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C. νων εν τω βιβλίω τούτω. λέγει ο μαρτυρών ταύτα και έρχομαι βιβλίῳ τούτῳ. λέγει ὁ μαρτυρῶν ταῦτα. ναὶ ἔρχομαι

Ε. νων ἐν

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C. ταχύ, αμήν και έρχου κύριε ιησού. η χάρις του κυρίου ἀμὴν. ναὶ, ἔρχον κύριε ΙΗΣΟΥ. ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν

Ε. ταχὺ,

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C. ιησού χριστού μετά πάντων τῶν αγίων. αμήν.

Ε. ΙΗΣΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ μετὰ πάντων

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ὑμῶν. Αμήν. τῶν ἁγίων. αμήν.

4. I have now done with the critical part of this Introduction; and, I trust, that sufficient grounds have been shown for the present work having been undertaken, and also for the principles on which it has been executed. In addition to what has been said above, (§ I. 5), I may here remark, that no charge of innovation can be fairly brought against the text here adopted. The innovation really has been the adoption and use of modern readings instead of ancient; this arose from modern copies having been most known at the time of the invention of printing. I do not judge it needful to make any apology for departures from the "Received Text," the only particulars in which any justification could be needed, are the places in which the most ancient copies, A. and C. agree, in what appears to me to be an erroneous reading. These places I have specified above. Of course I do not mean for a moment to allege that this text is perfect; I know too well the difficulties which encompass the subject for me to imagine that; but I give my conclusions accompanied by my principles and data in order that they may be examined, and that the text be not condemned previously to this being done.

No one will, I believe, expect any apology for an English text adapted to the Greek here given; I have sought to give an accurate rendering throughout, and not merely in the places in which this Greek text differs from that on which our Authorised Version is based.

In this introduction I have avoided anything which might relate to the interpretation of the Revelation; this was not my object, but it was to supply a text which might aid those who in subjection of mind to the word of God are seeking the teaching of the Spirit to know the things that are here written. No thoughts of my own on the subject of interpretation have, I

believe, in a single instance influenced my judgment as to the adoption of readings; on the contrary in many places preconceived thoughts on particular passages had to give way before what I on sufficient grounds of evidence, to be "the words of the Holy Ghost."


And now, in conclusion, it is my earnest desire that this revised text and version may, through the blessing of God, be for the profit and instruction of some of those who may use it. This was what I sought in undertaking the work; this was what I bore in mind in the various stages of labour in connection with it. In the course of its execution I have had much cause for thankfulness; the critical materials which I most wanted have come to my hand just when they were especially needed, and in many ways I have had to trace the providential and overruling care of God. He has enabled me to bring to a conclusion this little work in connection with a portion of His word;-may He graciously forgive all that is defective therein, and vouchsafe His Holy Spirit's blessing thereon, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Islington, May 27, 1844.




A reading for the omission of which probable reasons may be given, is included within brackets: e. g. [em σe] iii. 3. A less probable omission is included within dotted brackets: e. g. kai eldov! vi. 5.

A letter in the text refers to the inner margin; a perpendicular line shows how far the marginal reading would extend: in case the marginal reading is an addition, it is put immediately after the letter, as "'.


Brackets are employed in the same manner as in the Greek text.

A letter refers to the inner margin; when such a mark is found, it indicates a various reading of some degree of probability.


The letters answer to those in the Greek or English text.

A reading in brackets marks it as belonging to the Elzevir edition, 1624.

marks a reading supported by some probable authorities, but apparently inferior

to that given in the text.

+ marks an addition.

I marks an omission.


The words of the "Received Text," (Elzevir 1624), stand first; then the authorities which differ from them.

An asterisk* is prefixed to readings from which the text here adopted differs.
The MSS. in uncial letters are cited A. B. C. (see § III. 2.)

Those in cursive letters are commonly cited compendiously in classes.

a denotes those MSS. which are perfect and collated throughout. Of these there are 28 in cursive letters.

B those which are defective, but with the defects noted, and which have been collated throughout; of these there are 11 in cursive letters.

y MSS. partially collated. The silence of these is no authority against a reading. (See § III. 4.)

An asterisk after the designation of a MS. e.g. A* denotes a reading à primá mauu, afterwards altered.

Two asterisks thus :-A** mark a reading from correction.

When in the citation of authorities a figure is marked with † as 9† it denotes not that the particular MS. so designated is intended, but that number of MSS. of different classes. This is only used in cases which might have been ambiguous.

The abbreviations by which the versions are denoted, require in general no explanation beside the remark that abbreviations in italics, as Am. Tol. Harl., denote Latin MSS. mentioned in § III. 5, and that Erp. is here used, (as has commonly been done), to denote the Arabic Version published by Erpenius. Ar. P. is the Arabic version of Walton's Polyglott. Arr. denotes both the Arabic versions.

* επί σε



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