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than the location of the divisions of real estate. In laying highways, it is the common practice to lay the centre lines, and order the roads to be of a certain width, and stakes are usually set at the angles. Care is not often taken to set bounds on the sides, and when the roads are made the cen. tre bounds are destroyed, and the travelling path is often built on one side of the centre; but as the bounds are lost, it is utterly impossible, after a few years have elapsed, to ascertain by the survey where the road was laid.

Surveyors who are employed on such business ought to describe the angles, or as many as is practicable, in such a manner that the road may afterwards be found.

It taking surveys of roads, the distance on each proprietor's land must be noted, for the purpose of assessing dam. ages; but these distances need not be entered in the record. The whole distance on each course must be entered in the record, and it is no matter whether it crosses the land of one or of ten different owners.

The following, being a resurvey of a part of the New London and Lyme turnpike road, as was recently taken, is prepared for record, and it may serve as an example.

As there is no object of sufficient permanency directly against the point of the beginning of said road, it may be found by the following direction.

From a point, 35 links northerly of the northwest corner of B. Brown's stone house, in the range of the west side, run (as the magnetic needle now points*) S. 66° 25' W. 1 chain 56 links to the centre of a stone set in the ground be. neath the surface, which is the point of beginning of said road—thence, on the same course (S. 66° 25' W.) 4 chains 60 links, to a point 49links northerly of the northwest corner of G. Jones' store, in the range of the west side ; thence S. 79° 25' W. 11 chains 52 links to a point 48 links northerly of the northeast corner of the Norris house, in the range of the east side; thence S. 80° 10' W. 17 chains 20 links to a point 50 links northerly of the northeast corner of the Chester house, in the range of the east side. The line described by the foregoing survey, is the centre of the road which is four rods in width.

An angle in a road may be described by its bearing and distance from some permanent object, such as the corner of a building, the centre of a well, a point of a rock, a tree, &c. In cases where no permanent object is near an angle, the side bounds ought to be set before the Committee or Commissioners, (as they may be named) proceed any further in the location of the road.

When the centre line of a road is laid, the distance which it runs on any proprietor's land may be multiplied by the width of the road, and the product will be the quantity of land taken.

Whether the centre or a side of a road is laid, the lines almost uniformly cross the boundary lines of lots of land in such oblique directions, that if a side is laid, it will require too much time to ascertain the exact quantities of land, which will be taken from different proprietors.

Other advantages will be found by laying the centre line of a road, which need not here he mentioned.

DIRECTIONS FOR TAKING MINUTES ON A ROAD.

rods. links.
S. 110 15' E. 17 00 on W. H.'s land.
+

30 00 on R. S.'s
+

00 on T. B.'s +

11 00 rod on old road.

89

Whole distance 1373

No. X.

ON DISTRIBUTING ESTATES.

As the distribution of estates is connected with surveying, something on that subject may, with propriety, be added to this work.

Surveyors are agreed that written distributions of real estate are often, and too often, returned to Courts, accepted and recorded, which are so unintelligible that it is extremely difficult and sometimes impossible to ascertain, with any degree of certainty, where the divisions of land were originally made.

In distributing estates, surveyors have the minutes, and it properly belongs to them to write the distributions.

To young learners who are coming forward to take an active part in this business, some directions may be given.

The divisions of land among heirs, in most cases, are first made on paper. When these are completed and agreed to by the distributors, erect the bounds between the several divisions. Next, from the map on which the divisions were made, which will be full of marks, and perhaps some blots, copy a neat handsome map on new paper, noting thereon all the courses and distances, and all the bounds, which should be entered in the distribution. Also, note in each division of the map the quantity of land it contains, with the name of the heir to whom it was distributed This map is to be kept by the heirs. Next write the distribution, and before it shall be returned to Court, see that the heirs have a copy of it.

With a map and a copy of the distribution, the heirs will have a record in their own house, from which, at any future period, they may find the divisions of their land.

The following form of a distribution has been approved by experienced Judges* of Probate Courts. To the Honourable Court of Probate for the District of

Rockingham The undersigned, distributors of the estate of BENJAMIN BANISTER, Esquire, late of Applebury, within said district, deceased, have distributed said estate, under oath, as fol. lows :

To Philura Banister, widow of said deceased, as her right of dower in said estate, fifty acres of land lying on the front of the farm, bounded as follows :—Beginning at the northwest corner of said farm by the highway, thence running east by Roderick Random's land, 50 rods to a maple tree, thence south parallel with the highway 160 rods to a hemlock tree by Thomas Trunnion's land, thence west by said Trunnion's land 50 rods to the highway, thence north by said highway 160 rods to the place of beginning. Also, the following parts of the dwelling house [describe the parts.] Also, the following parts of the barn [describe the parts, and of other buildings.]

PERSONAL ESTATE.

Scott's Bible, $15. Bed, curtains, &c. $45. Looking glass, $15.

$75.00

To BENJAMIN B. BANISTER, the north division of the farm, containing one hundred acres, being partly encumbered by dower, bounded as follows :- Beginning at the northwest corner of said farm, thence running east by Roderick Random's lands 200 rods, to a beech tree by Oliver Gulliver's land, thence south by said Gulliver's land, 80 rods to a spruce tree, thence west by land set to Matilda Banister, parallel with said Random's land, 200 rods to a white pine tree by the highway, thence north by said highway, 80 rods to the place of beginning.

Also, one undivided half of all the buildings belonging to said estate, being partly encumbered by dower.

Said division of real estate is appraised at $2500.00

PERSONAL ESTATE.

One horse, $100. Two yoke of oxen, $130. Ox wagon, $50.

$280.00 To Matilda BANISTER, the south division of the farm, being the remainder and residue of said farm, containing one hundred acres, and is 80 rods in width from front to rear, being partly encumbered by dower, bounded as follows North on the division set to Benjamin B. Banister, south on Thomas Trunnion's land, east on Oliver Gulliver's land, west on highway.

Also, one undivided half of all the buildings belonging to said estate, subject, in part, to incumbrance.

Said division of real estate is appraised at $2500.00

PERSONAL ESTATE.

Bed, curtains, &c. $45. Mahogany table, $12. Set of silver spoons, $18

$75.00 Said widow and said heirs have equal privileges of passing to and from any and every part of the real estate set to each of them in the foregoing distribution, at the usual passways, such as doors, stairs, gates, bars, lanes, paths, &c.

Hugh HUNTER,

CHARLES CHALKER. Applebury, July 30th, 1832. CHRISTOPHER CUTLER.

The foregoing caption or preamble is sufficient, as it will appear of record that the distributors were appointed. Forms of distribution must vary according to circumstances.

No. XI.

ON LEVELLING.

selves for civil engineers, or that they will furnish themselves with suitable instruments for that business, but every surveyor should furnish himself with an instrument with which he can take levels and angles of elevation* or depression, with a sufficient degree of accuracy to answer in cases of locating roads, of ascertaining whether water may be carried in an aqueduct from one place to another, and to ascertain the fall of mill seats; also, to answer in all common cases. A cheap, simply constructed instrument, represented by the following figure, is recommended

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Let A B be a strip of a board thre inches wide and three feet in length, or longer if necessary, made perfectly straight on the top. The perpendicular piece, which is dovetailed into the top, should be of such a width at the bottom that it may be graduated either way from the centre, ten or fifteen degrees; and of such a length that the radius by which the graduated arch is swept, should be at least a foot. Great care must be taken in the graduation, to have it done correctly, and by fine lines, and to have the centre perpendicuar or at right angles with the top. The plumb line should be a fine smooth silk thread or hair. At z, a hole should be bored of a suitable size to set it on the head of a compass staff. Such an instrument, if correctly made, will answer all the purposes before mentioned.

Before directions are given for levelling, the difference between the apparent, and the true level, will be explained. The former is a tangent, or a straight line, drawn and con

* An angle of elevation rises above a horizontal line; a depression falls below it.

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