## A Rudimentary Treatise on Land and Engineering Surveying: For Students and Practical Use |

### From inside the book

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**equal to twice as many right angles as the figure has sides**, lessened by four right angles , and since the given figure has five sides , the sum of all its five interior angles will be = 5 x 2 46 right angles = 90 ° × 6 = 540 ° . This ...### Common terms and phrases

acres adjustment arches axis bottom width Box tunnel breadth bridge bubble centre centrifugal force chord column common content in cubic contour lines cross sections cubic yards cutting datum line decimals depths difference of level direction distance divided embankment equal EXAMPLE field figure find the area find the content fore sights formation level formula given gradient ground height horizontal inches instrument intersection last Problem laying level book measured method mile multiplied NOTE offsets parallel ruler perpendicular position Prob radius rail railway curves ratio of slopes Reduced Levels right angles road Roman cement scale screw shafts shewn shews side slopes sine spirit level staff stations staves straight fence subtracted surface survey surveyors Table Taff Vale Railway tangent tangent points tangential angle telescope theodolite trapezium triangle tube tunnel vernier vernier scale vertical viaduct whence

### Popular passages

Page 92 - All the interior angles of any rectilineal figure, together with four right angles, are equal to twice as many right angles as the figure has sides.

Page 107 - The hypotenuse is, therefore, equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the other two sides...

Page 125 - An Act for consolidating in one Act certain provisions usually inserted in Acts of inclosure, and for facilitating the mode of proving the several facts usually required on the passing of such Acts...

Page 8 - Similar triangles are to one another in the duplicate ratio of their homologous sides.

Page 160 - In all cases where it is proposed to make, vary, extend, or enlarge any railway, the Plan shall exhibit thereon the distances in miles and furlongs, from one of the termini ; and a memorandum of the radius of every curve not exceeding One Mile in length shall be noted on the Plan in furlongs and chains ; and where tunnelling as a substitute for open cutting is intended, the same shall be marked by a dotted line on the Plan...

Page 62 - ... the beginning of this division, or zero point, a distance equal to one of the subdivisions. Now divide the extent thus set off into ten equal parts, marking the divisions on the opposite side of the divided line to the strokes marking the primary divisions and the subdivisions, and number them 1, 2, 3, &c., backwards from right to left Then, since the extent of eleven subdivisions has been divided into ten equal parts, so that these ten parts exceed by one subdivision the extent of ten subdivisions,...

Page 125 - An Act to facilitate the Inclosure and Improvement of Commons and Lands held in common, the Exchange of Lands, and the Division of intermixed Lands; to provide Remedies for defective or incomplete executions, and for the Non-execution of the powers of general and local Inclosure Acts ; and to provide for the Revival of such Powers in certain Cases...

Page 63 - For plotting, then, an extensive survey, and accurately filling in the minutiae, a diagonal, or vernier scale may advantageously be laid down upon the paper upon which the plot is to be made. A vernier scale is preferable to a diagonal scale, because in the latter it is extremely difficult to draw the diagonals with accuracy, and we have no check upon its errors ; while in the former the uniform manner in which the strokes of one scale separate from those of the other is some evidence of the truth...

Page 139 - First, he must draw out the eye-piece of the telescope till he sees the cross wires perfectly well defined ; then, directing it to the staff, he must turn the milled-headed screw, on the side of the telescope, till he can likewise distinguish with the utmost possible clearness the smallest graduations on the staff ; that these two adjustments be very carefully and completely performed, is of more consequence than is generally supposed, for upon them depends the existence or nonexistence of parallax.

Page 78 - ... by means of the screw at its other end. This adjustment will probably disturb the first, and the whole operation must then be carefully repeated. By means of the small screw fastening the vernier of the vertical limb to the vernier plate over the compass box, the zero of this vernier may now be set to the zero of the limb, and the vertical limb will be in perfect adjustment.