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the crogs. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETA the world, like Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon THE KING OF THE JEWS. This title then read many (See Dan. ii. 3). Divine Providence, therefore, emof the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified ployed him to overthrow the wicked kings of Egypt was nigh to the city : and it was written in Hebrew, and Persia, and of many other countries. This he and Greek, and Latin" (John xxi. 19, 20).
did so effectually, about three hundred and thirty Teacher. Pilate was a Roman; and you must re- years before the birth of our Saviour, that in a few member that Latin was the language of the Romans. years, and before he had attained the age of thirty,
Scholar. But why did Pilate write the title of our he believed that he had mastered all the kings of the Saviour in Latin ?
earth. Teacher. Pilate wrote the title in Latin because Scholar. I should like to read about Alexander of the many Romans who were living at Jerusalem, the Great. But was Alexander made happy when soldiers and other persons.
he became master of all the world ? Scholar. And why did Pilate write the title in Teacher. O, no : he was grievously disappointed Greek?
and unhappy ; and as he delighted in war, he wept Teacher. Pilate wrote in Greek on account of with vexation of spirit that there was not another the number of Jews who visited Jerusalem from the
world to conquer. cities of the Greeks, among whom they had been Scholar. But did Alexander the Great make all born and brought up, and whose language they had the people in the world learn the Greek language? learnt; as the Jews in England have learnt English: Teacher. No; this would have been impossible: these Jews who visited Jerusalem at the Passover but he established his government over all the conwere called Greeks. Read John xii. 20.
quered countries; and, by his officers and people, he Scholar. “ And there were certain Greeks among introduced the Greek language into the several new them; that came up to worship at the feast." These cities which he built, particularly Alexandria in Greeks then, I suppose, could not speak any other Egypt, where one hundred thousand Jews went and language ?
settled, having been promised the enjoyment of all Teacher. This is not stated : however, their native the privileges of the Macedonians. These, theretongue must have been more familiar with them than fore, mingling with the Greeks, learnt their language Hebrew, which their forefathers had used in Judea. for the sake of trade and other advantages; like as
Scholar. Pilate wrote the title in Hebrew, I sup- the Jews learn our_language when they settle, on pose, because that was the language of the people at account of trade, in England. Jerusalem.
Scholar. Did Alexander the Great live to be very Teacher. Hebrew was the language of writing aged ? among the learned Jews at Jerusalem ; though the Teacher. Ah, no: Alexander became grossly adpeople of Judea used to converse at the time of our dicted to drunkenness and other sins; and through Saviour's death in a language that was a mixture of those vile indulgences he died when he was only Hebrew and Syriac.
thirty-two years of age, 323 years before the birth of Scholar. What then was the first language of the our Saviour. Bible ?
Scholur. Alexander then, must have been a very Teacher. You know that the Bible is in two prin- wicked man; but who took the kingdom after the cipal parts, the Old Testament, and the New Testa- death of Alexander the Great? ment: they were not written in the same languages, Teacher. Alexander's empire was seized and as you will learn from the title pages of both parts of shared by four of his principal generals, who then the Bible. Read them both:
formed out of it four powerful monarchies, one of the Scholar. “The Holy Bible, containing the Old chief of which was Égypt. But in all these king. and New Testaments; translated out of the original doms, the language of the governments and of their tongues.” The title to the Testament is, “The public officers was Greek: multitudes, therefore, New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus learnt that language as a matter of interest, and this Christ: translated out of the original Greek." became the occasion, under the wise direction of
Teacher. Hebrew was the language in which the Providence, of preparing the nations to receive Chrisinspired penmen wrote the Old Testament: but the tianity, and of writing in that tongue the several apostles and evangelists wrote the several books of books of the New Testament, the New Testament in Greek.
Scholar. I thought that the evangelists and apostles were Jews of Judea!; and that their language was Hebrew.
ILLUSTRATION OF SCRIPTURE. Teacher. You thought correctly: but the apostles
THE DEAD SEA COVERING SODOM, GOMORRAH, AND OTHER were inspired by the Holy Spirit, not only to preach in different languages, which they had never before learnt, as you remember was the case on the day of
« And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, Pentecost, mentioned in the second chapter of the
and burning, that it is not sown, nor beareth, nor any Acts; but they were directed to write the New Tes- grass groweth therein, like the over throw of Sodom, and tament Scriptures in Greek : and for this there were
Gomorrab, Admah, and Zeboim, which he LORD overseveral reasons which most remarkably display the
threw in his anger, and in his wrath."-Deut. xxix. 23. infinite wisdom and goodness of God.
Oh! that I had the pen of a ready writer, or could Scholar, What were those reasons which led to speak with a tongue of fire to the unbeliever, that I the writing of the New Testament books in Greek? might convey to him a faithful picture of this de
T'eacher. My answer will lead m to peak of a voted region, or shadow of death. No language can famous Grecian king, called “ Alexander the Great.” sufficiently describe the mournful devastation which
Scholar. I have seen a picture of Alexander the reigns around, as an eternal memorial of those curses Great.
denounced against it, or express that most solemn Teacher. Alexander, that extraordinary Grecian, horror the scene is so well calculated to inspire. was king of Macedon, a small province which now Truly may it be considered as “an astonishment to forms part of Turkey in Europe: but he was a man every one that passeth by it,” and an appalling monuof boundless ambition, and wanted to be master of ment of the consuming wrath of God, when its in
habitants were brought into desolation in a moment,
REVIEW. and consumed with terror; and it holds out a dreadful warning to mankind, that they may know and Lectures on the Means of Promoting and Preservunderstand, however marvellous it may appear in ing Health, delivered at the Mechanic's Institute, their eyes, that the mighty Lord hath done this, Spitalfields. By T. HODGKIN, M.D. pp. xiv.who maketh himself known by the judgments he 449, 18mo. cloth. London: J. and J. Arch. executes. On drawing to the spot, there was found no
SEVERAL years have elapsed since Dr. Hodgkin dehiding-place from the wind, or covert from the tem
livered these lectures to the mechanics of Spitalfields. pest. À profound silence, awful as death, broods They have, however, been but recently published, over the lake, interrupted only by the dreary sound of its waters, darkened as they rolled before the They must have been highly beneficial to those who wind that blew strong at the time, and which, ac
heard them delivered; and they cannot fail to be companied with lightning, thunder, and rain, added productive of the most salutary effects by all who to the impending gloom of the high surrounding
will read them. mountains. The latter appeared as if guarding the
“ These Lectures," says Dr. Hodgkin,
are de whole extent of water, and were those to which the signed for that class of readers for whom the series angels called upon Lot to escape with his family,
of publications, styled the Working MAN's Comlest they might be consumed in the city. At this
PANION,' has been commenced by the Society for the moment, after reading from the inspired record the
Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. At the same time, description of that event, on the dismal vestiges, and
must observe, that as I cannot contemplate their indeed vouchers, on which I gazed, surrounded by being wholly confined to the hands of individuals of my savage guards, I became rivetted to the spot in
that class, I have not rigidly restricted myself to silent wonder, and shaking like the aspen leaf, under
those materials which are exclusively or peculiarly a feeling as if I had been brought to the very verge
adapted to them.” of the habitable world, and did "exceedingly fear
Next to the sacred subject of religion, that of and quake." What awful woe and destruction in
“promotir.g and preserving health” must be acknowone moment, visited by Him who merely :: speaks therefore, cannot fail to be attractive, and no one can
ledged to be most important; the title of this volume, and it is done." The dwellings of men laid in one mass of ruins, herds, flocks, and substance all
read it attentively without profit. destroyed; the inhabitants who so lately revelled in
These Lectures are four in number, with “notes" every folly, sensuality, and vanity, now annihilated;
and an “appendix." The first lecture treats on the soil burned up and engulphed in a lake of brim
“Air, Light, Cleanliness, and Clothing;" the second stone, the very smoke of the whole country ascend
on the “ Articles of Food, Solid and Fluid;" the ing, as that of a furnace."
third on “ Muscular Motion and Intellectual FaculThis lake is eighty miles in length, and about
ties;” the fourth on “ Successive Generations and
the Education of Youth." twenty in breadth, and in the form of a bow. The specific gravity of the water exceeds that of all
To give an adequate and a worthy representation others which have been analysed, and the mud is
of the many various and interesting topics introduced fetid and black. Science has reason to deplore that
and illustrated in these Lectures, under the aboveno vessel has been on this lake, when persons might mentioned divisions is impossible; and though Dr. navigate the lake, and explore every part of its coast.
Hodgkin does by no means assume the character The smell of the water is most offensive, and similar
and office of the preacher of the gospel, his regard to that of Harrowgate, or bilge and vegetable water
for the principles of Divine Revelation are manifest mixed with rotten eggs. No fish was ever seen in
throughout his volume. We have only to add, that it. Now what application should we make of the
Dr. Hodgkin is highly esteemed as a skilful physidreadful visitation that occurred? How greatly have
cian, and he is a member and ornament of the we not too provoked the judgment of God, and what Society of Friends. warnings afforded us-instructions of righteousness given and what means of grace vouchsafed ? Let us then also take heed lest we like them should
The Sunday School Devotional Assistant, consisting weary the long suffering of God, and draw down on our heads similar vengeance.
of Prayers and Hymns. 32mo, roan. Religious Here would I address
Iract Society. myself to sceptics, scoffers, and free-thinkers, sitting at ease in carnal security, and applying to their soul HOWEVER expressive the title of this little volume, a flattering unction, also blinding the eyes of others, few on reading it would form a correct idea of its and shaking their well grounded faith in the Word excellent contents. It seems specially designed for of God. I pray you then to contemplate this place, Sunday-schools connected with the church of Engmarked by the vengeance of God, which turned | land; as it contains, in the first part, twenty-eight populous cities into a desolation and wildernessma well adapted forms of prayers for opening and closing land wherein none dwelleth. Here I feel confident the school on the Sabbath, and for special occasions ; your lofty imaginations would be laid low with the in the second part six Sunday-school litanies, or dust, to the very centre will you be shaken, and con- prayers for opening and closing the school, with reviction would seize upon your deluded minds, as you sponses to be repeated by the children while read as gazed upon the ashes of destruction which lie scat- prayers by the teachers. The third part contains a tered around, demonstrative evidence of the truth of selection of one hundred and eighty-eight choice that revelation against which your envenomed shafts hymns suited for the object designed. have been so frequently discharged, when it declares Whether this little work shali be fully adopted or the being of that power which on this very spot you not, the reading of it will well repay the Sundaymay behold manifested, and be taught a lesson you
school teacher. We believe the price is only eight. so much need, that " it is a fearful thing to fall into pence. the hands of the living God.”—Rae Wilson's Travels in Judea, Galilee, and Samaria.
THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS,
Favour'd with heav'nly light, God's oracles
Defild with ev'ry crime; stain'd with the blood
Yet this Jerusalem, “Lloody city,"
O the riches of that mercy, which mov'd
Still from these “men of blood,” thousands, called
Led by the Spirit, now Peter and John
The temple gate, whose splendid beauty drew Admiring crowds, they enter'd: when a wretch,A cripple from his entrance into life, Seated upon the marble steps, as wont To show his wither'd limbs, and ask the boon Kind charity is ready to bestow Upon the miserable sons of need, Caught their attention, and with tears besought Their gen'rous alms. His wants they soon relieved: Not as he expected : earthly treasure They possess'd not: revenues they had none : Yet freely they imparted precious gifts, Imperishable, to enrich for ever.
With fastend eyes on him who sought relief, Thus Peter :-“ Šilver and gold have I none: “I have no shining hoard of worshipp'd wealth; “ But such as I possess, I give to thee: “ In the name of Christ - Jesus of Naz'reth, “ Rise and walk henceforth in health and vigour." The pow'r of Christ invok'd, the limbs restor’d:
The cripple felt communicated life;
The multitudes beheld the marv'lous cure :
Solomon's porch was crowded : while the man Restor'd to health and soundness, firmly held His benefactors. The people wond'ring, Knew not how to leave the affecting sight; When Peter thus:-“ Ye men of Israel, why
ye so marvel at the cure we've wronght? Why so earnestly on us your eyes now Turn, as though by pow'r or holiness we
Possess, had made this man to walk ? Hear me: “ The God of Abra'am, and of Isaac, and “Of Jacob, the God of all our fathers “ Hath glorified his Son—that same Jesus “ Whom ye deliver'd up, denying Him “ Before Pilate, when he purpos'd granting “ His just release. But ye denied the Just, “ The Holy One; and sought a murderer “ To be enlarg'd, -and kill'd the Prince of life, “ Whom God hath raised up from death, of which “ Event most glorious, we are witnesses.
“By his most holy name the cure was wrought: Through faith in Jesus, perfect soundness he Enjoys before you all. And now, brethren,
As you through ignorance, yet criminal, “ You and your rulers did the guilty deed, (you, “Through sovereign grace there still is hope for “For the dire act which you have madly done.
“Our God before had show'd by prophet's lips “ And pen, as you have read, Messiah's griefs “ Foretold. Therefore, as our command to seek “ Your welfare is, we preach,-repent-and be “ Converted, that your sins, though numberless, “ And crying up to heav'n, may be blotted, “ As with a cloud, -a thick clond of mercy, “ When the refreshing times shall come to you, “ From the presence of the Lord; and Jesus, “ Who before was preach'd to you, by the mouth “ Of all his prophets since the world began !
Indulge no black despair. You are children “ Of prophets, and of the holy covenant “Made with our fathers, in which the record “ Stands in gracious promise to Abraham“In thy seed shall all the kindreds of men « « On earth be bless'd.'—To you first, our God,
Having rais'd his Son from death, has sent Him “ To bless you, in turning every one from “ His iniquities, to hope for glory."
To be continued.
London : Printed by JAMES S. HONSON, at his residence, No.
15, Cross Street, Hatton Garden, and Published by him at 112, Fleet Street ; where all communications for the Editor (post paid) are to be addressed ; sold also by Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., and by all other Booksellers, Newsvenders, &c. in the King
dom. The trade may be supplied in London, by STBILL,Paternoster Row ;
BKROKR, Holywell Street, Strand ; in Manchester, by Ellerby : Sheffield, Innocent ; Nerocastle-upon-Tyne, Finley and Charlton Liverpool, Arnold.
THE ROYAL CASTLE, WINDSOR.
queror," having gained the throne of England, took
great pleasure in the situation of Windsor, gave some BRIEF descriptions of several of the royal palaces in lands in Essex to the abbey of Westminster in ex. England have already been given in preceding num- charge for Windsor, and built here a hunting seat. bers of the Christian's Penny Magazine. These, It subsequently became the seat of extensive honour. we are assured, have been read with pleasure by William kept the festival of Whitsuntide here in many, and we have been requested to notice the 1071 ; and the following year a synod was held at whole of those occupied by the kings of England. Windsor, in which the province of York was made
Residences of royalty have not generally been dis- subject to Canterbury. tinguished for their immediate connexion with the Henry I. rebuilt and considerably enlarged this progress of the life and power of scriptural Christia. house, and thus laid the foundation for this vast edinity ; but those of England, at least in a degree equal fice, attaching to it a chapel. In the tenth year of to palaces of any other country, and perhaps greater, his reign he kept his Whitsuntide therein, attended have associated with their history many particulars by the chief nobility and prelates in the kingdom. relating to ecclesiastical affairs.
Here, in 1122, he celebrated his marriage with his WINDSOR, a handsome town in Berkshire, beauti- second queen, Adelais of Lorraine. A parliament fully situated on the river Thames, twenty-two miles was held in this fortress under Henry II. in 1170, at from London, is pre-eminent for a seat of royalty in which William the Lion, king of Scotland, and his its magnificent castle. This grand and truly royal brother David, attended as feudal barons of the realm. edifice, is justly celebrated as the most stately and When Richard I. went upon his romantic expedition splendid palace in England,
to the Holy Land, he put the government of the Westminster abbey is associated with the early kingdom into the hands of the bishops of Durham history of Windsor ; for in the time of the Saxons, it and Ely, the latter of whom resided in the tower of belonged to the holy fraternity of that great estab. London, and the former at Windsor, regarding it as lishment. It was given to the abbot of Westminster the second strongest place in England. by Edward, on account of his vow of celibacy, sur- Henry III, made additions to the fortifications of named “the Confessor.” Perhaps it may not be Windsor castle; and during the war between that out of place to remark, that this unworthy prince, on king and his nobles, in 1263, prince Edward garriaccount of his subserviency to the priesthood, is re- soned the castle with foreign troops, who nearly ported to have been honoured after death, by numer- destroyed the town, and ravaged the neighbouring ous miracles being wrought at his tomb, and after country; but the same year the fortress was surrenhis bones had mouldered in the grave more than two dered to the insurgent nobility. A grand tournahundred
years, he was canonized by pope Alexander ment was held at Windsor park July 9, in the sixth III., under the title of “St. EDWARD THE CON- year of Edward I.; and that monarch and his son FESSOR."
Edward II., frequently resided in the castle, which William, duke of Normandy, styled the “ Con- was the birth - place of several of their children,
among whom the most celebrated was king Edward ascent by a flight of stone steps. Here is the guardIII.; hence called by historians Edward of Windsor. room, or armory, over the chimney of which are This prince showed his regard for the place of his sculptured the star and garter, encompassed with nativity by the improvements he made in both the daggers and pistols, symmetrically arranged. The town and the castle, but especially the latter, which, lower ward, which is more extensive than the upper, with the exception of three towers at the west end is separated into two parts by St. George's chapel, of the lower ward, he caused to be rebuilt. Royal which occupies its centre. On the north side of the commissions were issued for appointing surveyors lower ward are the houses and apartments of the and impressing workmen for the execution of this dean and canons of Windsor, and on the west side great undertaking; and in 1356, William of Wyke- the houses of the poor knights of Windsor. The royal ham, then one of the king's chaplains, and after- apartments are on the north side of the court, called wards bishop of Winchester, was appointed clerk of the star building, from its exterior embellishment of the works with ample powers, and a fee of one shil- the star and garter. The entrance is from the upper ling a-day whilst at Windsor, and two shillings when ward through a handsome vestibule, in which great he went elsewhere on business: his clerk had a alterations have been made by Sir Jeffrey Wyatville. salary of three shillings a-week. In 1359 the powers The principal rooms of this magnificent suite are the of the architect were augmented, and he was ap- queen's guard-chamber, the queen's presence-cham. pointed keeper of the manors of Old and New Wind- ber, the queen's audience chamber, the ball-room, sor.
The following year 360 workmen were im- the queen's drawing-room, the queen's bed chamber, pressed for this service, some of whom having quitted the room of beauties, the queen's dressing-room, their situations for others where they obtained higher queen Elizabeth's, or the picture-gallery, the king's wages, an ordinance was issued forbidding persons bed-chamber, the king's drawing-room, the king's from employing them on pain of forfeiting all their public dining-room, the king's audience-chamber, goods and chattels, and directing that the fugitive the king's presence-chamber, and the king's guardworkmen should be apprehended and sent to New- The castle is situated on a high hill, comgate. Fresh orders were sent in 1362 to the sheriffs manding the Thames; and around it is a terrace, the of several counties, to procure 302 masons and dig- declivity leading to which is faced with a rampart of gers of stone for the king's works; and in 1363, free-stone, extending 1870 feet. Opposite the Long orders were given to impress glaziers. About 1373 Walk is the entrance gateway, on the east side of the buildings appear to have been completed, com- which is the York Tower, and on the west side the prising the king's palace, the great hall of St. George, Lancaster Tower, which was built in 1824, by Sir the lodgings on the east and south sides of the upper Jeffrey Wyatville. Immediately fronting this gateward, the round tower, the chapel of St. George, the way is the principal entrance to the state apartments. canons' houses in the lower ward, and the whole circumference of the walls with the towers and gates.
ST. GEORGE'S CHAPEL, WINDSOR CASTLE. The castle continued to be the frequent residence of St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, so called beof the successors of Edward III. ; several of whom cause dedicated to " St. George,” is regarded as one from time to time made various alterations in the of the most beautiful and magnificent Gothic strucbuildings, and especially Henry VII.; and by order tures in Europe. Its inside is exquisitely wrought of Elizabeth was constructed the terrace-walk on the with various ornaments, and its external appearance north side of the castle. George III. frequented strikes every beholder with an air of inexpressible Windsor more than his immediate predecessors, and majesty and grandeur. under his direction, and in great part from his privy St. George's Chapel may be ascribed to Henry I. purse, St. George's chapel was completely repaired, as its original founder ; but it was rebuilt by Henry and the north front of the upper ward was partially | III., and again by Edward III., and the present restored to its original appearance. The long illness i truly interesting and splendid pile was commenced by of the king interrupted the progress of the works of order of Edward IV. under the direction of Richard improvement, which were resumed and prosecuted Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury; it was continued on an extensive scale after the accession of George by Sir Reginald Bray, supposed to have been the IV. In 1823, the alterations were commenced by architect of Henry the Seventh's chapel at Westminpulling down two buildings, called Augusta Lodge, ster, and was completed in the reign of Henry VIII, and Queen's Lodge, the latter of which had been the beautiful roof of the choir having been executed erected by Sir William Chambers. In the spring of in 1508; and the rood-loft and lantern were erected 1824, a parliamentary grant of 300,0001. was voted in 1516. This chapel was founded for a collegiate for the general improvement of the castle, and the establishment, belonging to which are a dean, twelve execution of the undertaking was intrusted to Sir canons, seven minor canons, and thirteen clerks, Jeffrey Wyatville. Subsequent grants have raised with various officers. It is an elegant cruciform the sum appropriated for the buildings alone to structure, displaying the latest and most highly orna771,0001. The castle in its present state consists of mental style of pointed architecture. The windows two courts or wards, between which is the keep or are decorated with stained glass, the great east winround tower; the whole occupying about twelve dow exhibiting a fine painting, designed by West, acres of ground, and having batteries and bastions and executed by Jarvis and Forest; and over the for defence. The upper ward consists of a spacious altar is a representation of the Last Supper, painted quadrangle, bounded on the west by the round tower, by West, and reckoned among his finest productions. on the north by the royal apartments, St. George's At the east end of the chapel is the royal tomb-house, hall, and the chapel ; and on the east and south by a distinct building, commenced by Henry VII., carthe chambers appropriated for the officers of state. ried on by cardinal Wolsey, who designed it for his In the area of this ward is a bronze statue of Charles own sepulchre ; and after it had been furnished as a II. on horseback, executed by Steda, at the expense Catholic chapel by order of James II. it was disused of Tobias Rustat, esq., in 1680; the pedestal of which till 1800, when it was repaired and fitted up as a is ornamented with carving in basso-relievo by Grin- mausoleum for the royal family, and in it are inling Gibbons. The keep or central tower is the terred George III. and George IV., besides several lodging of the constable or governor of the fortress; of their descendants. and it is built in an amphitheatrical form, with an