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HISTORICAL NOTICES AND ORIGIN OF

CHRISTIANITY IN SUSSEX. Sussex is a maritime county, forming the southern extremity of Great Britain towards the east where it is bounded by Kent, and on the north by part of the same county and Surrey, on the west by Hampshire, and the south by the English channel.

Sussex is a derivation from its ancient Saxon name, Suthsex, which signifies the country of the South Saxons. Previously to the Roman invasion

it formed a part of the territories of the Regni or Rhenni, a tribe of ancient Britons, who were re. duced about the middle of the first century of the Christian era, by Vespasian, afterwards emperor of Rome.

Sussex, under the Roman government, belonged to the province of Britannia Prima, and contained the towns or_stations of Regnum or Regentium (Chichester), Portus Auderda (Pevensey), Ad Deci. mum, on the river Arun; Ad Lemanum, on the Rother; and Portus Adurin, probably Aldrington,

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neath the mouth of the Adur. Northward from the produce a net annual income of 75,5221 or 2821. coast proceeded the ancient road called Ermin-street; each : 122 curates receive 94401. yearly, or an aveand at Eastbourne, Bognor, and other places in Sus- rage stipend of 777. each. The Society for Building sex, have at different times been discovered tesselated Churches has made thirty-seven grants, amounting pavements, pottery, coins, and other Roman anti- to 52921., which increased the church-room 9681 sitquities.

tings. In the county of Sussex there are 322 churches Sussex lying so open to adventurers from the con- and chapels. tinent, the Britons acquired, after the departure of Nonconformist Churches in Sussex. The total the Romans in the middle of the fifth century, but a number of congregations is 98. Roman Catholics, precarious independence, and of transient duration. 7; Presbyterians, 7; Independents, 40; Baptists, For Ella, with a hostile band of Saxon Pagans, 13; Calvinistic Methodists, 6; Wesleyan Methodists, arrived at this coast in the year 477, and formed a 6; Quakers, 5. settlement on this part of the island in spite of the Contributions to Missionary and Bible Societies, resistance of its native inhabitants. Ella obtained a in 1834-5: complete victory over the Britons in 485, near Peven. Episcopalians.

£. şey, and in 490 took Anderida, the capital of An- Propagation Society 275 13 0 dreades Weald, an extensive district in the northern Church Missionary do. 900 3 1 part of the county, assuming then the title of king

-1175 16 1 of Sussex, or of the country of the South Saxons. Nonconformists. He appears to have been regarded with high respect London Missionary Soc. 474 12 7 on account of his power, and his superiority over Wesleyan Ditto

293 4 8 the other chiefs in the island is manifest, from his Baptist Ditto

48 14 5 being called in the Saxon Chronicle, “ Bretwalda,"

816 11 8 or “ Emperor of Britain."

British and Foreign Bible Society 893 5 1 Cissa, the son and successor of Ella, in 514, rebuilt on the site of Regnum, the city of Cissan-ceaster,

2885 12 10 whence the modern name Chichester, making it the Education in Sussex. Children in Infant Schools, capital of his kingdom. Under the succeeding kings, 1805 ; Daily, 31,072; Sunday, 21,434. Sussex became a very inconsiderable state, and after repeated contests with the West Saxons, it was con

STANSTEAD House, Sussex. quered in 728 by king Ina, and made a province of

Sussex contains a considerable number of royal Wessex, or the kingdom of the West Saxons. and noble mansions; among which we must notice Christianity is said to have been introduced among

the Royal Pavilion, Brighton ; Arundel Castle, bethe South Saxons by the following means:-Wilfrid, longing to the duke of Norfolk; Petworth Park, to the haughty bishop of York, having been disgraced the earl of Egremont; Goodwood to the duke of and banished in 686, found an asylum with Adel

Richmond; Penshurst Park, once the seat of the walch king of Sussex, who had been himself in- Sidneys; Eridge Castle, Parham Park, Stanmer structed in the form of Christianity as established

Park, Slindon House, and Sheffield Park. in several parts of England by the missionaries from STANSTEAD House, represented in our engraving, Rome, and had attempted to found a monastery and is the fine seat of the earl of Scarborough, situated convert his subjects. Wilfrid was therefore a wel. about eight miles north-west of Chichester. This come visitor; and his instructions were regarded noble mansion is encompassed with thick woods, from a remarkable incident. Not long after his

through which are cut the most agreeable vistas that arrival, the country was miserably distressed for are any where to be seen in England. That through want of provisions, and Wilfrid taught the people the west opening, before the front of the house, is the art of fishing in the sea, their previous skill ex- remarkably grand and beautiful: as the company, tending no further than the catching of eels. This

when seated in the dining-room, see the populous improvement greatly relieved them, and being thus town and the commodious harbour of Portsmouth, benefitted, they readily listened to his spiritual in- with the majestic ships of the royal navy lying structions. Wilfrid improved his influence thus ob

at Spithead and St. Helens. tained, and persuaded the people that his prayers prevailed for rain, which now fell plentifully after

HORSHAM CHURCH, Sussex. three years draught, and they looked upon him as a

Horsham is a town in Sussex of great antiquity ; person highly favoured of heaven. Adelwalch gave

as it is said to have derived the name from its him the peninsula of Selsey, where he founded a

famous resident Horsa, the brother of the Saxon monastery, aided by some monks who accompanied

chief, Hengist. him from the north, and established Selsey as a

Horsham parish church is dedicated to St. Mary; bishopric, which was at length removed and which

it is an ancient structure, and contains some fine old originated the bishopric of Chichester.

family monuments : its spire is lofty and covered

with lead and slate. The living is a vicarage, whose ECCLESIASTICAL STATISTICS IN Sussex. patron is the archbishop of Canterbury. Sussex is seventy-six miles long from east to west,

The population of Horsham in 1831, was 5105 and about twenty-six broad: it contains 1466 square

inhabitants. miles, 936,320 statute acres, 342 parishes, and in 1831, a population of 272,340. Its increase of in- Whether is most culpable, the drunkard who goes habitants may be judged of by the facts that in 1700 to hell with his eyes shut, or the more sober man who it was only 91,400; in 1750, it was 107,400; in 1801, goes with his eyes open; who, while he rails on the it was 159,311 ; in 1811, it was 190,083; in 1821, it drundard as a beast among men, yet can sit at home was 233,019.

or walk abroad in his dishabille, and see hundreds in Statistics of the Established Church. The diocese their Sunday clothes repairing to the house of God, of Chichester embraces 270 benefices, and 236,950 while himself is murdering away a whole Sabbath souls. The bishop has a net annual income of 42291, morning in dressing and doing nothing, but in makThe cathedral corporation consists of a dean and ing preparation for murdering the afternoon also. four canons, who divide the net annual income of (A reflection on a Sabbath morning.) 37211. In this diocese there are 270 benefices which Cambridge.

A CHURCHMAN.

THE BIBLE THE CHRISTIAN'S STANDARD. | time, and in the proper place, he cannot fail to let Concluded from page 379.

his light shine before men.

But the adherence to this standard is not less imWhat are some of the ADVANTAGES that would result portant to Christian decision than to Christiau confrom adopting and adhering to this rule ?

sistency. Wherefore is it that Christians when It would impose a powerful check upon religious | placed in circumstances of temptation so often yield, controversy. It admits of no question that the con- and thus shamefully violate convenant obligations, troversies which have existed in the church have and bring a reproach on the cause of Christ? Wherebeen some of the most formidable obstacles to the fore is it that they so often seem embarrassed as to progress of the Gospel; and amidst the disputes | what they ought to do, and, after reflecting, and which have arisen in respect to what religion is, hesitating, and counting the cost on one side and not multitudes have found it an easy matter to act upon on the other, finally do wrong? The great reason is the principle that it is nothing. Nay, there is scarcely that they are looking away from the perfect and unany point which infidels have made more prominent erring standard of God's word, to the low standards in their attacks on the Gospel, than the fact that its of human opinion. There is ordinarily no difficulty advocates could not agree in respect to its doctrines; in the case but what they themselves make; and and that what some professing Christians have re- they make it by turning their eye away from the garded as of great importance, others have rejected perfect rule of duty. That individual who makes as false. Now there is no question that this evil is it a rule to ask but this single question in respect to to be referred, more than to any other cause, to a any case in which he may be called to act-"What disposition to be wise above what is written; to sub- does God require me to do?"--will rarely be at a loss stitute human philosophy for the simple testimony in regard to the course he shall adopt. And, acting of God, or at least to add the one to the other. Let upon this principle, he will acquire a firmness of all who profess to be Christians consent to bring purpose which nothing can shake-he will have their opinions to this simple test, and instead of in- genuine decision of character- decision based on quiring what is, or what is not, consistent with some Christian principle. And while this will give an favourite system of human philosophy, let them energy and efficiency to all that he does, it will im. simply ask, “What saith the Lord" and rely on it, part to his general character an influence, the extent most of the controversies which exist in the church, of which it is not easy to calculate. Witness examwould be banished at once; and some who seem ples of this in Moses, and Daniel, and Paul, and a now to be at a distance from each other, would be host of martyrs, who valued their convictions of seen walking together in the love and fellowship of truth and duty so much, that, rather than abandon the Gospel.

them, they have marched fearlessly and triumphantly An adherence to the Gospel standard would con- to the stake. tribute much to Christian consistency and decision. An adherence to this great standard would be the A Christian may be said to be inconsistent, when best security against a false hope of an interest in one part of his conduct does not agree with another, Christ. There is always danger that persons will or when any part of it is at variance with the Word think themselves Christians when they are not so; of God. There are some men who profess a strong owing to the difficulty of dis'inguishing between regard to the truths of the Bible in conversation, true and false experience-a difficulty which arises who manifest but an equivocal regard for them in from the deceitfulness of the heart, and the power their lives. There are some who appear devout and wiles of the adversary. And while this danger without being charitable; and some who seem to be is incident to any period, it is especially incident to full of Christian sympathy and kindness, who never- a period of great excitement-such as that upon theless exhibit less relish for devotional services which the church at this day has fallen. It is no than could be desired. There are those too, who, doubt one of the great errors of the day that men are without evincing much positive regard for religion, encouraged to think themselves converted too soon ; by their worldliness, by their levity, by their oppo- and instead of proving themselves, they too often sition to good objects of various kinds, make the rely on the favourable opinion of their minister, or cause of the Redeemer bleed continually. Let a some other persons; and, there is reason to fear, professor of religion be in some respects exemplary; often settle down on a false foundation. It is imposlet him in certain departments of religious action sible, from the nature of the case, that any sufficient even be a model, and at the same time let his deport- evidence of Christian character should be gained in ment in other respects be loose and unedifying, and a moment, or a day, or a week. There may indeed, it is probable that the bad influence he exerts, will in so short a period, be much transport; there may preponderate over the good—the world who look on be bright visions of God and of heaven; and so too and scrutinize his conduct will find it much easier to they may prove to be not the visions of Christian account for what may seem good in it in consistency faith, but the delusions of a heated imagination, with his being a bad man, than for what may seem The scriptural evidence of regeneration is to be evil, and what really is evil, in consistency with his sought in holiness of heart and life. This always being a good man. Many a true Christian, no doubt, exists at first as a very feeble principle ; but it grawho has been influenced in the main by a sincere dually expands and developes itself, so that its existdesire to glorify Christ, and who has really brought ence may ultimately be known, if the Christian is forth much fruit to his honour, has greatly abridged faithful, with absolute assurance. Let the principle his good influence by being conformed in some re- be generally adopted, that the slightest change of spect to the world, or by being delinquent in some feeling, when the sinner is under conviction, or incourse of duty, of which perhaps he may have formed deed any change of feeling he can experience, is to a partial or erroneous estimate.

be taken as sufficient evidence of conversion, and Let the Christian take the Bible as his only stand- you will see the number multiplying on every side ard, and this evil he will of course effectually avoid. who are going down in the light, or rather the dark. Here are rules to guide him in every part of his ness, of a false hope, to the chambers of death; and conduct; and in adhering to them, he can exhibit let this be the evidence on which the doors of the no other can a consistent character. By doing the visible church are open to receive communicants, various duties which devolve upon him, at the proper ) and you may rest assured that there will soon be an amount of spurious religion in the church, which fort that may really belong to them—that of hoping will be just cause for her putting on the garments of that they have been born of the Spirit. sackcloth.

A proper regard to the Bible as a standard of faith The only way of guarding against this evil, is to and conduct would minister greatly to all the inte. refer all religious experience, or all that purports to rests of the church. On the one hand, it would keep be such, to the unerring standard. Each one must out error ; on the other, it would secure the prevado this for himself, if he will not run the hazard of lence of truth in all its greatness and power. It being found at last with the hypocrite's hope. And would make men earnest in defence of the faith once so too ministers and Christians must do the same delivered to the saints; and would induce a spirit thing in respect to others, especially in seasons of of gentleness and kindness towards those whom revival, when, from the strong excitement that often they regard in error. It would increase a deep, an exists, there is extreme danger of self-deception. carnest, and a glowing piety, while it would banish When an individual begins to express a hope that inconsistency, irreverence, and delusion. It would he has obtained God's gracious forgiveness, while put out the wild-fire of fanaticism, while it would he receives all the encouragement the case will war- cause the fire of true devotion, of holy zeal, of rant, let him be distinctly admonished of the deceit- genuine love to God and man, to burn with increasfulness of the heart, of the importance of self-exami. ing fervour. It would render the church every nation, and especially of his trying himself not by where, one bright field of Gospel order. It would, the opinions of men, but by the perfect standard of more than any thing else, nourish the spirit of God's word. And we cannot repress the conviction genuine revivals. It would set Christians to labourthat, if all were to be withdrawn from the church, ing and praying, sinners to mourning and repenting, who have come in in consequence of judging them- and the angels to rejoicing and triumphing: Let selves by a wrong standard, we should find a large the Bible then be all in all. Take it, Christian, as accession to the ranks of those who are confessedly the rule of your faith, of your conduct, and of your strangers to the power of religion.

experience, and you will have nothing to fear as it An adherence to the standard furnished by God's respects your influence or your destiny. But take word, would save true Christians from forming any thing else, or adopt this but partially, and if erroneous estimates of their own spiritual condition. you are not a mere cumberer of the ground, you

Every Christian knows, and must know by sad certainly will not be a flourishing plant of righteous. experience, that good men are liable to grievous

ness ;

if

you do not actually lose your soul, it will backsliding; and sometimes they wander long before be saved only as by fire. they are reclaimed. Now it often happens that the Christian backslides while he is scarcely sensible of it. And the reason is, that he is not comparing his feelings and conduct with the divine rule; but is

MY SCRAP BOOK. looking to the opinions and example of his fellow In this way he imperceptibly declines, and is

LEAF XCVII. scarcely sensible of any change in his spiritual con- “ The Bee that wanders, and sips from every Aower, disdition, till he finds himself at a great distance from poses wbat she has gathered into her cells."-SENECA. God, and begins to doubt whether his previous experience has not been delusion.

MR. HARDCASTLE'S LETTERS FROM But in this state he is again liable to be misled by

PRISON. looking at a wrong standard. It has been specially

Continued from page 381. common in latter years for Christians who may have been cold or backslidden in seasons of unusual ex

LETTER VIII. citement, to give up their hopes, and proclaim to Dearly Beloved the world their conviction that they had hitherto Our condition seems to be as various as April been strangers to the renewing grace of God. No weather, sometimes showers and sometimes sundoubt there are cases in which à false hope is de- shine, and both necessary towards a spring; and of tected in such circumstances, and then surely it is such influence must we esteem and account the right to abandon it; but it may be doubted, even diversity of the Lord's dispensations to us : all of then, whether more harm than good will not result them working together for our further thriving, from the fact being published to the world : better, flourishing, and prospering in the house and ways we verily believe, that the world should learn the of God.

** I hope through the blessing change from a subsequent change of conduct than of God, when the storm is a little over, you will see from any professions, which have almost always the a great deal of fruit that is worth gathering up. The appearance of ostentation. But the remark which word of God is not bound. Persecuting times have we were about to make is, that Christians, from been converting times : and the wall was built in looking away from the true standard, may sometimes troublous times. As the gospel takes notice in whose too readily cast away their hope, and write bitter reign and government our Lord Jesus was born and things against themselves. If you look into the suffered, so in due time you will find that many will Bible, you will find that David, and Job, and other date their spiritual birth, their love to the things of holy men, were subject to seasons of desertion, and God, their confirmation in the truths of God, from temptation, and spiritual despondency; and one such a year, the first year that such a Bishop came reason why these things are recorded respecting to town; such man being governor of the city that them is, that they may help the faith and encourage year, &c. See Luke iii. 1, 2. This hath been a year the hope of other Christians in similar circum- of the Right Hand of the Most High, and it ought stances. It seems to be part of the economy of to be ever remembered, and never forgotten. I have sanctification that Christians should sometimes have heard that you have had the plague in this city, their seasons of darkness and trial; and though which sent 'many to their graves, and some fires during such seasons there may be special reason that consumed dwelling houses; and I hope you why they should inspect closely the evidence of have not forgotten them, nor what was the Lord's their discipleship, they are not warranted, they are design in them. But of all plagues, none like the not permitted, for a light reason, to refuse the com. locusts that come out of the bottomless pit, and the

men.

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