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and Ireland will not; she will buy your staples, and mould them into shapes of beauty and use, and send them abroad, to represent your taste and your genius in the great fairs of civilization. Something thus she may do, to set upon your brow that crown of industrial glory, to which “the laurels that a Cæsar reaps are weeds.” More, Sir, more. Although she loves not war, nor any of its works ; although her interests, her morals, her intelligence, are all against it; although she is with South Carolina, with all the South, on that ground; yet, Sir, at the call of honor, at the call of liberty, if I have read her annals true, she will be found standing, where once she stood, side by side with you, on the darkened and perilous ridges of battle.
Be just to her, coldly, severely, Constitutionally just, and she will be a blessing to you.
NOTE TO PAGE 215.
EXTRACT OF A NOTE ON ADAM SMITH'S WEALTH OF NATIONS, BY M'CULLOCH, Vol. I.
PP. 211, 212, EDIN. EDITION, 1828. They [manufacturing operatives) are thus driven to seek for recreation in mental excitement; and the circumstances under which they are placed afford them every possible facility for gratifying themselves in this manner. By working together in considerable numbers, they have constant opportunities of discussing every topic of interest or importance. They are thus gradually trained to habits of thinking and reflection; their intellects are sharpened by the collision of conflicting opinions; and a small contribution from each individual enables them to obtain a large supply of newspapers, and of the cheaper class of periodical publications. But whatever difference of opinion may exist respecting the cause, there can be no doubt of the fact, that the intelligence of the workmen employed in manufactures and commerce has increased according as their numbers have increased, and as their employments have been more and more subdivided. I do not think that there are any good grounds for supposing that they were ever less intelligent than the agriculturists; though, whatever may have been the case a century since, no one will now venture to affirm that they are inferior to them in intellectual acquirements, or that they are mere machines, without sentiment or reason.
NOTE TO PAGE 243.
EXTRACT FROM MR. HUDSON'S SPEECH.
I have taken great pains to ascertain as near as possible the amount of articles consumed in Massachusetts annually, which are the growth or product of other States in the Union. I bave written to intelligent gentlemen connected with
almost every branch of business in my own State, and have consulted all the statistics which have fallen into my hands; and I confess that our consumption is greater than I bail supposed. Probably some of the estimates may be too high, and others I am confident are too low. As a whole, I believe them to be a fair estimate. In fixing the prices, I have endeavored to take the average for the last three or four years. I speak of these articles as consumed in Massachusetts. They are consumed in the sense in which such articles are capable of consumption. Cotton and wool are consumed, in the sense in which I use the term, by being converted into cloth; and the same is true of all other ar ticles which go into our manufactures. The result I will now present for the consideration of the committee.
An Estimate of the Products of the Soil, 8c., of other States consumed or manu
factured annually in Massachusetts. Cotton
185,000 bales $7,200,000 Flour
4,100,000 Corn and other grain
3,730,000 bush. 2,790,000
175,000 tons 1,300,000 Wood
188,600 cords 1,300,000 Wool
8,000,000 lbs. 3,200,000 Lumber of all kinds
3,690,000 Leather and hides
7,600,000 Beef, pork, hams, and lard
2,800,000 Butter and cheese
1,000,000 Horses, cattle, sheep, and swine
300,000 Poultry of all kinds
70,000 Pig lead
1,450,000 Furs, buffalo robes, &c. .
45,000 Rags, junk, &c., for paper .
82,800 casks 72,000 Pot and pearl ashes
500 tons 58,000 Tobacco
960 hhds. 68,000 Rice.
325,000 Tar, pitch, and turpentine
800,000 Sugar and molasses
47,000 Staves, casks, boxes, &c.
360,000 Domestic spirits and beer
100,000 Feathers, hair, and bristles
185,000 Oysters, venison, sand, sweet potatoes, summer fruits, such as peaches, melons, &c. .
210,000 Hay, grass-seed, flaxseed, flax, linseed oil, castor oil, beans, beeswax, tallow, onions, and nuts.
$42,010,000 Here we have the round sum of $42,000,000 of domestic products consumed in the State of Massachusetts - a State of 737,000 inhabitants — in a single year. The importance of such a home market will appear when we consider that the average of our entire export from the United States for the last ten years, exclusive of the manufactured articles, amounts to only $82,200,000. So that the State of Massachusetts consumes annually, of the products of other States, more than half the amount of our whole foreign export, less the manufactured articles; and the articles thus consumed in my own State are the product of every State in this Union.
Maine supplies lumber, wood, lime, leather, and potatoes; New Hampshire, wool, butter, cheese, beef, and pork; Vermont, wool, iron, beef, pork, butter, cheese, and potash ; Rhode Island, lime; Connecticut, iron; New York, flour, wool, leather, butter, cheese, and grain ; New Jersey, grain, grass-seed, and fruit; Pennsylvania, iron, coal, wool, leather, and potash; Delaware, grain; Maryland, corn, tobacco, and leather; Virginia, corn, flour, tobacco, and coal ; North Carolina, tar, pitch, and turpentine; South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, cotton and rice; Louisiana, cotton, sugar, and molasses ; Arkansas, cotton, beef, and pork ; Tennessee, cotton, wool, tobacco, and corn ; Kentucky, tobacco, wool, flour, and whiskey; Missouri, lead and corn ; Indiana, flour, corn, wool, beef, and pork ; Illinois, lead, flour, corn, and pork ; Michigan, four; Ohio, flour, corn, beef, pork, wool, and potash.
This is a specimen of some of the leading articles which the different States furnish to the Massachusetts market. Besides these, there are other articles, which are produced by the whole valley of the Mississippi, such as hides, fur, beans, castor oil, flax-seed, &c.
SPEECH ON THE BILL FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT
OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
DELIVERED IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES, JANUARY 8, 1845.
I am sure that, whatever opinion may be at last formed on this bill, its principles, or its details, all will concur in expressing thanks to the Senator from Ohio, [Mr. Tappan,] for introducing it. We shall differ more perhaps than could be wished, or thản can be reconciled, about the mode of administering this noble fund; but we cannot differ about our duty to enter at once on some mode of administering it. A large sum of money has been given to us, to hold and to apply, in trust, “ for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.' We have accepted the trust.
“ To this application - such is the language of our act of the first of July, 1836 — “ to this application of the money the faith of the United States is hereby pledged.” The donor is in his grave. There is no chancellor to compel us to redeem our pledge; and there needs
Our own sense of duty to the dead, and the living, and the unborn who shall live, - our justice, our patriotism, our policy, common honesty, common decorum, urge us, and are enough to urge us, to go on, without the delay of an hour, to appropriate the bounty according to the form of the gift. I thank the Senator, therefore, for introducing a bill with which, to my own knowledge, he has taken much — and, so far as I can see or conceive — disinterested pains, and which affords us an opportunity to discharge a plain duty, perhaps too long delayed.
I think, too, Sir, that the Senator has, in the first section of
the bill, declared the true fundamental law according to which this fund ought to be permanently administered. He lends to the United States the whole sum of $508,318 actually received out of the English chancery, from the third of December, 1838, when it was received, at an interest of six per cent. per annum.
He leaves the sum of $209,103, which is so much of the interest as will have accrued on the first day of July next, to be applied at once to the construction of buildings, the preparation of grounds, the purchase of books, instruments, and the like; and then appropriates the interest, and the interest only, of the original principal sum, for the perpetual maintenance of the institution, leaving the principal itself unimpaired forever. This all, is exactly as it should be.
But when you examine the bill a little further, to discern what it is exactly which this considerable expenditure of money is to accomplish, — when you look to see how and how much it is going “ to increase and diffuse knowledge among men," I am afraid that we shall have reason to be a little less satisfied. I do not now refer to the constitution of the board of management, of which, let me say, under some important modifications, I incline to approve; although on that I reserve myself. I speak of what the fund, however managed, is to be made to do. The bill assumes, as it ought, to apply it, “ to increase and diffuse knowledge among men.” Well, how does it accomplish this object ?
It proposes to do so, for substance, by establishing in this city a school, a college, for the purpose of instructing its pupils in the application of certain physical sciences to certain arts of life. The plan, if adopted, founds a college in Washington to teach the scientific principles of certain useful arts. That is the whole of it. It appoints, on permanent salaries, a professor of agriculture, horticulture, and rural economy; a professor of natural history; a professor of chemistry; a professor of geology; a professor of astronomy; a professor of architecture and domestic science ; together with a fluctuating force of occasional auxiliary lecturers; and all these professors and lecturers are enjoined “ to have special reference, in all their illustrations and instructions, to the productive and liberal arts of life, - to improvements in agriculture, manufactures, trades, and domestic economy.” Thus, the professor of chemistry is