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candidates who have a taste for that class of studies may obtain credit INDIA CIVIL for their proficiency in it. As regards a second vernacular language, SERVICE. Lord Salisbury sees no objection to its study being permitted, as the Commissioners suggest, during the second year of probation, but he Training of would be glad to know whether there would be any difficulty in making candidates. it obligatory during that year, so far as regards those candidates who abandon the study of a classical language.


Lord Salisbury is, on the whole, of opinion that it would not be Studies at desirable to inform the selected candidates that they are expected to Universities. devote the whole of their time to the studies tested by the Commissioners' examinations. It is possible that some of them may be gentlemen who, from previous preparation or exceptional powers of labour, are able to engage to some extent in the special studies of the University at which they reside, and Lord Salisbury thinks it will be enough if the examinations are not allowed to fall below the standard to which they have hitherto been adjusted. If any inconvenience actually results. from the absence of the notice to the candidates suggested by the Commissioners, it may be remedied hereafter.

Lord Salisbury will direct a further communication* to be made to the Commissioners on the subject of "approved" Universities.

I am, &c.

The Secretary, Civil Service Commission, to the Under Secretary of
State for India.


2nd July 1877.

I AM directed by the Civil Service Commissioners to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 14th ultimo, continuing the correspondence relative to the probationary studies of Indian civilians selected under the new system.

In reply I am to state, for the information of the Secretary of State Languages. for India in Council, that the Commissioners see no difficulty in giving effect to the suggestion now made that every selected candidate should be required, during the second year of probation, either to continue the study of a classical language or to take up the second vernacular language of his presidency.

With reference to the latter part of your letter I am to observe that, Standard of as it will be the duty of the Commissioners to maintain at the final qualification. examination a standard of qualification based on the assumption that two years have been devoted to preparing for it, and not to make any allowance for deficiencies due to occupation in other pursuits, it appears to them to be most desirable for every reason that this should be made clear beforehand, not only to the candidates themselves, but also to the authorities of the universities to which they may repair.

The Commissioners are aware indeed that there may be gentlemen of exceptional ability who can afford to devote a considerable part of their time to general studies without serious risk of falling below the minimum of qualification in the prescribed subjects, nor would they propose that any penalty should be inflicted on candidates who choose to pursue this course at their own risk. But they apprehend that if, under encouragement from the University authorities, and with the implied sanction of the Secretary of State, the practice were to become general, not only would the average of the candidates' proficiency in the studies specially designed to prepare them for their duties be inevitably lowered, but

*See page 635.


Training of selected candidates.

INDIA CIVIL there would be a tendency, hardly resistible, to lower also the qualifying standard. At the same time the service would run an increased risk of losing annually some of its most promising members, who, having once entered the academical lists, might be unable to resist the temptation to follow out a University career. Of the reality of this danger the Commissioners have already had proof; and it may be remembered that to one of the most experienced of the authorities of Oxford, viz., the Master of Balliol, it appeared so serious as to lead him to propose in his letter of 27th December 1874 that every selected candidate should give a bond to a large amount, to be forfeited in case of withdrawal.


Studies at

Standard of qualification.

Studies at

I have, &c.

The Under Secretary of State, India Office, to the Secretary
Civil Service Commission.

20th July 1877.
I AM desired by the Marquis of Salisbury to acknowledge the
receipt of Mr. Mann's letter of the 2nd instant. He learns with
pleasure that the Civil Service Commissioners see no difficulty in carry-
ing out his suggestion as to the study of classical and vernacular
languages by the selected candidates during their second year of

2. As to the proposal of the Commissioners, renewed in paragraph 3 of your letter, I am to say that Lord Salisbury, after again giving it his careful consideration in Council, continues to think it inexpedient to announce to the selected candidates that they will be expected to devote the whole of their time to their professional studies during the period of their probation. He has recently had interviews with several gentlemen in authority at the English Universities, and he finds them to be under the influence of an apprehension which is the opposite of that entertained by the Civil Service Commissioners. They appear to be afraid that under no circumstances will any of the selected candidates be enabled to profit by the general studies of the University at which they reside. Among these gentlemen was the Master of Balliol, in respect of whose opinion it is to be observed that, though in 1874 he made the suggestion referred to at the conclusion of your letter, he at the same time expressed his disbelief that the prizes of the University would tempt the selected candidates to renounce an Indian career.

3. Lord Salisbury, I am to add, is led to the conclusion that, so far as regards some of its details, the working of the new system is to a certain extent matter of conjecture, and that it is undesirable to act as if all its results could be predicted with absolute certainty. As I was before instructed to inform you, it is not his wish that the tests applied to the knowledge acquired by the candidates should be less strict than heretofore; if then it is practically found that the standard of their proficiency is lowered, he will be ready, at the instance of the Commissioners, to consent to the employment of some adequate remedial


I am,


The Secretary, Civil Service Commission, to the Under Secretary of
State, India Office.


24th July 1877.

I AM directed by the Civil Service Commissioners to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 20th instant, further on the subject of the training of the candidates to be selected under the new system for the Civil Service of India.

And in reply, I am to state that, in deference to the views of the Secretary of State for India in Council, the Commissioners will, in any instructions which they may issue to such candidates, omit the notice which has usually been given to the effect that they will be expected and required to devote their whole time to the pursuit of the special knowledge required to fit them for their duties, continuing, however, to warn them that "at the several examinations which they have to pass "the requirements of Universities or Colleges will not be regarded as "affording any excuse for imperfect preparation."

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State for India to the Secretary, Civil Service


15th August 1877.

I AM directed by the Secretary of State for India in Council to acknowledge the receipt of Mr. Mann's letter of the 24th July, relative to the training of selected candidates for the Indian Civil Service under the new system, and to inform you, in reply, that the course which the Civil Service Commissioners propose to follow has the concurrence of the Marquis of Salisbury.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State for India to the Secretary, Civil
Service Commission.*


21st September 1877.


WITH reference to my letter of the 14th of June last, I am now Approved directed to intimate, for the information of the Civil Service Commis- Universities. sioners, that the Secretary of State for India in Council has approved the universities named in the margint as institutions at which selected candidates for the Civil Service of India will be permitted to reside during their probationary period.

The Marquis of Salisbury has requested the authorities of the Scotch universities to state what arrangements they propose to make with reference to their responsibility for the conduct of the selected candidates, and for the enforcement of rules of discipline during their residence at those universities.

I am, &c.

The Secretary, Civil Service Commission, to the Under Secretary of
State for India.


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15th July 1876.

WITH reference to the case of Mr. a candidate selected for Rejection of a the Civil Service of India in 1875, who was mentioned in Mr. Walrond's selected candiletter of 2nd December 1875 as having failed to pass satisfactorily the date during first periodical examination, and again in my letter of the 16th June last probation. as having failed in the second periodical examination.

I am directed by the Civil Service Commissioners to acquaint you for the information of the Secretary of State for India in Council, that

This letter was received while the Appendix was passing through the press.

† Oxford; Cambridge; Trinity College, Dublin; Glasgow; Edinburgh; Aberdeen; St. Andrew's.



INDIA CIVIL looking to the very great deficiencies displayed by Mr. the last examination, in disregard of a grave warning which was addressed to him on the occasion of his previous failure, they have thought it right, after full consideration of all the circumstances, in pursuance of the 10th of the regulations herewith enclosed,* to remove his name from the list of selected candidates, as having persisted in "wilfully "neglecting his studies."

I have, &c.



N.B.-The Regulations are liable to be altered in future years.

1. On June 25th, 1878, and following days, an examination of Candidates will be held in London. At this examination not fewer than Candidates will be selected, if so many shall be found duly qualified. Of these, will be selected for the Presidency of Bengal, for the Lower Provinces,] for that of Madras, and for that of Bombay.-Notice will hereafter be given of the days and place of examination.

qualified for the Upper Provinces, and

2. Any person desirous of competing at this examination must produce to the Civil Service Commissioners, before the 1st of May 1878, evidence showing:

(a) That he is a natural-born subject of Her Majesty.

(b) That his age, on the 1st of January 1878, will be above 17 years and under 19 years. [N.B.-In the case of Natives of India this must be certified by the Government of India, or of the Presidency or Province in which the Candidate may have resided.]

(c) That he has no disease, constitutional affection, or bodily infirmity unfitting him, or likely to unfit him, for the Civil Service of India.§

(d) That he is of good moral character. §

He must also pay such fee as the Secretary of State for India may prescribe.

3. Should the evidence upon the above points be prima facie satisfactory to the Civil Service Commissioners, the Candidate will, upon payment of the prescribed fee, be admitted to the examination. The Commissioners may, however, in their discretion, at any time prior to the grant of the certificate of qualification herein-after referred to, institute such further inquiries as they may deem necessary; and if the result of such inquiries, in the case of any Candidate, should be unsatisfactory to them in any of the above respects, he will be ineligible for admission to the Civil Service of India, and if already selected, will be removed from the position of a probationer.

* See p. 293.

† An examination will also be held at Easter, 1878, under the Regulations printed at p. 293.

The number of appointments to be made, and the number in each Presidency, &c., will be announced hereafter. It will probably be about half the usual number. § Evidence of health and character must bear date not earlier than the 1st April


The fee for this examination will be 57., payable by means of a special stamp according to instructions which will be communicated to Candidates.

4. The examination will take place only in the following branches of knowledge :

*English Composition




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† History of England-including a period selected by
the Candidate


† English Literature-including books selected by the


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Candidates are at liberty to name, before April 1st, 1878, any or all of these branches of knowledge. No subjects are obligatory.

5. The merit of the persons examined will be estimated by marks; and the number set opposite to each branch in the preceding regulation denotes the greatest number of marks that can be obtained in respect of it.

6. The marks assigned to Candidates in each branch will be subject to such deduction as the Civil Service Commissioners may deem necessary, in order to secure that "a Candidate be allowed no credit at all "for taking up a subject in which he is a mere smatterer."

7. The examination will be conducted by means of printed questions and written answers, and by vivâ voce examination, as may be deemed necessary.

8. The marks obtained by each Candidate, in respect of each of the subjects in which he shall have been examined, will be added up, and the names of the Candidates who shall have obtained a greater aggregate number of marks than any of the remaining Candidates will be set forth in order of merit, and such Candidates shall be deemed to be selected Candidates for the Civil Service of India, provided they

* Marks assigned in English composition and mathematics will be subject to no deduction.

† A considerable portion of the marks for English history and literature will be allotted to the work specially prepared. In awarding marks for this, regard will be had partly to the extent and importance of the periods or books selected, and partly to the thoroughness with which they have been studied.

§ The examination will range from arithmetic, algebra, and elementary geometry, up to the elements of the differential and integral calculus, including the lower portions of applied mathematics.

The standard of marking in Sanskrit and Arabic will be determined with reference to a high degree of proficiency, such as may be expected to be reached by a native of good education.

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