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PREFACE.

This work, in its original foras, was first published in 1819; since that time it has passed through many editions and impressions; and it is now for the third time stereotyped.

Modern geography is a branch of science that is continually changing; and it is necessary that an elementary treatise on the subject should, every few years, undergo a careful revision.

This work, in the form in which it is now published, has been revised throughout ; a great part of it has been written anew, in order to accommodate it to the present time and to introduce improvements; and the most of the book may be expected to continue for a considerable time without any great alteration.

The statistical information, which is the portion that is most liable to change, being placed in a separate division, may be altered as occasion may require, without affecting the rest of the volume.

The department of Ancient Geography has also been revised; and the portion of Scripture Geography has been materially enlarged.

The Modern and Ancient Atlases which accompany the “ Elements ” have likewise been revised and improved , and the Ancient Atlas has been enlarged by the substitution of six small maps relating to Scripture Geography, instead of the single map of Palestine, which has heretofore been contained in the Atlas.

This work has long been in use in many of the most respectable schools, academies, and seminaries in this try; and it is hoped, that, in its present form, it will be found less unworthy of the patronage which the public have been pleased to give it.

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'The book and the maps are designed to be used throughout in connection; and the method of studying them will be found to be easy, both to the teacher and pupi). Questions to be answered both from the book and the maps have been inserted, as, in a majority of cases in which the work is used, they are deemed advantageous; but teachers need not restrict themselves to the Questions, any further than they find it expedient.

The Modern and the Ancient Geography have heretofore been published together, but neither of them separately ; but it has been thought advisable, in order to accommodate different wants, to publish the whole together as heretofore, and both the Modern and the Ancient part in a separate form;

and they are now offered to the public under the following titles ; viz. Elements of Modern and Ancient Geography, with a Modern and an Ancient Atlas ;Elements of Modern Geography, with an Allas ;” and “ Elements of Ancient Classical and Scripture Geography, with an Allas."

The pronunciation of Classical and Scripture Proper Names is given according to Walker ; and the pronuncia tion of Modern Geographical Names is given in accordance with the best authorities and best usage Several of the former editions have contained a Pronouncing Vocabulary of about 3,000 Geographical Names ; but as this Vocabulary is now inserted in the author's Comprehensive and Flementary Dictionaries, which are, at present, used extensively in the same schools with the “Elements of Geography," it is omitted in this work.

It may be useful to remark with respect to the sounds of some of the vowels in the languages of the continent of Europe, that a, in situations in which the analogy of the English language would naturally give it the sound of long a, as in fate, has, in other European languages, the sound of a in father (marked ä); e, at the end of a syllable, the sound of long a as in favor ; i and y, except when short, the sound i in marine, the same as e long.

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CONTENTS.

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ELEMENTS OF GEOGRAPHY.

MATHEMATICAL OR ASTRONOMICAL GEOGRAPHY

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1. GEOGRAPHY is a description of the earth with its pro ductions and inhabitants.

2. Mathematical or astronomical geography treats of the earth as a part of the solar system ; illustrates, from astronomical principles, its figure, magnitude, and motion ; explains the construction of globes, with their application to the solution of problems, and describes the methods of projecting maps and charts.

3. The Solar System is coinposed of the sun, the primary planets, the satellites, and the comels.

4. The Sun is the source of light and heat to all bodies in the solar system ; and it is the centre of motion, round which the planets revolve in elliptical orbits, from west to

5. There are 11 primary planets, namely, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Vesta, Juno, Ceres, Pallas, Jupiter, Saturn, and Ura-nus or Herschei.

6. Those planets which are nearer to the sun than the earth, namely, Mercury and Venus, are called inferior or interior planets ; the others, superior or exterior, their orbits being without that of the earth, as seen on the following page.

7. Saturn is remarkably distinguished from the other planets, by being encompassed by a double ring, as represented in the figure on the next page.

8. The orbits of the planets are the paths which they describe in revolving round the sun.

9. In the following view of the Solar System, the orbits of the planets are described as circles, yet their real form is elliptical.

Mathematical GEOGRAPHY. -1. What is Geography 2. What is mathematical or astronomical geography ? 3. What is

said of the solar system? 4. The sun ? 5. What are the primary planets? 6. Which are the inferior, and

which the superior planets ? 7. For what is Saturn distin. guished) 8 What are the orbits a 9 What is their form

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