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scended from the ship and fixed her eyes sadly on the ground, one general equal sob burst forth from all that vast multitude, nor could you distinguish by the degree or the form of sorrow, strangers from near friends, nor man from woman; except that those in the train of Agrippina, exhausted by long-indulged grief, were less passionate and vehement than those more recent in their expression of it who thus came forth to meet them.
Ch. 2. The Emperor had sent two Prætorian cohorts to attend the arrival and approach of Agrippina, and had also issued a decree that the Apulians, the Campanians, and the magistrates of Calabria should perform the last offices to the memory of his son. The ashes therefore were borne forward upon the shoulders of tribunes and centurions; before them there moved along standards undecorated, and fasces inverted; and as the procession passed through successive colonies, the people clad in black, and the Equites in their robes of state, as the means of the region might supply, burned garments, odors, and such things else as use to honor the burial of the dead. Even they whose cities the procession did not pass through, came out to meet it, and offering sacrifices, and erecting altars to the gods of the dead, attested their sorrow by tears and united wailing.
Drusus had advanced as far as Terracina with his brother Claudius, and with those children of Germanicus who had remained at Rome. The consuls Marcus Valerius and Caius Aurelius (for they now exercised that magistracy), the Senate and the great body of the people thronged the way; without order of procession or arrangement, each man by himself weeping unrestrained — the sorrow of the heart not the service of adulation — since all knew well that the joy of the Emperor for the death of Germanicus was scarcely veiled by the decencies of dissimulation.
Ch. 3. Tiberius and Augusta secluded themselves from the public eye; either deeming it beneath the imperial majesty openly to mourn ; or fearing that the universal gaze might discern in their countenances the insincerity of their hearts. I do not find in any historian, nor in the public journals of daily events, that the mother of Germanicus performed any conspicuous part in the service of the day; while besides Agrippina, Drusus and Claudius, the names of many other kinsmen of the deceased are recorded. Whether she were prevented by ill health, or, overcome by grief, could not endure to look upon that spectacle of so great calamity, we may not know. I should more easily believe, that she was detained at home by Tiberius and Augusta, who went not forth themselves, to the end that each might seem overwhelined with a similar sorrow, and that they might seem to have been kept within by her example.
Ch. 4. On the day on which the remains were borne to the tomb of Augustus, there reigned at times a desolate silence, and at times it was disturbed by sounds of sorrow. The streets were filled ; funereal torches gleamed in the Campus Martius; and there were soldiers in arms; there were magistrates without the badges of office; the people by tribes ; and from all lips there burst forth the frequent cry so unrestrained, and loud, that they might seem to have forgotten that they had a master — " the Republic is fallen -- there is no more hope.” Nothing however more deeply penetrated Tiberius, than the enthusiastic sentiments which appeared kindled towards Agrippina. All saluted her as the grace of the State; the one in whose veins alone ran the blood of Augustus; the sole surviving specimen of the old, noble, Roman matronage; and lifting their eyes towards heaven they prayed that her children might be happy, and might be spared the malice of their enemies.
Ch. 5. Some there were who demanded the pomp of a public funeral, and contrasted with these services, the honors and the magnificence with which Augustus had observed the burial of Drusus, the father of Germanicus, remembering how the Emperor himself in the severest of winter, had advanced as far as the Ticinus, and never leaving the dead, had entered the city with it; how the statues of the Claudii and Livii encompassed the bier; how the dead was wept in the Forum, and praised before the rostra; how all the ancient and all the late funeral honors were accumulated upon him. But Germanicus has not received the common ceremonies of burial, and such as were due to every noble Roman. Properly enough perhaps by reason of the distance of his place of death from Rome, his body was burned in some manner, in a foreign land. But so much the more splendid and careful ought the later observances to be, since fortune had denied him the earlier. Instead, not his own brothers advanced more than a day's journey to meet the dead; nor his uncle even as far as the gate! Where were the customs of their fathers; the image of the dead exposed upon the bier ; verse composed in memory of his virtues ; eulogy and tears, or at least the shows of sorrow ?
Ch. 6. The general feeling was discerned by Tiberius, and in order to silence the speech of people, he put forth an admonitory edict. “ Many illustrious Romans,” it bore,“ had died for the Republic; but the funeral of no one had been solemnized by so passionate a public sorrow. This was creditable to the Emperor and to all, if it were subrnitted to some degree of moderation, for that excess of sorrow which might becoine an humble house or an inconsiderable city, were unsuitable to Princes and an imperial people. For recent affliction, sorrow, and the
solaces of grief indulged, were fit; but now, at length, the mind ought to be brought back to firmness again; as once Julius, bereaved of his only daughter; as Augustus, his grandsons torn from him, suppressed all signs of gloom. Nor is there need of remembering earlier examples ; how often, with constancy, has the Roman people borne the slaughter of armies; the death of generals. Noble families, from their foundations, overthrown and perished. Great men die. The Republic is eternal. Let Rome then return to its duties, and referring to the spectacle of the Megalesian games just now at hand, resume its pleasures."
Ch. 7. The vacation of mourning having been closed, Rome returned to its labors: Drusus proceeded to resume the command of the Illyrian army, followed by the universal hope that expiation would be exacted from Piso, and by a general or frequent complaint that “ lounging at his leisure through the beautiful Asia and Achaia, by an arrogant and fraudulent delay he was gradually suppressing the proofs of his guilt." For it was a current rumor that Martina, infamous for her poisons, who had been sent towards Rome, as I have related, by Cneius Sentius, had died suddenly at Brundusium, that poison had been found hidden in a ringlet of her hair, and that no other appearance of self-implicated death was detected on her.
Ch. 8. But Piso, having just sent forward his son to Rome, with messages by which he might soften the Prince, himself goes to Drusus, whom he hoped to find less exasperated by a brother's death, than reconciied or kinder by the removal of a competitor. Tiberius, that he might give assurance of an impartial and undisturbed judgment, received the young man kindly, and enriched him by the liberality which he usually displayed to the sons of the noble. To Piso Drusus said, that if those things were true which rumor spread abroad, he should occupy the chief place in the sorrow of the time. But he added that he would prefer that they should prove false and vain, and that the death of Germanicus should involve fatal results to no one. This he said openly, shunning with care all concealment; and there is no doubt that he, who on other occasions had seemed an artless facile youth, had now been counselled beforehand by Tiberius to employ these arts of age.
Ch. 9. Piso having crossed the Dalmatian sea, and left his fleet at Ancona, passing through Picenum and then over the Flaminian
way, came up with the legion, which was then on its march from Pannonia to the city, thence to be sent to garrison in Africa; and it became the subject of rumor that, on the march and among the troops, he took much pains to present himself frequently before the eyes of the soldiers. From Narnia,
either to avoid the suspicion of designs on the troops, or because the plans of the fearful are wont to be undecided and changing, he descended on the Nar, and on the Tiber. Even so he heightened the exasperation of the populace by landing at the tomb of the Cæsars in the daytime, a multitude looking on, and by walking towards the city, himself and Plancina, their countenances full of cheerfulness; he surrounded by a throng of clients, she by a train of women. To all other stimulants of the popular hatred was added this, — that his house which overlooked the Forum, stood wreathed with laurel, and illuminated; a banquet spread in it, and full of guests, the conspicuousness of the place exposing all things to view.
Ch. 10. The next day Fulcinius Trio accused Piso to the Consuls. Against this proceeding Vitellius and Veranius and others, who had attended Germanicus, insisted that no part of the function of prosecution belonged to Trio; that they themselves did not appear as accusers, but that in obedience to the injunction of Germanicus they had come to disclose and to bear witness. Resigning all participation in that cause, Trio obtained the right of arraigning the former life of Piso, and a request was preferred to the Prince that he would himself assume jurisdiction of that matter. To this not even the accused made objection, for he feared the anxious desires of the people and Senate to convict him; and, on the other hand, he believed Tiberius to be firm to despise rumor, and to be also, to some extent, a sharer of his mother's knowledge of the deed; that a single judge could more surely discriminate between the true and the false exaggerated; while hatred and envy would sway a numerous tribunal. Tiberius did not misconceive the great responsibilities of such a trial, nor the unfavorable suspicions by wbich he was assailed. Calling together therefore a few friends for witnesses, he just heard the threats of the accusers and the appeal of the accused, and then remitted the whole cause untried, to the Senate.
Ch. 11. Meantime Drusus returning from Illyricum, although the Senate had decreed him an ovation for recapturing Maroboduus, and for his achievements of the former summer, postponed that honor and entered the city. For counsel, after Titus, Arruntius, Fulcinius, Asinius Gallus, Æserninus Marcellus, and Sextus Pompeius, whom he had solicited to defend him, had on various grounds excused themselves, the accused was attended by Lepidus, Piso, and Regulus. The whole city dled with expectation, wondering what trust there might be in the friends of Germanicus; what degree of confidence Piso cherished; whether Tiberius would completely suppress and hide his thoughts. Engrossed, more than even before, with these sub
jects of anxious interest and speculation, the universal people indulged themselves more than ever before, in confidential speech, or ominous silence against the Prince.
Ch. 12. On the assembling of the Senate, Cæsar pronounced a discourse of studied moderation. Piso, he said, had been a friend and one of the lieutenants of his father, and had by him, with approbation of the Senate, been given to Germanicus, to assist in the administration of the East. Whether there he had wounded the sensibilities of the young man by insolence and contentious rivalry, and had rejoiced at his death, or whether he had murdered him, the Senate, with impartial mind, was to discriminate. " For if, in his capacity of lieutenant, he has gone beyond the proper limit of official duty; if he has manifested want of respectful devotedness to his commander; if he bas been found rejoicing at his death, and at my grief — I should loathe him indeed; I should banish him from my house; and thus - and not by an exertion of the high power of the Prince - should I punish these quarrels of individuals. But if a crime is developed, deserving to be avenged by the death of any human being, I exhort you to soothe the children of Germanicus, and us his parents, by the consolations to which we are entitled. You will consider, too,” he continued, “ whether Piso did exercise his military trust in a mutinous and seditious manner; whether he took armed occupation of a province, and from motives of ambition cultivated the attachment of the troops; or whether exaggerations and falsehoods in relation to these matters have been spread abroad by his accusers, with whose excess of unfriendly zeal I am justly incensed. For, what proper purpose could it subserve to lay bare that body of the dead; to give it to be gazed on by vulgar eyes; to send out the rumor, even through foreign nations, that he had been slain by poison, if all were yet unascertained and requiring to be investigated ? I mourn, and shall ever mourn my son; but I neither prohibit the accused from producing all proofs by which his innocence may be raised to light; nor any evidence by which the crime of Germanicus, if such there were, may be established; and, I entreat you, not to receive accusation for crime merely because the inquiry is involved with my personal griefs. If kindred blood, or if friendship have induced these to become bis advocates, let them aid the accused in his peril by the utmost exertion of fidelity and eloquence. To the same effort and the same fidelity let me urge the prosecutors also. This only we have granted to Germanicus beyond the law; that in the Curia instead of the Forum ; by the Senate instead of the judge, the question of his death shall be tried. In all things else let there be as absolute a deference to the general law, as if the case of a private citizen were on