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VOLCANIC ISLANDS.

even of those who boast of their cultivated reason, to

regard them with brutish insensibility. MYSTERIOUS and inscrutable are many of the dispen- “ Man," says the pious Rollin,“ lives in the sations of Divine Providence. Nevertheless, as the midst of a world of which he is the sovereign, as a Psalmist declares of our glorious Creator, though stranger who looks with indifference upon all that

clouds and darkness are round about him, justice passes in it, and as if it was not his concern. The and judgment are the habitation of his throne.” universe, in all its parts, declares and points out its

Records of those dispensations are given through. Author; but, for the most part, to the deaf and blind, out the historical parts of the Holy Scriptures, and who have neither ears to hear, nor eyes to see. One their monumental exhibitions are found in various of the greatest services that philosophy can do for parts of the globe, londly proclaiming and fearfully us, is to awaken us from this drowsiness, and rouse illustrating the absolute sovereignty and the right- us from this lethargy, which is a dishonour to humaeous administration of the Lord God Almighty ! nity, and in a manner reduces us below the beasts,

Infinite wisdom and goodness united with awful whose stupidity is the consequence of their nature, justice may be discovered in many of the works of and not the effect of neglect or indifference. It God: but it is lamentably common, for not a few awakens our curiosity, it excites our attention, and

VOL. V.

RR

small islands : for instance

in Italy, Sicip, Icelana, * Imagine an immense body of smoke rising from

leads us, as it were by the hand, through all the only burst forth two days prior to our approach, and parts of nature, to induce us to study and search out about three miles distant from the one before alluded the wonderful works of it."

to. Vesuvius and the instructive phenomena of that “Desirous of examining as minutely as possible a prodigious monument of the works of God, recently contention so extraordinary between two such power. engaged the contemplation of the readers of the ful elements, I set off from the city of Ponta del Christian's Penny Magazine ; but they are now pre- Gada on the morning of the 14th, in company with sented with a subject for meditation still more mys- Mr Read, the consul general of the Azores, and two terious—the existence and formation of Volcanic other gentlemen. After riding about twenty miles Islands,

across the NW. end of the island of St. Michael's

, That fires to an enormous extent, and produced by we came to the edge of a cliff from whence the volvarious causes, do exist at different depihs beneath cano burst suddenly upon our view in the most territhe surface of the earth, is manifest from the history fic and awful grandeur. It was only a short mile and present state of Mount Vesuvius. Earthquakes from the base of the cliff, which was nearly perpenand volcanoes are among the most wonderful pheno-dicular, and formed the margin of the sea : this cliff mena of our globe, and are, in all probability, modi- being as nearly as I could judge from three to four fications of one common cause. Volcanoes are found hundred feet high. To give you an adequate idea of in almost all parts of the world, but most commonly the scene by description is far beyond my powers ;

and

but for your it Japan, the Caribbees, the Cape de Verd islands, the the sea, the surface of which was marked by the Canaries, the Lipari islands, and the Azores.

silvery rippling of the waves, occasioned by the light Illustrations of the formation of volcanic islands and steady breezes incidental to those climates in might be taken from several parts of the world, and summer. In a quiescent state, it had the appearance from different periods of its history. Among the of a circular cloud revolving on the water like an writers of antiquity who have transmitted accounts horizontal wheel, in various and irregular involuof islands which have thus started up to the asto- tions, expanding itself gradually on the lee side, nished spectator, Seneca asserts, that, in his time, when suddenly a column of the blackest cinders, the island of Theresea, in the Egean sea, was seen ashes, and stones would shoot up in form of a spire to rise in this manner, by some mariners who were at an angle of from ten to twenty degrees from a sailing near the point of ascent. Pliny gives a yet perpendicular line, the angle of inclination being more wonderful account: for he says, that in the universally to windward : this was rapidly succeeded Mediterranean thirteen islands at once emerged by a second third, and fourth, each acquiring greater from the sea, the cause of which he ascribes rather velocity, and overtopping the other till they had to the retiring of the waters, than to any subterra- attained an altitude as much above the level of our nean energy; but he speaks of the island of Hiera, eye, as the sea was below it. near to that of Theresea, as formed by subterraneous “As the impetus with which the columns were explosions, and enumerates several others as derived severally propelled, diminished, and their ascending from a similar origin.

motion had nearly ceased, they broke into various One illustration, however, must suffice for our pre- branches resembling a group of pines, these again sent purpose, and this shall be of a modern date, and forming themselves into festoons of white feathery relating to the Azores. These islands are believed smoke in the most fanciful manner imaginable, into be all of volcanic origin : they are nine in number, termixed with the finest particles of falling ashes

, St. Michael, St. Maria, Tercera, St. George, Gra. which at one time assumed the appearance of innucioso, Fayal, Pico, Flores, and Corvo. They are merable plumes of black and white ostrich feathers situated in the Atlantic ocean; and though nearly surmounting each other; at another, that of the light equidistant from Europe, Africa, and America, they wavy branches of a weeping willow. are considered as belonging to Africa, yet are some. “During these bursts, the most vivid flashes of what nearer to Europe, and they belong to Portugal. lightning continually issued from the densest part of St. Michael is the largest, being upwards of sixty the volcano; and the cloud of smoke now ascending miles in circumference, and contains about 80,000 to an altitude much above the highest point to which inhabitants.

the ashes were projected, rolled off in large masses Captain Tillard of the royal navy gave the follow- of fleecy clouds, gradually expanding themselves be ing account, in a communication to the Royal So- fore the wind in a direction nearly horizontal, and ciety :

drawing-up to them a quantity of water-spouts, Approaching," says he, “ the island of St. which formed a most beautiful and striking addition Michael's, on Sunday, June 12, 1811, in his majesty's to the general appearance of the scene. sloop Sabrina under my command, we occasionally “ That part of the sea where the volcano was observed, rising in the horizon, two or three columns situated, was upwards of thirty fathoms deep, and at of smoke, such as would have been occasioned by an the time of our viewing it the volcano was only four action between two ships, to which cause we univer

days old.

Soon after our arrival on the cliff, a peasally attributed its origin. This opinion was, how- sant observed he could discern a peak above the ever, in a very short time changed, from the smoke water : we looked, but could not see it; howerer, in increasing and ascending in much larger bodies than less than half an hour it was plainly visible, and could possibly have been produced by such an event; before we quitted the place, which was about three and having heard an account, prior to our sailing hours from the time of our arrival, a complete crater from Lisbon, that in the preceding January or Feb- was formed above the water, not less than twenty, ruary a volcano had burst out within the sea near feet high on the side where the greatest quantity of St. Michael's, we immediately concluded that the ashes feel; the diameter of the crater being appasmoke we saw proceeded from that cause, and on rently about four or five hundred feet. our anchoring next morning in the road of Ponta del “ The great eruptions were generally attended Gada, we found this conjecture correct as to the with a noise like the continued firing of cannon and cause, but not to the time; the eruption of January musquetry intermixed, as also with slight shocks of having totally subsided, and the present one having earthquakes, several of which having been felt by my companions, but none by myself, I had become It was filled with water, at that time boiling, and half sceptical, and thought their opinion rose merely was emptying itself into the sea by a small stream from the force of imagination; but while we were about six yards over, and by which I should suppose sitting within five or six yards of the edge of the it was continually filled again at high water. This cliff, partaking of a slight repast which had been stream, close to the edge of the sea, was so hot, as brought with us, and were all busily engaged, one only to admit the finger to be dipped suddenly in, of the most magnificent bursts took place which we and taken out again immediately. had yet witnessed, accompanied by a very severe “ It appeared evident, by the formation of this shock of an earthquake. The instantaneous and in- part of the island, that the sea had, during the erupvoluntary movement of each was to spring upon his tions, broke into the crater in two places, as the east feet, and I said, “This admits of no doubt. The side of the small stream was bounded by a precipice, words had scarce passed my lips, before we observed a cliff between twenty and thirty feet high forming a a large portion of the face of the cliff, about fifty peninsula of about the same dimensions in width, yards on our left, falling, which it did with a violent and from fifty to sixty feet long, connected with the crash. So soon as our first consternation had a little other part of the island by a narrow ridge of cinders subsided, we removed about ten or a dozen yards and lava, as an isthmus of from forty to fifty feet in further from the edge of the cliff, and finished our length, from which the crater rose in the form of an dinner.

amphitheatre. “On the succeeding day, June 15th, having the This cliff, at two or three miles distance from consul and some other friends on board, I weighed, the island, had the appearance of a work of art reand proceeded with the ship towards the volcano, sembling a small fort or block-house. The top of with the intention of witnessing a night view; but this we were determined, if possible, to attain ;

but in this expectation we were greatly disappointed, the difficulty we had to encounter in doing so was from the wind freshening and the weather becoming considerable ; the only way to attempt it was up the thick and hazy, and also from the volcano itself side of the isthmus, which was so steep that the only being clearly more quiescent than it was the preced. | mode by which we could effect it, was by fixing the ing day. It seldom emitted any lightning, but occa- end of an oar at the base, with the assistance of sionally as much flame as may be seen to issue from which we forced ourselves up in nearly a backward the top of a glass-house or foundry chimney.

direction. “On passing directly under the great cloud of “ Having reached the summit of the isthmus, we smoke, about three or four miles distant from the found another difficulty, for it was impossible to volcano, the decks of the ship were covered with fine walk upon it, as the descent on the other side was black ashes, which fell intermixt with small rain. | immediate, and as steep as the one we had ascended; We returned the next morning, and late on the even- but by throwing our legs across it, as would be done ing of the same day I took my leave of St. Michael's on the ridge of a house, and moving ourselves forto complete my cruise,

ward by our hands, we at length reached that part “ On opening the volcano clear of the NW. part of it where it gradually widened itself and formed of the island, after dark on the 16th, we witnessed the summit of the cliff, which we found to have a one or two eruptions that, had the ship been near perfectly flat surface, of the dimensions before stated. enough, would have been awfully grand. It ap- Judging this to be the most conspicuous situapeared one continued blaze of lightning; but the tion, we here planted the l'nion, and left a bottle distance which it was at from the ship, upwards of sealed up containing a small account of the origin of twenty miles, prevented our seeing it with effect. the island, and of our having landed upon it, and

“ Returning again towards St. Michael's on the naming it Sabrina island. 4th of July, I was obliged, by the state of the wind, “Within the crater I found the complete skeleton to pass with the ship very close to the island, which of a guard fish, the bones of which being perfectly was now completely formed by the volcano, being burnt, fell to pieces upon attempting to take them nearly the height of Matlock High Tor, about eighty up; and by the account of the inhabitants on the yards above the sea. At this time it was perfectly coast of St. Michael's, great numbers of fish had tranquil; which circumstance determined me to land, been destroyed during the early part of the eruption, and explore it more narrowly.

as large quantities, probably suffocated or poisoned, “ I left the ship in one of the boats, accompanied were occasionally found drifted into the small inlets by some of the officers. As we approached, we per- or bays. ceived that it was still smoking in many parts, and “The island, like other volcanic productions, is upon our reaching the island found the surf on the composed principally of porous substances, and gene. beach very high. Rowing round to the lee side, rally burnt to complete cinders, with occasional with some little difficulty, by the aid of an oar, as a masses of a stone, which I should suppose to be a pole, I jumped on shore, and was followed by the mixture of iron and lime-stone.” other officers. We found a narrow beach of black ashes, from which the side of the island rose in general too steep to admit of our ascending; and

FUNERALS OF THE ANCIENT HEBREWS. where we could have clambered up, the mass of matter was much too hot to allow our proceeding The ancients in general took great care about their more than a few yards in the ascent.

funerals, and looked upon it as a terrible misfortune “ The declivity below the surface of the sea was that their bodies, or those of their friends, should lie equally steep, having seven fathoms water scarce exposed to be torn by wild beasts and birds, or to the boat's length from the shore, and at the distance putrefy above ground, and infect the living. It was of twenty or thirty yards we sounded twenty-five a consolation to rest in the sepulchre of their fathers. fathoms.

Instead of burning the bodies, as the Greeks did to “ From walking round it in about twelve minutes, preserve the ashes, the Hebrews buried the common I should judge that it was something less than a sort of people, and embalmed persons of distinction mile in circumference, but the most extraordinary to lay them in sepulchres. Î'hey also sometimes part was the crater, the mouth of which, on the side burnt perfumes over the corpse. At the funeral of facing St. Michael's, was nearly level with the sea. Asa, king of Judah, it is said (2 Chron, xvi. 14), " they laid him on a bed which was filled with sweet the constables were straightly charged to bring him odours, and divers kind of spices prepared by the to the quarter sessions, which were that week, who apothecaries' art, and they made a very great burn- | returned, they could not meet with him. Then the ing for him ;” and that this was customary appears mayor in open court said, They would meet with from other passages. They embalmed almost in the him next Lord's day at the Meeting. same manner as the Egyptians, wrapping the corpse Which when come, Hellier with the mayor's ser. in a great quantity of drying spices ; after this they jeants and constables came to the meeting in the laid it in the sepulchre, which was a little cavity or morning, being

the 25th of July, the Fair day, and closet, cut in the rock so artfully that some had doors searched for Br Terrill to carry him away, who though to shut, which turned upon hinges, and a table to he was at the meeting, was so concealed, and conlay the body upon, all cut of the same stone. There veyed into another room under, that they found him are still many of them to be seen. They that attended not, which was not a little trouble to them; and the funeral were in mourning, and wept aloud, as several times the next week he narrowly escaped they did at the burial of Abner (2 Sam. iii. 31). them, through the good hand of the Lord that still There were women that made a trade of crying upon hid him. these occasions, and joined the mournful sound of This 25th of July, the Fair day, being Lord's day, flutes with their voices. In fine, they composed Hellier let us alone in the afternoon, by reason when songs instead of funeral orations for illustrious per- he came in the morning, he saw there a stranger, a sons that came to an unfortunate end. Such were gentleman and his wife from Coventry, that was a those that David made upon the death of Saul, and client of his, and the day before had invited him to Jeremiah the prophet upon that of Josiah. Though dinner. But the gentleman knew not that Hellier burying the dead was a duty of piety, yet there was was such a man, till that day he found him to be no religious ceremony used at it: on the contrary it about such work. Yet notwithstanding, the gentlewas a profane action, and rendered all those unclean man went to his house to dinner, and would have that were concerned in it, till they were purified; reasoned with him about his evil work, but he would because all dead bodies are either actually corrupted not discourse of that. or in a state that tends to it. Thus priests were so But in the afternoon Hellier much troubled Mr. far from being necessary at burials, that they were Weekes's Meeting, and after it was over, he burned absolutely forbidden to assist at any except of their their chairs and stools as fast as he could, having very near relations (Lev. xxi. 1, 2, 3). When Josiah kindled a fire in the chimney and made a great flame, designed to root out idolatry, he caused the bones of untill the landlord of the house heard of it, and came the false prophets to be burnt upon altars of the and caused the fire to be quenched, lest the house idols, to inspire his people with a greater abhorrence should be burnt. of them.-Fleury.

Lord's day August 1st we were very quiet, Hellier being out of town at Wells assizes to prepare his counsell, and Judge North, against his trial, to be

the 6th day of this month; for some friends presented MY SCRAP BOOK.

him for his perjury, and other irregular things. LEAF XCIV.

Accordingly he was tried before the Judge of this “ The Bee that wanders, and sips from every Rower, dis

circuit, and many notorious crimes laid against him. poses what she has gathered into her cells."-SENECA.

Yet such are the corruptions of the times, and judg.

ment perverted, that the Judge cleared him of all his EXTRACTS FROM THE ANCIENT RECORDS wickedness, barratry, forgery, and perjury; so that

OF THE BAPTIST CHURCH IN BROAD. we saw by experience, the Judge, as well as the MEAD, BRISTOL.

justices, were resolved to tread us down, because we (Continued from page 188.)

would not conform to their worship. That as chris

tians we should have no peaceable enjoyment, and (Mr. Isaac James's MS. p. 33.] This afternoon, as men we should have no justice. So that our per(viz, 18th July 1675] Mr. Robert Colston, soap boiler, sons and estates lay at their wills and pleasure. For came up, (and some not suspecting him as a spy, be- if they acted towards us contrary to law, when we ing no known informer) stood as a hearer among the sought to relieve ourselves thereby we should have people. When notice was given that the known in- no benefit. For we spent above 5001. to defend ourformers were coming, the person who attended the selves as Englishmen, but most in vain. Behold O curtain, drew it a little too soon, before he that was Lord, the wicked justified ! speaking sat down. He saw Br Terrill speaking and Upon the 2d of this month, Mr. Hardcastle and then went down out of the meeting. After which, Mr. Weekes, their six months imprisonment being when the serjeants came up, they said to Br Terrill, expired, are at liberty. Mr. Hardcastle the next as for your part, there is information gone to the Lord's day goes to his congregation at their public mayor, that you preached. And the next morning place, and preacheth. Hellier comes up and sees Colston went to the Tolzey, before the mayor and him, then departs and fetches constables and seraldermen, and gave in his information upon oath, jeants. And after Mr. Hardcastle had reasoned with that the day before, he had heard Edward Terrill them, he would not come down till he had ended his preach, and when he had done, he saw him step sermon and concluded with prayer, although they down and lay down his book. This he declared as charge and threaten him very sore. Then they his information before the justices, and signed it. carry him away to the mayor, and convict him for Whereupon, Br Terrill being upon the Tolzey (not preaching in the corporation, upon the five mile act; knowing what was done in the council house) the but let him depart for that time, because they could mayor sent serjeants for him. But Br Bodenham not imprison him for the first offence till one day being accidentally in the council house, and hearing | after, the order to send for Br Terrill, camé forth before The next Lord's day August 15th Mr. Hardcastle the serjeants, and told Br Terrill who walked off the goes again to the Meeting place and preacheth. Tolzey, and so by the Lord's preservation escaped Ågain Hellier comes betimes, and finding him preachthem. Wherefore, the mayor grants a warrant to ing, departs and brings alderm. Lawford, with sertake him, which they could not do that week, though | jeants and the bishop's secretary and others of his

BY THE AUTHOR OF THE

servants. Near twenty in all came, make great dis- 10 and 11 in the morning, and commanded us by turbance, and at last carry Mr. Hardcastle away order from the mayor to depart; but seeing we did before the mayor, who sends him to prison. In the not, one of the serjeants makes proclamation by 0 afternoon we were quiet, having just done before yes, three times, and then in the king's name we are Hellier came, and so had Mr. Weekes's and Mr. commanded to depart; but not moving, the steward's Gifford's people. Then Hellier's crew the bishop's son and Hellyar's brother-in-law take the names of men and officers (being disappointed in these three such of us they and the officers knew, and departed. meetings in James's parish) went in a rage to the After which we leave off singing and conclude with meeting in the castle, where they were singing, but prayer. they could not find the person that preached. But in the afternoon we were quiet, and our pastor Mr. Jeremy Holwey concluded in prayer. There- now having favour from the sheriffs to be a prisoner fore him they carried away before the mayor, who in his own house, though he dared not to get to the obliged him to appear wien sent for ; and so that public meeting house, yet we having been now about day's trouble ended.

eight months deprived of the celebration of the Lord's First Lord's day after our pastor's second im- supper, by reason our pastor was kept in prison, this prisonment for six months, being the 22d of August evening after the public meeting was ended, we dis(1675) the mayor, Ralph Ollive, with his serjeants persed and came to brother Ellis's house, whereto and some constables, and the Bishop with divers of our pastor had before conveyed himself, and there his crew and men, came to our meeting door. The the members of the church hear him preach about mayor sends up two of his serjeants to command us an hour, and after that brake bread very comfortably. to depart, and one of them makes proclamation by, Praise be to the Lord for his good ordinance and this O yes, three times; then commands us in the name opportunity.

S. J. B *** of the king, and the mayor his deputy lieutenant, to depart. But when we understood they were coming, the brother which preached ceased, and all the people began to sing a psalm ; so that when the serjeants GUIDE TO THE BIBLE CLASS. came up they were singing and took little notice of what they said, and did not depart. Then the mayor

“ COMPANION TO THE BIBLE." himself with his attendants came up, and commanded

Continued from page 302. the people to depart, but they all kept singing, and kept stops one with another, and lift up their voices

CHAPTER IV.-Original Languages of the Bible. together, which the mayor perceiving knew not what Teacher. Our last conversation closed, as you will to do more, and went down again. The Bishop staid recollect, with my remark, that “in the time of the below at the door. He was coming up, but finding apostles there was no such language as the English:” the first pair of stairs somewhat dark, he drew back. ours, therefore, could not be the language in which So the mayor and bishop departed to brother Gifford's the sacred penmen wrote the Scriptures. meeting, who came forth of prison a few days before, Scholar. I remember your remark: but what lanand finding him in exercise, the mayor and bishop guage did our forefathers speak, if not English ? commanded him to be pulled down and carried away Teacher. Our forefathers, in the age of the aposto prison. In the afternoon we were quiet.

tles, were an extremely rude and barbarous people; The next day it was said by one of the Times, or and they used a language which we do not underTrue Hearts, so called, that the bishop and witnesses stand: the ancient Britons are supposed to have with him, were rode away to the Lord Herbert's, spoken a language, if not the same, yet very similar who was the Lord Lieutenant of this county, to get to that of the present Welsh. a troop of horse to suppress the meetings. Who Scholar. From what people then did our fore. coming home, and his expectation as some think not fathers get the English language ? answered, went away again the same week privately Teacher. Before you can fully understand the for London to the king's court to endeavour to get origin of our language, you must be better acquainted some aid, or authority to suppress us.

with the history of England. From that you will The second Lord's day, being the 29th, we had learn that the ancient Britons were conquered by the peace, the bishop being forth of town, and it was Romans, afterwards by the Saxons, then by the very strange that Hellier was so quiet; but the week Danes, and at last by the Normans. following he said, he was troubled in his conscience Scholar. But what had these different people to for being then quiet.

do with the English language ? [MS. P. 35.] The 7th Lord's day, being the 3d of Teacher. Those nations had much connexion the 8th month (1675] the first Lord's day of the new with the English language, which is formed princimayor, Sir Robt Cann, and Mr. Charles William, pally of the Saxon, with many words taken from the and Mr. George Lane, sheriffs, being in office; whom Roman or Latin, from the French, and from some we trust the Lord in mercy to his poor people, did other languages, even the Greek and Hebrew. strangely order to be elected, and settled in the seal Scholar. All this is surprising, and what I did not of government in answer to his people's prayer for know before, moderate men, who when chosen were not a little Teacher. You will do well to keep in mind that trouble to the persecutors, yet they would give us the English language has been made out of words trouble. The bishop's secretary goes to the new from the Saxon, Latin, French, Greek and Hebrew. mayor, and complains of our meeting, and prevails Scholar. Will the knowledge of the history of with him to send some of his serjeants, who with the English language help me in understanding the several of the bishop's men, and some new informers, language of the Bible ? as the son of the steward Robinson, and one George Teacher. It will : and my object in telling you Hellyar, brother-in-law to Hellyar (but he himself it this is, that you may be the better prepared to underwas said was gone forth out of town with one Quarles, stand the Bible. You can recollect, I suppose, in a wicked country informer, it was doubted to trouble how many languages, Pilate, the Roman governor some friends out of town). These with others about of Judea, wrote the title of our Saviour to put on his seven or eight came, after some had before been, and cross. Read what John records. : saw we were assembled. They all came up between Scholar, “ And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on

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