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Table of the Sizes, Distances, Rotations, and Periods of

the Sun and Planets.

round the sun.

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Diameter Mean dis- Rotation on Time in revolving Bulk. Tbe in miles. tances from their axes,

sarth being 1. the sun mill. miles.

d. h. m. d. SUN 883,246

25 14 08

1,330,000 Mercury 3,224 37 00 24 00 87 23 15 Venus

7,687 68 0 23 22 224 16 49 Earth

7,912 95 0 23 56 365 06 09 Mars 4,189 144 1 00 39 686 23 30

,16 Vesta 238 225

1,161 19 Juno 1,425 252

1,589 Ceres


1,681 12 9 Pallas


1,682 Jupiter 4 89,170 490 0 09 56' 4,332 08 51 1,470 Saturn h 79,042 900 0 10 16 10,761 14 37 887 Uranus H 35,112 1,800 unknown 30,445 18 00 77

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10. The four planets, Vesta, Juno, Ceres, and Pallas, are very small compared with the rest ; and it is but a few years since they were first discovered.

11. There are 18 Satellites or secondary planets. The Earth has 1, Jupiter 4, Saturn 7, and Uranus 6. These revolve round their primaries, and accompany them in their annual revolutions round the sun.

12. The Comets are bodies revolving round the sun in very eccentric orbits, and move in all directions. The number of them is not ascertained, and their nature is but little known.

13. Those stars, which always retain nearly the same situation with respect to each other, are called Fixed Stars. About 1,000 are seen by the naked eye in the visible horizon, in each hemisphere; but, by the use of a telescope,

10. What is said of Vesta, Juno, Ceres, and Pallas ?
11. What of the satellites ? 12. The comets ?
13. The fixed stars?

Qucstions on the Solar System, and Table of Sizes, &c. Which planet is nearest to the sun? Which farthest off? Which are nearer than the earth? Which farther? Which three planets have the greatest diameter? Which are smaller than the earth?

What is the diameter of the sun ? The earth ? The moon? What is the distance of the earth from the sun? In what time does the earth revolve round the sun ? Which of the planets revolve round the sun in less time than the earth'

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the eye.

many millions may be seen ; and their number increases in proportion to the magnifying power of the telescope.

14. The stars are supposed to be suns, around each of which planets revolve, as about our sun.

15. The galaxy, or milky way, is a broad, luminous zone in the heavens. It is supposed to be caused by an immense number of stars, which, from their apparent nearness, cannot be distinguished from each other.

16. The Earth is a globe or spherical body ; yet, on account of its magnitude, its roundness is not perceptible to

17. It is proved to be round, 1st, by its having been repeatedly circumnavigated ; 2dly, by the circular form of its shadow, as observed in eclipses of the moon; and Suly, by the appearence of a ship when approaching the shore, the highest parts being always seen first.

18. The earth is not a perfect sphere, but is flattened at he poles. The equatorial diameter exceeds the polar diameter by upwards of 26 miles.

19. The axis of the earth is an imaginary line passing through its centre.

20. The extremities of the axis are called the Poles, the one north and the other south.

21. The annual revolution of the earth round the sun, in connection with the obliquity of the ecliptic, occasions the succession of the four seasons.

22. The earth's diurnal rotation on its own axis every 24 hours, is the cause of day and night. This motion, being from west to east, causes the sun and stars to appear to rise in the east, and set in the west, once in 24 hours.

23. The moon has three motions ; one round the earth, in about 294 days, which causes the moon's apparent increase and decrease, and produces the eclipses of the sun and moon; another round its own axis, in the same time; and a third round the sun along with the earth, in a year.

24. An eclipse of the sun is caused by the moon's passing between the sun and the earth; and it can never happen ex cept at the time of new moon.

23. An eclipse of the moon is caused by the earth's passing between the sun and the moon; and it can never take place except at the time of full moon.


14. What are they supposed to be ? 15. What is the galaxy ?
16. What is said of the earth ? 17. How is it proved to be round?
18. Is it a perfect sphere ? 19. What is the axis ?
20. What are the poles ? 21. What causes the four seasons ?
22. What causes day and night? 23. What three motions has the

moon? 24. What is the cause of an eclipse of the sun? 25. What causes an eclipse of the moon ?


1. Civil or Political Geography deliveates the empires, kingdoms, and states, which occupy the surface of the earth, and exhibits the monuments of human industry and skill.

2. Physical Geography is the natural history of the globe, and embraces a view of the sea, the atmosphere, the structure of the earth, together with its rivers, lakes, mountains, minerals, vegetables, and animals.

3. It is the province of physical geography to treat of the earth as it proceeded from the hand of the Creator, including such changes as have been produced by the laws which he has established; but civil geography treats chiefly of the changes which have been effected by man.

4. The division of civil geography comprises the principal part of most geographical systems; yet much of the matter which it embraces, belongs properly to physical geography.

5. The surface of the earth consists of land and water ; nearly one third being land, and two thirds water.

6. The proportion of land to water, in the northern hemisphere, has been computed as 72 to 100, and in the southern heinisphere, as only 15 to 100.

7. The Land is divided by water into continents, islands, peninsulas, isthmuses, and capes; and it consists of mountains, valleys, and plains.

8. A continent is a large extent of land, comprising many countries, not separated by water.

9. There are two continents; the Eastern, comprising Europe, Asia, and Africa; and the Western, comprising North and South America. Some reckon sis continents, viz. Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and New Holland.

10. An island is a tract of land entirely surrounded by water.

DEFINITIONS. – 1. What is civil geography ? 2. Physical geography?. 3. What is the province of each? 4. What is said of the division of civil geography ? 5. Of what does the surface of the earth consist? 6. What is the proportion of each in the northern and southern

hemispheres? 7. How is the land divided ? 8. What is a continent? 9. How many continents are there? 10. What is an island >

11. A peninsula is a portion of land almost surrounded by water.

12. An isthmus is a neck of land which joins a peninsula to the main land, or two parts of a continent together.

13. A cape is a point of land projecting into the sea; if the land is high aird mountainous, it is called a promontory.

14. The Water is divided into oceans, seas, lakes, gulfs, bays, straits, sounds, rivers, and friths or estuaries.

15. An ocean is the largest extent of water, nowhere entirely separated by land.

16. There are usually reckoned five oceans, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Northern or Arctic, and Southern or Antarctic oceans.

17. A sea is a smaller collection of water, communicat ing with an ocean.

18. A gulf or bay is a part of a sea extending up into the land.

19. A strait is a narrow channel, joining two seas, or one part of a sea with another.

20. A sound is a small sea so shallow that it may be sounded.

21. A lake is a large collection of water in the interior of a country.

22. A river is a large stream of water flowing into the sea, or into a lake, or into another river.

23. The right bank of a river is that which is on the right hand of one who is sailing down the river.

24. A frith or estuary is the widening of a river at its mouth into an arm of the sea.

25. The principal LITICAL Divisions of the earth are empires, kingdoms, and republics.

26. An empire is composed of several large countries. subject to one sovereign, styled an emperor.

27. A kingdom is generally less extensive than an em pire, and is subject to a king.

28. If the power of the emperor or king is limited by law, it is called a limited or constitutional monarchy ; if not limited, an absolute monarchy, or a despotism. 11. What is a peninsula ? 12. An isthmus? 13. A cape ? 14. How is water divided ? 15. What is an ocean? 16. How many are there? 17. What is a sea ? 18. A gulf or bay?

19. A strait? 20. A sound ? 21. A lake? 22. A river? 23. What is the right bank of a river? 24. What is a frith or estuary, 25. What are the principal political divisions of the earth? 26. What is an empire? 27. A kingdom? 28. What a limited and what an absolute monarchy?

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