the railway state loan, due on the of industrial disputes. During the weavers' strike the cruiser

2nd of January 1892 had to be suspended. Thus “Rainha D. Amelia ” was converted into a temporary prison, 1892. arose a serious financial crisis, involving three changes and at Fundão, Aveiro and elsewhere troops had been ordered of ministry. In May the Portuguese government committed to fire on men with whom they sympathized. In November a formal act of bankruptcy by issuing a decree reducing 1902, while King Carlos was in England, a military rising was the amount then due to foreign bondholders by two-thirds. organized in Oporto, but never took place. On the 23rd of The bondholders' committees, supported by some of the April 1903 a body of cavalry and artillery mutinied in Lisbon powers concerned, protested against this illegal action. A | and proclaimed a republic; but they were overpowered and compromise was at last arranged by Hintze-Ribeiro, who ultimately transported to Mozambique. Such incidents, unimassumed office in February 1893 as head of a Progressive portant in themselves, were symptoms of a dangerous state of government. His cabinet promised only slightly better terms public opinion, which was debarred from expression in the to the foreign bondholders, but it relieved the financial tension cortes. in some degree; and by coming to an agreement with Germany The constitution empowered the sovereign to veto any bill, in East Africa and with Great Britain in South Africa as to to dissolve or prorogue the cortes, and to govern by means of the delimitation of frontiers, he minimized the risks of conflict ministerial decrees. The use of these extraordinary The Dice with either country.

powers would be a breach of constitutional practice, tatorship, Portugal observed neutrality on the outbreak of the Anglo- but not of law. King Carlos had already been 1906-1908. Boer War, but the permission it conceded to the British consul at criticized for alleged excessive interferences in politics. An Lourenço Marques to search for contraband of war among goods experiment in government by decree had been made in Mayimported there, and the free passage accorded to an armed October 1894; it was repeated in September 1905, when the force under General Carrington from Beira through Portu- king consented to prorogue the cortes until January 1906 in guese territory to Rhodesia, were vehemently attacked in the order to postpone discussion of the terms upon which the Press and at public meetings. The award of the Swiss arbi- tobacco monopoly was to be allocated. A general election, trators in the matter of the Delagoa Bay railway was given in in February 1906, was followed by three changes of ministry, 1900 (sce LOURENÇO MARQUES). Portugal was condemned to the last of which, on the 19th of May, inaugurated the régime pay 15,314,000 francs compensation; and this sum (less known in Portugal as the dictadura or dictatorship. João than was expected) was immediately raised by loan from the Franco, the new prime minister, was conspicuous among Portuguese Tobacco Company.

Portuguese politicians for his integrity, energy and courage; he A law of the 8th of August 1901 regulated the conditions of intended to reform the national finances and administrationelection to the lower house, thus ending a long series of parlia- by constitutional means, if possible. The cortes, opened on the mentary reforms. The most important of these had provided oth of June 1906, was dissolved on the 14th; another election for the gradual extinction of the right of hereditary peers to sit took place, preceded by an official announcement that on this in the upper house (July 24, 1885), had reduced the number of occasion all votes would be fairly counted; and the Franquistas deputies and fixed the qualifications required for the exercise of I or “ New Regenerators" obtained a majority. When the

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