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Books I to III
Partly in the Original and partly in the English
THE preparation of this edition of Aeneid I-III was the last of Mr. C. E. Freeman's many services to the Clarendon Press: the commentary and the section on metre in the Introduction are his work. Mr. H. C. Doherty, Assistant Master at Radley College, has given valuable help in revising the notes for press, and in reading the proofs: the book owes much to his suggestions. Special thanks are also due to Mr. James Rhoades for permission to use his admirable verse translation. C. B.
Printed in England
I. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF VIRGIL.
THE life of Virgil, who was born in 70 B. C. and died in 19 B. C., coincided almost exactly with the last great internal struggle at Rome, which was to put an end to the Republic and establish the constitutional monarchy of the Julian house. Ten years before his birth the first threat of tyranny had passed away with the death of Sulla, and from 80-60 B. C. the true issue was obscured by a series of smaller struggles between the democratic and aristocratic parties, manoeuvring, as it were, for position. But in 60 B. C. the great figure of Julius Caesar became predominant, and from that time till Virgil's death the political stage was held by Julius himself and his nephew Octavian. For ten years Caesar was absent in Gaul, extending and establishing the north-western provinces of the Empire, and consolidating a military power greater even than that of Marius and Sulla. When he returned, the conflict with the Republicans began at once and did not last long: the decisive victory was already won at Pharsalus in 48 B. C., though Caesar with characteristic thoroughness spent three more years in subduing all opposition in the provinces. When he returned to Rome after the victory at Munda in Spain in 45 B.C., he was unquestioned master of the situation, and set about the work of pacification and consolidation. It might well have seemed that the constitution of Rome was already changed and a new era begun. But the murder of Caesar on the Ides of March 43 B. C. gave new life to the loyal Republicans, and for a while they offered a successful resistance to M. Antonius, who at first assumed the lead, and then