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ἀνήλωται μάτην εἰς τοὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἀπόρους, ἐξανήλωνται δὲ οἵ τε ἴδιοι πάντες οἶκοι καὶ τὰ κοινὰ τῇ πόλει καὶ τὰ παρὰ τῶν συμμάχων, οὓς δ ̓ ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ συμμάχους ἐκτησάμεθα, οὗτοι νῦν ἐν τῇ εἰρήνῃ ἀπολώ31 λασιν; ἀλλὰ νὴ Δία ταῦτα μόνον τότ ̓ εἶχε βέλτιον ἢ 15 νῦν, τὰ δ ̓ ἄλλα χεῖρον. πολλοῦ γε καὶ δεῖ, ἀλλ ̓ ὅ τι βούλεσθε ἐξετάσωμεν. οἰκοδομήματα μέν γε καὶ κόσμον τῆς πόλεως καὶ ἱερῶν καὶ λιμένων καὶ τῶν ἀκολούθων τούτοις τοιοῦτον καὶ τοσοῦτον κατέλιπον ἐκεῖνοι, ὥστε μηδενὶ τῶν ἐπιγιγνομένων ὑπερβολὴν λελεῖφθαι, Προ-20 πύλαια ταῦτα, ὁ Παρθενὼν, νεώσοικοι, στοαὶ, τἆλλα, οἷς 32 ἐκεῖνοι κοσμήσαντες τὴν πόλιν ἡμῖν παρέδοσαν· τὰς δ ̓ ἰδίας οἰκίας τῶν ἐν δυνάμει γενομένων οὕτω μετρίας καὶ τῷ τῆς πολιτείας ὀνόματι ἀκολούθους, ὥστε την Θεμι στοκλέους καὶ τὴν Κίμωνος καὶ τὴν ̓Αριστείδου καὶ Μιλ- 25 τιάδου καὶ τῶν τότε λαμπρῶν οἰκίαν, εἴ τις ἄρ ̓ οἶδεν ὑμῶν ὁποία ποτ ̓ ἐστὶν, ὁρᾷ τῆς τοῦ γείτονος οὐδὲν σεμνοτέραν 175 33 οὖσαν. νῦν δ ̓, ὦ ἄνδρες ̓Αθηναῖοι, δημοσίᾳ μὲν ἡ πόλις ἡμῶν τὰς ὁδοὺς ἀγαπᾷ κατασκευάζουσα καὶ κρήνας καὶ κονιάματα καὶ λήρους (καὶ οὐ τοῖς εἰσηγησαμένοις ταῦτ ̓ ἐπιτιμῶ, πολλοῦ γε καὶ δέω, ἀλλ ̓ ὑμῖν, εἰ ταῦθ ̓ ἱκανὰ 5 ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς ὑπολαμβάνετε εἶναι διοικεῖν), ἰδίᾳ δ' οἱ τῶν κοινῶν ἐπί τῳ γεγενημένοι οἱ μὲν τῶν δημοσίων οἰκοδομημάτων σεμνοτέρας τὰς ἰδίας οἰκίας κατεσκευάκασιν, οὐ
εἰς τοὺς . . . ἀπόρους] The passage in Olyn. iii. § 32, p. 63, of which the text is clearly an imitation, has εἰς οὐδὲν δέον. As for the needy Greeks, to whom the text supposes the Athenians to have been so liberal, nothing else is known of them from any authority. Hence Schäfer approves of another reading, which is found in the Codices, viz. εἰς τοὺς ἀποστόλους. But then τῶν Ἑλλήνων is inexplicable ; and the date of the oration being unknown, it is impossible to explain the reference by any contemporary illustration.
ἐξανήλωνται δέ] and have there not been expended all our private means, and the public revenues of the city, and the contributions of our allies?' The word olkos comprehends all that goes with the
οἰκία or house, viz. family and estate. In
οἰκοδομήματα μέν] " Praeter Olyn. iii.
Προπύλαια] See Appendix, p. 294.
τὴν Θεμιστοκλέους] Comp. Olyn. iii.
κονιάματα καὶ λήρους] whitewashing and trumpery.'
οἱ τῶν κοινῶν] • those who have had the management of any public monies.'
μόνον τῶν πολλῶν ὑπερηφανωτέρας, οἱ δὲ γῆν συνεωνημένοι γεωργοῦσιν, ὅσην οὐδ ̓ ὄναρ ἤλπισαν πώποτε. 10 34 τούτων δ' αἴτιον ἁπάντων ὅτι τότε μὲν ὁ δῆμος δεσπότης
ἦν καὶ κύριος ἁπάντων, καὶ ἀγαπητὸν ἦν παρ ̓ ἐκείνου τῶν ἄλλων ἑκάστῳ καὶ τιμῆς καὶ ἀρχῆς καὶ ἀγαθοῦ τινὸς μεταλαμβάνειν· νῦν δὲ τοὐναντίον κύριοι μὲν τῶν ἀγαθῶν οὗτοι, καὶ διὰ τούτων ἅπαντα πράττεται, ὁ δὲ δῆμος ἐν ὑπηρέτου 15 καὶ προσθήκης μέρει, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀγαπᾶτε ἃ ἂν οὗτοι μεταδιδῶσι λαμβάνοντες.
Τοιγαροῦν ἐκ τούτων τοιαῦτα τὰ πράγματα τῆς πόλεώς ἐστιν, ὥστε εἴ τις ἀναγνοίη τα ψηφίσματα ὑμῶν καὶ τὰς πράξεις ἐφεξῆς διέλθοι, οὐδ ̓ ἂν εἷς πιστεύσειε τῶν αὐτῶν 20 εἶναι ταῦτα κἀκεῖνα. οἷον ἃ πρὸς τοὺς καταράτους Μεγαρέας ἐψηφίσασθε ἀποτεμνομένους τὴν ὀργάδα, ἐξιέναι, κωλύειν, μὴ ἐπιτρέπειν· ἃ πρὸς Φλιασίους, ὅτε ἐξέπεσον
τῶν πολλῶν] scil. τῶν οἰκιῶν τῶν πολ
dony ovd' ovap] F. L.p.429. 18. Dobree. τούτων δ' αἴτιον] Comp. Olyn. iii. § 34, p. 64.
οἷον ἃ πρός] as for example the resolutions which you passed against the accursed Megarians when they appropriated the sacred ground.' Comp. note on Ep. Philip. § 4, p. 270. This opyás was a piece of land between Athens and Megara, sacred to Demeter and Persephone, the divinities of Eleusis (τῆς καλουμένης Οργάδος θεῶν τῶν ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι ἱερᾶς), and which therefore neither the Athenians nor the Megarians were allowed to cultivate. Nevertheless, as Plutarch (vit. Peric. c. 30) tells us, using the phrase of the text (ἀποτέμνεσθαι τὴν ἱερὰν ὀργάδα), the Megarians just before the Peloponnesian war did appropriate some of this district, and put to death the Athenian herald Anthemocritus, who was sent to remonstrate with them on their conduct. Thereupon, adds Plutarch, γράφει ψήφισμα κατ' αὐτῶν Χαρῖνος, ἄσπονδον μὲν εἶναι καὶ ἀκήρυκτον ἔχθραν, ὃς δ ̓ ἂν ἐπιβῇ τῆς ̓Αττικής Μεγαρέων θανάτῳ ζημιοῦσθαι, τοὺς δὲ στρατηγοὺς ὅταν ὀμνύωσι τὸν πατρικὸν ὅρκον, ἐπομνύειν ὅτι καὶ δὶς ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος εἰς τὴν Μεγαρικὴν ἐμβαλοῦσι. Το this vote it is not impossible (we cannot say more) that allusion is here made; for though it was
far from a contemporary affair, it was a well-known incident in Athenian history, from its alleged connexion with the Peloponnesian war (Thucyd. i. 139), and it is contrasted with the more recent matter of Phlius (τὸ ἔναγχος). Aristophanes, in his Acharnians (v. 525), gives a very different version of the quarrel between Megara and Athens.
& πρὸς Φλιασίους] We are not able to explain this incident satisfactorily by any reference to contemporary history; and not knowing the date of the oration, we have no guide to the time when it happened. But we know that during the war between Thebes and Sparta, Phlius was a faithful ally of the latter; in consequence of which she was exposed (after Leuctra, B.c. 371) to the attacks of her neighbours the Argives and Sicyonians, then in alliance with Thebes, who were also instigated by the then exiles from Phlius. The Athenians assisted the Phliasians against their enemies; and when, in B.C. 366, the Sicyonians were erecting a fortress (Thyamia) on the frontier, to harass and annoy Phlius, the Athenians sent out Chares to its relief, who, in concert with the men of Phlius, wrested it from them. Xen. Hell. vii. 2. 21. Thirlwall's Greece, ν. 130. Diodorus (xv. 40) relates, that in B.c. 375 Phlius was in a state of civil war, one party having driven the other into exile, and the exiles endeavouring to
τὸ ἔναγχος, βοηθεῖν, μὴ ἐπιτρέπειν τοῖς σφαγεῦσι, τῶν ἐν 36 Πελοποννήσῳ τοὺς βουλομένους παρακαλεῖν. ἅπαντα 25 καλὰ, ὦ ἄνδρες Αθηναῖοι, ταῦτα καὶ δίκαια καὶ τῆς πόλεως 176 ἄξια· τὰ ἔργα δὲ τὰ ἀπὸ τούτων οὐδαμοῦ. οὐκοῦν τὴν μὲν ἀπέχθειαν διὰ τῶν ψηφισμάτων ἐκφέρεσθε, τῶν δ' ἔργων οὐδενὸς κύριοι γίγνεσθε· τὰ μὲν γὰρ ψηφίσματα πρὸς τὸ τῆς πόλεως ἀξίωμα ψηφίζεσθε, τὴν δύναμιν δ ̓ οὐκ ἀκό- 5 37 λουθον ὧν ψηφίζεσθε ἔχετε. ἐγὼ δὲ παραινέσαιμ ̓ ἂν ὑμῖν (καί μοι μηδὲν ὀργισθῆτε) ἢ ἔλαττον φρονεῖν καὶ τὰ ὑμέτερ ̓ αὐτῶν ἀγαπᾶν πράττοντας, ἢ μείζω δύναμιν παρασκευάζεσθαι. εἰ μὲν οὖν Σιφνίοις ἢ Κυθνίοις ἤ τισιν ἄλλοις τοιούτοις οὖσι συνῄδειν ὑμῖν, ἔλαττον φρονεῖν 10 συνεβούλευον ἂν, ἐπειδὴ δ ̓ ἔστ ̓ ̓Αθηναῖοι, τὸ τὴν δύναμιν παρασκευάσασθαι παραινῶ· αἰσχρὸν γὰρ, ὦ ἄνδρες Αθηναῖοι, αἰσχρὸν λιπεῖν τὴν τοῦ φρονήματος τάξιν, ἣν ὑμῖν οἱ πρόγονοι παρέδωκαν. πρὸς δὲ τούτοις οὐδ ̓ ἐστὶν ἐφ' ὑμῖν, 38 οὐδ ̓ ἂν ἀποστῆναι τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν βούλησθε· πολλὰ γὰρ 15 ὑμῖν ἐκ παντὸς τοῦ χρόνου πέπρακται, καὶ τοὺς μὲν φίλους τοὺς ὑπάρχοντας αἰσχρὸν προέσθαι, τοῖς δ ̓ οὖσιν ἐχθροῖς οὐκ ἔνι πιστεῦσαι καὶ μεγάλους ἐᾶσαι γενέσθαι. ὅλως δ' ὅπερ οἱ πολιτευόμενοι πεπόνθασι πρὸς ὑμᾶς, οὐκ ἔνεστιν αὐτοῖς, ὅταν βούλωνται, παύσασθαι, τοῦτο καὶ ὑμῖν περι 20 έστηκε· πεπολίτευσθε γὰρ ἐν τοῖς Ἕλλησιν.
effect their restoration by force of arms. More than 600 Phliasians were slain on that occasion, and something of the same sort appears to have happened when the Athenians determined to interfere, but without doing so. In fact, the events described by Diodorus correspond better with the allusion in the text (except as regards the time, τὸ ἔναγχος), than those narrated by Xenophon as having occurred after the battle of Leuctra. See Leake (Morea, iii. 346), who recognized the ancient city Phlius in the modern "Poly. fergs (Πολύφεγγος), formerly one of the bishoprics of the province of Corinth. The church, like many others in Greece, was probably an ancient temple, converted into a church on the establishment of Christianity, and repaired with masonry of later times,"
ἐκφέρεσθε] ' you exhibit.
τὸ τῆς πόλεως ἀξίωμα] * the pretensions of the city.'
Σιφνίοις] Siphnus and Cynthus were small islands in the Aegean, S.E. of Attica. ἔλαττον φρονεῖν] ' to be more humbleminded.'
ἀποστῆναι τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν] ‘to withdraw from Grecian affairs.
ὅλως δ' ὅπερ] and in short the posi tion in which your public men have stood relatively to you, (viz. that) it is not in their power to retire when they wish, is the very same to which you have been brought yourselves.' Mr. Kennedy thus: The position which your statesmen hold relatively to you-they cannot retire when they wish-is precisely that which you have arrived at, for you have interfered in the politics of Greece,'
39 Ἔστι δ ̓, ὦ ἄνδρες Αθηναῖοι, κεφάλαιον ἁπάντων τῶν εἰρημένων· οὐδέποθ' ὑμᾶς οἱ λέγοντες οὔτε πονηροὺς οὔτε χρηστοὺς ποιοῦσιν, ἀλλ ̓ ὑμεῖς τούτους, ὁπότερ ̓ ἂν βού λησθε· οὐ γὰρ ὑμεῖς ὧν οὗτοι βούλονται στοχάζεσθε, ἀλλ ̓ 25 οὗτοι ὧν ἂν ὑμᾶς ἐπιθυμεῖν οἴωνται. ὑμᾶς οὖν ὑπάρξαι δεῖ χρηστὰ βουλομένους, καὶ πάνθ ̓ ἕξει καλῶς· ἡ γὰρ οὐδεὶς ἐρεῖ φλαύρον οὐδὲν, ἢ οὐδὲν αὐτῷ πλέον ἔσται μὴ ἔχοντι τοὺς πεισομένους.
οὐδέποθ' ὑμᾶς] A remark applicable to our own times and country, as well as to Athens and the age of Demosthenes. For the press is never powerful except
when it expresses public opinion, to which it gives additional force by an apparent concentration of its many elements.
THE Propylaea occupied the west front of the Acropolis at Athens, to which it formed a grand entrance from the Agora under the Areiopagus, by a magnificent flight of white marble steps, seventy Greek feet wide, interrupted in the centre by an open road for carriages. It consisted of a portico and two wings projecting 26 feet in advance of it, towards the w.; the whole structure thus forming three sides of a quadrangle, and covering from N. to s. a breadth of 168 feet. (Leake's Top. of Athens, i. 315.) The existing ruins of the wings (A and B on plan, p. 302) are not sufficient to determine with certainty their original form. Till lately they were generally supposed to have been two Doric temples, externally symmetrical, and covered with roofs forming two pediments or gables facing each other, supported below by three Doric columns. But quite recently the removal of the Turkish fortifications has disclosed indications of a different construction, and led Mr. Penrose (Investigation of the Principles of Athenian Architecture, p. 62) to the conclusion that the roofs did not run N. and s., and that if there was any pediment, it was to the w. Accordingly, he represents these two wings with what are called hip roofs. (Frontispiece, and Plate xxviii.)
The left or northern (A) of these two wings remains tolerably perfect, and is sometimes called the Pinacotheca, or Painted Chamber.' It was described by Pausanias (i. 22) as an oikηua exov ypapás, ornamented with numerous paintings by Polygnotus and others, the subjects being chiefly taken from Homer and the Cyclic poets. That these were panel paintings on the walls may be inferred from the common practice amongst the Greeks, and by the fact of Pausanias finding them there in the time of Hadrian. Had they been unattached, they would not, as Mr. Penrose (59) suggests, have so long escaped the spoliations of the Romans and other depredators.