A Rudimentary Treatise on Land and Engineering Surveying: For Students and Practical Use
Lockwood, 1891 - Railroads - 231 pages
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acres adjustment adopted already angle axis base breadth bubble called centre chains common construction correct cross curve cutting depths described determined difference direction distance divided division draw drawn engineering equal EXAMPLE extensive fall feet fence field figure fixed fore four give given gradient ground half height horizontal inches laid land laying length manner mark means measured meet method mile move nearly NOTE object observed obtained offsets operation parallel pass perpendicular placed plate position practice PROBLEM proper prove quantity radius rail railway ratio reading reduced respectively rise river road scale screw seen shewn shews side sight slopes square staff stations straight surface survey Table taken taking tangent telescope theodolite triangle tunnel turning vernier vertical whole width yards
Page 92 - All the interior angles of any rectilineal figure, together with four right angles, are equal to twice as many right angles as the figure has sides.
Page 107 - The hypotenuse is, therefore, equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the other two sides...
Page 125 - An Act for consolidating in one Act certain provisions usually inserted in Acts of inclosure, and for facilitating the mode of proving the several facts usually required on the passing of such Acts...
Page 8 - Similar triangles are to one another in the duplicate ratio of their homologous sides.
Page 160 - In all cases where it is proposed to make, vary, extend, or enlarge any railway, the Plan shall exhibit thereon the distances in miles and furlongs, from one of the termini ; and a memorandum of the radius of every curve not exceeding One Mile in length shall be noted on the Plan in furlongs and chains ; and where tunnelling as a substitute for open cutting is intended, the same shall be marked by a dotted line on the Plan...
Page 62 - ... the beginning of this division, or zero point, a distance equal to one of the subdivisions. Now divide the extent thus set off into ten equal parts, marking the divisions on the opposite side of the divided line to the strokes marking the primary divisions and the subdivisions, and number them 1, 2, 3, &c., backwards from right to left Then, since the extent of eleven subdivisions has been divided into ten equal parts, so that these ten parts exceed by one subdivision the extent of ten subdivisions,...
Page 125 - An Act to facilitate the Inclosure and Improvement of Commons and Lands held in common, the Exchange of Lands, and the Division of intermixed Lands; to provide Remedies for defective or incomplete executions, and for the Non-execution of the powers of general and local Inclosure Acts ; and to provide for the Revival of such Powers in certain Cases...
Page 63 - For plotting, then, an extensive survey, and accurately filling in the minutiae, a diagonal, or vernier scale may advantageously be laid down upon the paper upon which the plot is to be made. A vernier scale is preferable to a diagonal scale, because in the latter it is extremely difficult to draw the diagonals with accuracy, and we have no check upon its errors ; while in the former the uniform manner in which the strokes of one scale separate from those of the other is some evidence of the truth...
Page 139 - First, he must draw out the eye-piece of the telescope till he sees the cross wires perfectly well defined ; then, directing it to the staff, he must turn the milled-headed screw, on the side of the telescope, till he can likewise distinguish with the utmost possible clearness the smallest graduations on the staff ; that these two adjustments be very carefully and completely performed, is of more consequence than is generally supposed, for upon them depends the existence or nonexistence of parallax.
Page 78 - ... by means of the screw at its other end. This adjustment will probably disturb the first, and the whole operation must then be carefully repeated. By means of the small screw fastening the vernier of the vertical limb to the vernier plate over the compass box, the zero of this vernier may now be set to the zero of the limb, and the vertical limb will be in perfect adjustment.